• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mitochondrial activation

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Cytotoxic Activity from Curcuma zedoaria Through Mitochondrial Activation on Ovarian Cancer Cells

  • Shin, Yujin;Lee, Yongkyu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.257-261
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    • 2013
  • ${\alpha}$-Curcumene is one of the physiologically active components of Curcuma zedoaria, which is believed to perform anti-tumor activities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the apoptotic effect of ${\alpha}$-curcumene on the growth of human overian cancer, SiHa cells. Upon treatment with ${\alpha}$-curcumene, cell viability of SiHa cells was inhibited > 73% for 48 h incubation. ${\alpha}$-Curcumene treatment showed a characteristic nucleosomal DNA fragmentation pattern and the percentage of sub-diploid cells was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of ${\alpha}$-curcumene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of ${\alpha}$-curcumene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c.

Activation of apoptotic protein in U937 cells by a component of turmeric oil

  • Lee, Yong-Kyu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.96-100
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    • 2009
  • Aromatic (ar)-turmerone from turmeric oil displays anti-tumorigenesis activity that includes inhibited cell proliferation. This study investigated ar-turmerone-mediated apoptotic protein activation in human lymphoma U937 cells. Ar-turmerone treatment inhibited U937 cell viability in a concentration-dependent fashion, with inhibition exceeding 84%. Moreover, the treatment produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner; both are hallmarks of apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of ar-turmerone was associated with the induction of Bax and p53 proteins, rather than Bcl-2 and p21. Activation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanied the apoptotic effect of ar-turmerone, which mediated cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of ar-turmerone on U937 cells may involve caspase-3 activation through the induction of Bax and p53, rather than Bcl-2 and p21.

Effects of Mito-TEMPO on the survival of vitrified bovine blastocysts in vitro

  • Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Yang, Seul-Gi;Park, Hyo-Jin;Koo, Deog-Bon
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2021
  • Vitrification methods are commonly used for mammalian reproduction through the long-term storage of blastocyst produced in vitro. However, the survival and quality of embryos following vitrification are significantly low compared with blastocyst from in vitro production (IVP). This study evaluates that the survival of frozen-thawed bovine embryos was relevant to mitochondrial superoxide derived mitochondrial activity. Here we present supplementation of the cryopreservation medium with Mito-TEMPO (0.1 µM) induced a significant (p < 0.001; non-treated group: 56.8 ± 8.7%, reexpanded at 24 h vs Mito-TEMPO treated group: 77.5 ± 8.9%, re-expanded at 24 h) improvement in survival rate of cryopreserved-thawed bovine blastocyst. To confirm the quality of vitrified blastocyst after thawing, DNA fragmentation of survived embryos was examined by TUNEL assay. As a result, TUNEL positive cells rates of frozen-thawed embryos were lower in the Mito-TEMPO treated group (4.2 ± 1.4%) than the non-treated group (7.1 ± 3.5%). In addition, we investigated the intracellular ROS and mitochondrial specific superoxide production using DCF-DA and Mito-SOX staining in survived bovine embryos following vitrification depending on Mito-TEMPO treatment. As expected, intracellular ROS levels and superoxide production of vitrified blastocysts after cryopreservation were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) according to Mito-TEMPO supplement in freezing medium. Also, mitochondrial activity measured by MitoTracker Orange staining increased in the frozen-thawed embryos with Mito-TEMPO compared with non-treated group. These results indicate that the treatment of Mito-TEMPO during cryopreservation might induce reduction in DNA fragmentation and apoptosis-related ROS production, consequently increasing mitochondrial activation for developmental capacity of frozen-thawed embryos.

Protein kinase C beta II upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 via mitochondrial activation in cultured endothelial cells

  • Joo, Hee Kyoung;Lee, Yu Ran;Choi, Sunga;Park, Myoung Soo;Kang, Gun;Kim, Cuk-Seong;Jeon, Byeong Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2017
  • Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is closely linked with endothelial dysfunction. However, the effect of $PKC{\beta}II$ on endothelial dysfunction has not been characterized in cultured endothelial cells. Here, using adenoviral $PKC{\beta}II$ gene transfer and pharmacological inhibitors, the role of $PKC{\beta}II$ on endothelial dysfucntion was investigated in cultured endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), p66shc phosphorylation, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte adhesion, which were inhibited by $PKC{\beta}i$ (10 nM), a selective inhibitor of $PKC{\beta}II$. PMA increased the phosphorylation of CREB and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which were also inhibited by $PKC{\beta}i$. Gene silencing of CREB inhibited PMA-induced MnSOD expression, suggesting that CREB plays a key role in MnSOD expression. Gene silencing of $PKC{\beta}II$ inhibited PMA-induced mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, and ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, overexpression of $PKC{\beta}II$ using adenoviral $PKC{\beta}II$ increased mitochondrial ROS, MnSOD, ICAM-1, and p66shc phosphorylation in cultured endothelial cells. Finally, $PKC{\beta}II$-induced ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in PKC-induced vascular inflammation. Taken together, the results suggest that $PKC{\beta}II$ plays an important role in PMA-induced endothelial dysfunction, and that the inhibition of $PKC{\beta}II$-dependent p66shc signaling acts as a therapeutic target for vascular inflammatory diseases.

Ameliorative effect of onion (Allium Cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloid-β-induced cognitive dysfunction via mitochondrial activation (미토콘드리아 활성화를 통한 양파(Allium Cepa L.) 과육 및 과피의 Amyloid-β 유도성 인지손상에 대한 개선효과)

  • Park, Seon Kyeong;Lee, Uk;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Shin, Eun Jin;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.263-273
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    • 2020
  • In this study, in order to confirm the ameliorative effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloidbeta (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction, we evaluated their in vitro neuroprotection and in vivo cognitive functions. As the result of in vitro neuroprotection, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion flesh (EOF) on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity was similar to that of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion peel (EOP). In the behavioral tests, the EOF and EOP effectively improved the Aβ-induced learning and memory impairments. For this reason, it could be concluded that the EOF and EOP improved the antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, oxidized glutathione/total glutathione, and malondialdehyde) in brain tissue. In addition, the EOF and EOP effectively activated mitochondrial functions by protecting the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP, mitochondria-mediated protein (BAX and cytochrome c), and caspase 3/7 activities. The EOF and EOP also improved the cholinergic system (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine). Therefore, we suggest that onion could be used for management of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction.