• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Mitotic Activity

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X-ray Induced Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Relation to Chromosome Exchange and Mitotic Activity in Established Mammalian Cells (哺乳動物細胞에 있어서 X-線에 의한 回復複製와 染色體交換 및 分裂活動과의 聯關性)

  • Park, Sang-Dai
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 1972
  • Dose response and time dependence of unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by X-rays were measured to determine if any correlation exists between unscheduled DNA synthesis, modal chromosome number, chromosome exchange and mitotic activity in four mammalian cell strains. Unscheduled DNA synthesis occurred in all strains studied. The rate was dose-dependent and strain-specific. Only HeLa $S_3$ showed a staturated dose response after 4, 000 R, other cells were linearly proportional to dose increases. Time dependence of unscheduled DNA synthesis was completed within 2 hours after irradiation regardless of cell strains. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was not directly related to modal chromosome number, total exchange rate and mitotic activity. Mitotic activity and chromosome exchange were both dose-dependent, but the rates of them were inversely related.

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Use of Anti-Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) as a Mitosis Marker for Classifying Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumors

  • Seo, Bo-Ram;Hong, Young-Seob;Choi, Phil-Jo;Um, Soo-Jung;Seo, Jeong-Wook;Roh, Mee-Sook
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2011
  • Mitosis count is one of the most helpful morphologic features for distinguishing pulmonary typical carcinoid (TC) from atypical carcinoid (AC). However, identifying areas of highest mitotic activity is tedious and time-consuming, and mitosis count may vary substantially among pathologists. Anti-phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is an antibody that specifically detects histone H3 only when phosphorylated at serine 10 or serine 28, an event that is concurrent with mitotic chromatin condensation and not observed during apoptosis. In this study, immunohistochemical staining for PHH3 was performed to determine whether PHH3 was a reliable and objective mitosis-specific marker for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Seventeen cases of surgically resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors (12 TCs and 5 ACs) were obtained and classified according to the 2004 World Health Organization classification. Mitotic counts determined by PHH3 correlated to ones determined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining; however, PHH3 mitotic counts (mean mitotic counts: 1 in TCs and 3.2 in ACs) were slightly higher than H&E mitotic counts (mean mitotic counts: 0.25 in TCs and 1.8 in ACs). The mitotic counts determined by experienced observer were more correlated to those determined by inexperienced observer with the PHH3-based method (R=0.968, P<0.001) rather than H&E staining (R=0.658, P<0.001). These results suggest that the PHH3 mitotic counting method was more sensitive and simple for detecting mitoses compared to traditional H&E staining. Therefore, PHH3 immunohistochemistry may contribute to more accurate and reproducible diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and may be a valuable aid for administrating appropriate clinical treatment.

Deubiquitinase USP35 as a novel mitotic regulator via maintenance of Aurora B stability

  • Park, Jinyoung;Song, Eun Joo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.261-262
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    • 2018
  • Aurora B is an important kinase involved in dynamic cellular events in mitosis. Aurora B activity is controlled by several post-translational modifications (PTMs). Among them, E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated ubiquitination plays crucial roles in controlling the relocation and degradation of Aurora B. Aurora B, ubiquitinated by different E3 ligases, moves to the exact site for its mitotic function during metaphase-anaphase transition and is then degraded for cell cycle progression at the end of mitosis. However, how the stability of Aurora B is maintained until its degradation has been poorly understood. Recently, we have found that USP35 acts as a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) for Aurora B and affects its stability during cell division, thus being involved in the regulation of mitosis. In this review, we discuss the USP35-mediated deubiquitination of Aurora B and the regulation of mitotic progression by USP35.

c-Cbl Acts as an E3 Ligase Against DDA3 for Spindle Dynamics and Centriole Duplication during Mitosis

  • Gwon, Dasom;Hong, Jihee;Jang, Chang-Young
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.840-849
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    • 2019
  • The spatiotemporal mitotic processes are controlled qualitatively by phosphorylation and qualitatively by ubiquitination. Although the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mainly mediate ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of mitotic regulators, the E3 ligase for a large portion of mitotic proteins has yet to be identified. Here, we report c-Cbl as an E3 ligase that degrades DDA3, a protein involved in spindle dynamics. Depletion of c-Cbl led to increased DDA3 protein levels, resulting in increased recruitment of Kif2a to the mitotic spindle, a concomitant reduction in spindle formation, and chromosome alignment defects. Furthermore, c-Cbl depletion induced centrosome over-duplication and centriole amplification. Therefore, we concluded that c-Cbl controls spindle dynamics and centriole duplication through its E3 ligase activity against DDA3.

Cloning and Functional Characterization of Ptpcd2 as a Novel Cell Cycle Related Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase that Regulates Mitotic Exit

  • Zineldeen, Doaa H.;Wagih, Ayman A.;Nakanishi, Makoto
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3669-3676
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    • 2013
  • Faithful transmission of genetic information depends on accurate chromosome segregation as cells exit from mitosis, and errors in chromosomal segregation are catastrophic and may lead to aneuploidy which is the hallmark of cancer. In eukaryotes, an elaborate molecular control system ensures proper orchestration of events at mitotic exit. Phosphorylation of specific tyrosyl residues is a major control mechanism for cellular proliferation and the activities of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases must be integrated. Although mitotic kinases are well characterized, phosphatases involved in mitosis remain largely elusive. Here we identify a novel variant of mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase containing domain 1 (Ptpcd1), that we named Ptpcd2. Ptpcd1 is a Cdc14 related centrosomal phosphatase. Our newly identified Ptpcd2 shared a significant homology to yeast Cdc14p (34.1%) and other Cdc14 family of phosphatases. By subcellular fractionation Ptpcd2 was found to be enriched in the cytoplasm and nuclear pellets with catalytic phosphatase activity. By means of immunofluorescence, Ptpcd2 was spatiotemporally regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner with cytoplasmic abundance during mitosis, followed by nuclear localization during interphase. Overexpression of Ptpcd2 induced mitotic exit with decreased levels of some mitotic markers. Moreover, Ptpcd2 failed to colocalize with the centrosomal marker ${\gamma}$-tubulin, suggesting it as a non-centrosomal protein. Taken together, Ptpcd2 phosphatase appears a non-centrosomal variant of Ptpcd1 with probable mitotic functions. The identification of this new phosphatase suggests the existence of an interacting phosphatase network that controls mammalian mitosis and provides new drug targets for anticancer modalities.

