• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mink

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Purification of TGF-$\beta$ 1 from Human Platelets by an Improved Method (개량된 방법에 의한 사람혈소판으로부터 TGF-$\beta$ 1의 분리)

  • 신충건;김상국;문병조;김평현;전계택;남상욱;김장환;이종원
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 1999
  • Transforming growth factor $\beta$1(TGF-$\beta$1) has potentials to be used as a new therapeutic agent. However, studies with TGF-$\beta$ were hindered by its high cost. In this study, we developed an improved method to purify TGF-$\beta$1 from human platelets, for which four purification steps were used: platelet extraction, gel filtration, cation exchange chromatography, and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. After a final step of purification, a pure protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 corresponding to the commercially available TGF-$\beta$1 was obtained, which were confirmed by silver staining and Western blotting after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was confirmed by the inhibitory effects of TGF-$\beta$1 on a mink lung epithelial cell line that the purified TGF-$\beta$1 had its biological activity, whose activity is slightly higher than that of the commercially available TGF-$\beta$1. About 3.7$\mug of the purified TGF-$\beta$1 was obtained from 10 units of concentrated human platelets, the final yield of which is about 21%.

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Morphometric Analyses on 24 Species (13 Families of Six Orders) of Korean Mammals (한국산 포유동물 24종(13과 6목)의 형태적 형질의 분석)

  • 고홍선
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 1989
  • Four external and 22 cranial characters of 279 specimens representing 24 species of six orders of Korean mammals were measured. The data were analyzed by phenetic methods such as ordination as well as clustering techniques. Morphological distances were also calculated. Phenetic studies yield taxonomic placements of Siberian mink, Palearetic squirrel, and big white-toothed shrew which are incorrect. Morphological differences among Korean mammals at ordinal level in the taxonomic hierarchy are larger than those among other mammals: morphological differences below ordinal level are comparable to those among other mammals. Average taxonomic distances and morphological differences among Korean mammals at various levels in the taxonomic hierarchy are jointly monotonic, although the value of Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient between average taxonomic distance matrix and morphological difference marrix is 0.59.

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Role of Advanced Glycation End Products in TGF-β1 and Fibronectin Expression in Mesangial Cells Cultured under High Glucose

  • HA Hunjoo;KIM Hwa-Jung;LEE Hi Bahl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2005
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including nephropathy. However, the role of AGE in the activation of mesangial cells cultured under high glucose has not been elucidated. The effects of aminoguanidine, which prevents formation of AGE and protein cross-linking, on the synthesis of $TGF-{\beta}1$ and fibronectin by rat mesangial cells cultured under high glucose for 2 weeks were examined and compared with the effects of $N^G$-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, because aminoguanidine also inhibits the inducible nitric oxide synthase. Culture of mesangial cells in 30 mM (high) glucose for 2 weeks induced 1.5-fold (ELISA) and 1.9-fold (Western blot analysis) increase in AGE in the culture media compared to 5.6 mM (control) glucose. Northern blot analysis revealed 1.5-fold increase in $TGF-{\beta}1$ and 1.7-fold increase in fibronectin mRNA expression in cells cultured under high glucose compared to control glucose. Increases in mRNA expression were followed by increased protein synthesis. Mink lung epithelial cell growth inhibition assay revealed 1.4-fold increase in $TGF-{\beta}1$ protein in high glucose media compared to control. Fibronectin protein also increased 2.1-fold that of control glucose by Western blot analysis. Administration of aminoguanidine suppressed AGE formation in a dose dependent manner and at the same time suppressed $TGF-{\beta}1$ and fibronectin synthesis by mesangial cells cultured in both control and high glucose. In contrast, NAME did not affect high glucose-induced changes. These findings support a role for AGE in high glucose-induced upregulation of $TGF-{\beta}1$ and fibronectin synthesis by mesangial cells.

A Study on the Glamour Images Shown in Contemporary Fashion (현대 패션에 나타난 글래머 이미지)

  • Choi, Jung-Hwa
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.763-776
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the glamour image in contemporary women's fashion since 1990. The method of study is to analyze the documentary and fashion magazines about the glamour images. Most of all, glamour has been composed by connection of hollywood film industry and fashion. Glamourous body image showed sensual, threatening and vague body. Formative characteristics in fashion showed a tight silhouette, neglige, lace look, dress showing neck and shoulder, fur coat, stiletto, diamond, gold, big and thick jewelry, satin, velvet, lace, mink and fox fur, etc. Internal meaning was a fantasy, ideal, wealth, fame, hyper-feminity, vagueness, vulgarity, sexuality, mystery, professional, fatalness, aggressiveness and evil. Since 1990, the glamour images in fashion were as follows; First, the glamour with hyper-feminity showed a classical femme-fatal image as fearful existence with a power more than allure. Second, the glamour with vulgarity showed an exaggerated, cheap and popular kitsch image, which have intense colors, lavish surfaces and excessive sexual signs. Third, the glamour with classical sensuality showed a hi-glamour image of hollywood actresses being active from 1930 to 1950, which was expressed glittery dress, stole, diamond, fur wrap, hill, luxury dress. Fourth, the glamour with sexual perversion showed an erotic, vague and sexual drag image, and fetish costume. Fetishistic elements were rubber, PVC, stiletto, thick and high boots and corset and particularly, they were a main method of expression of glamour image. Fifth, the glamour with future image showed a mechanical and mysterious image and it was a conscious style by metallic, plastic and sleeky fabric. In conclusion, glamour fashion image is an ideal beauty type of women and will exist as a meaningful aesthetic sign in women's fashion.

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Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

  • Spruijt, Nicole E.;Vorstman, Jacob A.S.;Kon, Moshe;Molen, Aebele B. Mink Van Der
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.472-479
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    • 2014
  • Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation=0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years.

Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance

  • Spruijt, Nicole E.;Kon, Moshe;Molen, Aebele B. Mink Van Der
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2014
  • Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years) with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4%) had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33%) had normal resonance, 10 (42%) had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21%) had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was $136.5^{\circ}$ (standard deviation, $5.3^{\circ}$; range, $122.3-144.8^{\circ}$). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242). Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126). The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle ($138^{\circ}$ vs. $134^{\circ}$, P=0.049) but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412). Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown.

A Study on the Military Look in Contemporary Fashion - Women's fashion collections since 2010 - (현대 여성 패션에 나타난 밀리터리 룩에 관한 연구 - 2010년 이후 컬렉션을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Jeong-Mee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.862-873
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the formative characteristics and the aesthetic values of the Military style in the 20th century and the images of the Military look shown in recent collections. The results of this study are as follows; 1) The aesthetic values of the Military style includes authority, functionality, resistibility and bisexuality. Authority is represented in suits and coats attaching details such as epaulets, flap pockets, gold buttons and badges. Functionality is represented in pants suits and skirts suits which are comfortable and simple. Resistibility is represented in wrinkled, dirty-old and torn military items. Bisexuality is shown on the military pants suits that a skirt or a mink coat is draped over. 2) The Military look in collections are expressed in classic, romantic, sexual, sporty, avant-garde and ethnic images. Classic images are appeared in suits and coats attaching details such as epaulets, flap pockets, gold buttons and badges. Romantic images are represented in the military items made of pastel-tone lace or splendid colored silk. Sexual images are appeared in designs to expose or to focus in women's body. Sporty images are represented in the military items made of new materials such as cotton-fleece, cotton-jersey and tencel. They have camouflage prints, melange-gray and fluorescent colors. Avant-garde images are appeared in the deformed suits and outer made of special materials with camouflage prints, khaki, gray and black. Ethnic images are represented in wearing military and ethnic items at the same time or military items made of ethnic colors, prints and handmade details.

Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Young Adults Treated for Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip, Alveolus, and Palate by a Treatment Protocol Including Two-Stage Palatoplasty: Speech Outcomes

  • Kappen, Isabelle Francisca Petronella Maria;Bittermann, Dirk;Janssen, Laura;Bittermann, Gerhard Koendert Pieter;Boonacker, Chantal;Haverkamp, Sarah;de Wilde, Hester;Van Der Heul, Marise;Specken, Tom FJMC;Koole, Ron;Kon, Moshe;Breugem, Corstiaan Cornelis;van der Molen, Aebele Barber Mink
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2017
  • Background No consensus exists on the optimal treatment protocol for orofacial clefts or the optimal timing of cleft palate closure. This study investigated factors influencing speech outcomes after two-stage palate repair in adults with a non-syndromal complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Methods This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with a UCLP who underwent two-stage palate closure and were treated at our tertiary cleft centre. Patients ${\geq}17$ years of age were invited for a final speech assessment. Their medical history was obtained from their medical files, and speech outcomes were assessed by a speech pathologist during the follow-up consultation. Results Forty-eight patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 21 years (standard deviation, 3.4 years). Their mean age at the time of hard and soft palate closure was 3 years and 8.0 months, respectively. In 40% of the patients, a pharyngoplasty was performed. On a 5-point intelligibility scale, 84.4% received a score of 1 or 2; meaning that their speech was intelligible. We observed a significant correlation between intelligibility scores and the incidence of articulation errors (P<0.001). In total, 36% showed mild to moderate hypernasality during the speech assessment, and 11%-17% of the patients exhibited increased nasalance scores, assessed through nasometry. Conclusions The present study describes long-term speech outcomes after two-stage palatoplasty with hard palate closure at a mean age of 3 years old. We observed moderate long-term intelligibility scores, a relatively high incidence of persistent hypernasality, and a high pharyngoplasty incidence.

Effect of Au content on the electro-catalytic activity of Pt catalyst for Pt-Au/C composite catalyst (Pt-Au/C 복합촉매에 있어서 Au 혼합비가 Pt 촉매의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Jin-Nyeong;Song, Jae-Chang;Song, Mink-Young;Song, Hyun-Min;Lee, Hong-Ki;Yu, Yeon-Tae
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.143.1-143.1
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    • 2010
  • 고분자 전해질막 연료전지(Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell; PEMFC)는 수소를 이용하여 전기를 발생시키는 친환경적이고 이상적인 발전장치로 고효율과 높은 전류밀도를 가지며 그 응용분야가 다양하다. 저온에서 작동하는 PEM fuel cell은 전극에서 효과적인 산화환원반응을 위해 그 촉매로 활성이 우수한 Pt(Platinum)을 사용하고 있으나, Pt의 높은 가격은 연료전지의 상용화에 걸림돌이 되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 연료전지의 Pt/C 촉매 층에서 Pt의 분산성을 높여 Pt의 담지량을 줄이고 작동 중 발생하는 Pt의 응집 현상을 방지하여 Pt의 수명을 연장시킬 목적으로, Au(gold) 나노입자를 첨가한 Pt-Au/C 복합나노촉매를 제조하였다. 본 발표에서는 합성된 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매 중 Au 첨가량이 Pt 촉매의 활성에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여, 복합촉매 중에 금속(Pt+Au)의 총 함량이 30 wt.%와 40 wt.% 인 Pt-Au/C 촉매에 대하여 각각 Au 첨가량을 변화시켜, cyclic voltammetry 법에 의해 Au 첨가 효과를 조사한 결과에 대하여 보고하고자 한다. Au 나노입자를 제조하기 위한 출발 물질로는 $HAuCl_4{\cdot}4H_2O$를 이용하였고 trisodium citrate와 $NaBH_4$를 환원제로 하여, 입경이 5~8 nm 인 Au 콜로이드를 제조하였다. Pt-Au/C 복합나노촉매를 제조하기 위하여 먼저 Au/C 복합분체가 제조되었다. 0.03g의 carbon이 첨가된 carbon 현탁액에 합성된 Au 콜로이드 수용액을 첨가한 후 24시간 동안 교반하여 Au/C 복합분체를 제조하였다. 이 Au/C 복합분체에 $H_2PtCl_6{\cdot}6H_2O$ 수용액을 현탁하고 methanol 을 환원제로 사용해 Pt를 환원 석출시켜 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매를 제조하였다. Pt-Au/C 복합 나노촉매에서 Pt와 Au를 다양한 비율(3:1, 2.5:1.5, 2:2)로 합성하였으며 Pt-Au/C 복합촉매 중 금속(Pt+Au) 촉매의 총 함량은 30 wt.%와 40 wt.%로 각각 제조되었다. Au 나노입자 콜로이드의 분산성은 UV-visible spectrum의 흡광도에 의해 관찰되었고, Pt-Au/C 복합 나노촉매의 형상 및 분산성 분석은 transmission electron microscopy(TEM)에 의해 이루어졌다. 또한, 촉매의 전기화학적 특성평가는 cyclic voltammetry(CV)에 의해 조사되었다.

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Differential effects of ginsenoside metabolites on slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ and KCNQ1 K+ channel currents

  • Choi, Sun-Hye;Lee, Byung-Hwan;Kim, Hyeon-Joong;Jung, Seok-Won;Hwang, Sung-Hee;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 2013
  • Channels formed by the co-assembly of the KCNQ1 subunit and the mink (KCNE1) subunit underline the slowly activating delayed rectifier $K^+$ channels ($I_{Ks}$) in the heart. This $K^+$ channel is one of the main pharmacological targets for the development of drugs against cardiovascular disease. Panax ginseng has been shown to exhibit beneficial cardiovascular effects. In a previous study, we showed that ginsenoside Rg3 activates human KCNQ1 $K^+$ channel currents through interactions with the K318 and V319 residues. However, little is known about the effects of ginsenoside metabolites on KCNQ1 $K^+$ alone or the KCNQ1 + KCNE1 $K^+$ ($I_{Ks}$) channels. In the present study, we examined the effect of protopanaxatriol (PPT) and compound K (CK) on KCNQ1 $K^+$ and $I_{Ks}$ channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PPT more strongly inhibited the $I_{Ks}$ channel currents than the currents of KCNQ1 $K^+$ alone in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The $IC_{50}$ values on $I_{Ks}$ and KCNQ1 alone currents for PPT were $5.18{\pm}0.13$ and $10.04{\pm}0.17{\mu}M$, respectively. PPT caused a leftward shift in the activation curve of $I_{Ks}$ channel activity, but minimally affected KCNQ1 alone. CK exhibited slight inhibition on $I_{Ks}$ and KCNQ1 alone $K^+$ channel currents. These results indicate that ginsenoside metabolites show limited effects on $I_{Ks}$ channel activity, depending on the structure of the ginsenoside metabolites.