DNA Synthesis and Radiosensitivity in Synchronized Human Kidney Cells in Vitro (동화시킨 사람의 신장세포에 있어서의 DNA 합성과 방사선감수성)

  • Kang, Yung-Sun;Park, Sang-Dai;Lee, Chung-Keel
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.175-180
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    • 1971
  • The effects of X-irradiation on the mitotic activity, the chromosome aberration and the DNA synthetic pattern in synchronized human kidney cells treated with 5-AU were measured in the present experiment. When 5-AU was added, mitotic activity was markedly suppressed. After removal of the cells from the chemical, its activity proceeded synchronouly and reached peaks at hours 10. In 5-AU+100R groups, it was observed the X-ray caused mitotic delay, the irregularity of the time when mitotic peak appeared and the inhibiton of mitotic activity. In the control group, chromosome aerrations per cell was 0.030, whereas 0.147 in 5-AU treated group. In 5-AU+100R and 5-AU+200R groups, chromosome aberrations per cell were 0.583 and 0.669 respectively and the average chromosome aberrations per cell per R was 0.0035. 5-AU increased the frequency of labeled metaphases together with labeling intensity, and this is thought to be due to the accumulation of cells by 5-AU at S stage. On the contrary, X-ray decreased the labeling intensity and the frequency of labeled metaphases.

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Why a Combination of WP 631 and Epo B is an Improvement on the Drugs Singly - Involvement in the Cell Cycle and Mitotic Slippage

  • Bukowska, Barbara;Rogalska, Aneta;Forma, Ewa;Brys, Magdalena;Marczak, Agnieszka
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1299-1308
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    • 2016
  • Our previous studies clearly demonstrated that a combination of WP 631 and Epo B has higher activity against ovarian cancer cells than either of these compounds used separately. In order to fully understand the exact mechanism of action in combination, we assessed effects on the cell cycle of SKOV-3 cells. We evaluated three control points essential for WP 631 and Epo B action to determine which cell cycle-regulating proteins (CDK1/cyclin B complex, EpCAM or HMGB1) mediate activity. The effects of the drug on the cell cycle were measured based on the nuclear DNA content using flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulating genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. It was discovered that WP 631, at the tested concentration, did not affect the SKOV-3 cell cycle. Epo B caused significant G2/M arrest, whereas the drug combination induced stronger apoptosis and lower mitotic arrest than Epo B alone. This is very important information from the point of view of the fight against cancer, as, while mitotic arrest in Epo B-treated cells could be overcame after DNA damage repair, apoptosis which occurs after mitotic slippage in combination-treated cells is irreversible. It clearly explains the higher activity of the drug combination in comparison to Epo B alone. Epo B acts via the CDK1/cyclin B complex and has the ability to inhibit CDK1, which may be a promising strategy for ovarian cancer treatment in the future. The drug combination diminishes EpCAM and HMGB1 expression to a greater degree than either WP 631 and Epo B alone. Owing to the fact that the high expression of these two proteins is a poor prognostic factor for ovarian cancer, a decrease in their expression, observed in our studies, may result in improved efficacy of cancer therapy. The presented findings show that the combination of WP 631 and Epo B is a better therapeutic option than either of these drugs alone.

PP2A function toward mitotic kinases and substrates during the cell cycle

  • Jeong, Ae Lee;Yang, Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2013
  • To maintain cellular homeostasis against the demands of the extracellular environment, a precise regulation of kinases and phosphatases is essential. In cell cycle regulation mechanisms, activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and cyclin B complex (CDK1:cyclin B) causes a remarkable change in protein phosphorylation. Activation of CDK1:cyclin B is regulated by two auto-amplification loops-CDK1:cyclin B activates Cdc25, its own activating phosphatase, and inhibits Wee1, its own inhibiting kinase. Recent biological evidence has revealed that the inhibition of its counteracting phosphatase activity also occurs, and it is parallel to CDK1:cyclin B activation during mitosis. Phosphatase regulation of mitotic kinases and their substrates is essential to ensure that the progression of the cell cycle is ordered. Outlining how the mutual control of kinases and phosphatases governs the localization and timing of cell division will give us a new understanding about cell cycle regulation.

Ethanolic Extract from Derris scandens Benth Mediates Radiosensitzation via Two Distinct Modes of Cell Death in Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells

  • Hematulin, Arunee;Ingkaninan, Kornkanok;Limpeanchob, Nanteetip;Sagan, Daniel
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1871-1877
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    • 2014
  • Enhancing of radioresponsiveness of tumors by using radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy. Recently, the ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Derris scandens Benth has been identified as a potent radiosensitizer of human colon cancer HT29 cells. However, cell death mechanisms underlying radiosensitization activity of D scandens extract have not been identified. Here, we show that treatment of HT-29 cells with D scandens extract in combination with gamma irradiation synergistically sensitizes HT-29 cells to cell lethality by apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Furthermore, the extract was found to decrease Erk1/2 activation. These findings suggest that D scandens extract mediates radiosensitization via at least two distinct modes of cell death and silences pro-survival signaling in HT-29 cells.