• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mineral

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The Current Status of Cyanide Uses, Regulations, and Treatment in Gold Mining (금 제련에 사용되는 시안의 사용, 규제 및 처리 현황)

  • Park, Jeonghyun;Shin, Doyun;Park, Hyunsik;Jeong, Jinki;Lee, Jae-chun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2015
  • Cyanidation has been used worldwide to recover gold from primary ore or concentrate. The use of cyanide is however becoming an emerging issue because of the toxic residue and wastewater made from the process. The cyanide-containing wastewater should be treated properly, obeying the environmental standard and regulations. In the present article, the domestic and international uses, regulations, and treatment technologies of cyanide in gold mining were investigated as a feasibility study to develop a cyanide treatment process as well as the cyanidation process. A biological cyanide treatment process to develop a zeroemission gold recovery and wastewater treatment process was also briefly introduced.

Analysis on Research Projects and Trends of Mineral Resources Survey and Mineral Deposits : Focused on the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (광물자원 조사 및 광상분야 연구 추이 분석 : 한국지질자원연구원 수행과제를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Seong-Yong;Ahn, Eun-Young;Park, Jung-Kyu;Lee, Jae-Wook
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.303-316
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to raise research productivity through the analysis on the research projects and to find trends of mineral resources survey and mineral deposits of the KIGAM for 38 years since the fiscal year of 1976 to 2013. The KIGAM in the projects for mineral resources survey and mineral deposits expended 67.41 billion won for last 38 years, which is 107.07 billion won calculated using the present value in 2013 at discount rate of 5%. R&D expenditure in mineral resources survey and mineral deposits of KIGAM increased approximately 59.4 times from 108 million won in 1976 to 6,420 million won in 2013, and about 9.8 times from 657 million won in 1976, as calculated using the present value in 2013. The percentage of research projects in mineral resources survey by research sub-areas was as follows: survey, 32%(90 projects); origin of ore deposits and basic research, 19%(54 projects); exploration for ore deposits, 17%(48 projects); database and information, 13%(37 projects); mineralogy and ore analysis, 9%(25 projects); and etc., 10%(27 projects). Based on analysis of research trends over the last 38 years, to raise research productivity, the existing survey research techniques with repeated use and related technology development should be enhanced.

Patterns of Vitamin/Mineral Supplements Usage among the Middle-Aged in Korea (중년기의 비타민.무기질 보충제 복용 실태 조사)

  • 김선효
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.236-252
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    • 1994
  • This survey was accomplished to investigate the patterns of vitamin/mineral supplements usage in the middle-aged. Eight hundred seventy two persons of middle age were chosen from various cities and rural communities in Korea. In this study, those factors affecting vitamin/mineral supplements consumption, and usage patterns were examined. In addition, vitamin and mineral intakes through supplements were calculated, and then compared with RDA. As a result, vitamin/mineral supplements were taken by 40.8% of subjects. The higher the age, education level, family income and socioeconomic status were, the higher the percentage of supplements consumption was. City-dewellers used them more often than rural-dewellers. And vitamin/mineral supplements were taken frequently in subjects who perceived their health as poor, and concerned much about health. Illness and climacteric symptoms were also related with elevated usage. However, nutritional knowledge and food habit did not affect supplements consumption. Users mostly received information about supplements from TV/radio/newspapers, of family/friends. One of the mainly cited reasons for taking supplements, next to ' to give energy', was 'to be healthier'. The four most favored supplements, in ranking order, were vitamin B-complex, vitamin E, vitamin A and Ca. Most vitamin and mineral intakes through supplements were much greater than RDA except Ca. Especially, vitamin B1 intake was the highest as 49.6$\pm$34.9 times of RDA. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral supplements used by the middle-aged in Korea was as high as those of western countries. Supplements consumption seemed to be related with affluence, poor health status, and high level of health consiousness. And supplements tended to be taken for health promotion irrespective of scientific background. Most vitamin and mineral intakes by supplements were exceeded RDA, and their intake ranges were very wide. Thus some subjects should give attention to the potential harms of megadose.

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Effects of Antibiotics, Zinc Oxide or a Rare Earth Mineral-Yeast Product on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Parameters in Weanling Pigs

  • Han, Yung-Keun;Thacker, Philip A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1057-1065
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding a newly-developed rare earth mineral-yeast product, zinc oxide (ZnO) or antibiotics on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum parameters of weanling pigs. In experiment 1, 150 crossbred barrows (24 d old and 6.28 kg BW) were fed one of five dietary treatments consisting of an unsupplemented basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (33 ppm tiamulin and 100 ppm chlortetracycline), ZnO (1,500 or 2,500 ppm) or 0.1% peptide-bound rare earth mineral-yeast. In experiment 2, 576 crossbred barrows (28 d old and 7.20 kg BW) were fed the same diets as those used in experiment 1 modified only by the addition of 1.0% Celite 545 to all diets as a digestibility marker. However, the negative control was not included. In experiment 1, weight gain was significantly lower (p<0.05) for pigs fed the negative control than for pigs fed diets supplemented with antibiotics, ZnO, or rare earth mineral-yeast. Pig performance did not differ between pigs fed the four supplemented diets. In experiment 2, there were no differences in performance between pigs fed diets supplemented with antibiotic, ZnO or rare earth mineral-yeast. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, calcium, phosphorus and energy were significantly (p<0.01) higher on the rare earth mineral-yeast diet than on diets supplemented with ZnO. In addition, pigs fed the diet supplemented with rare earth mineral-yeast had significantly (p<0.05) higher digestibility of histidine, lysine, threonine and valine than pigs fed the ZnO supplemented diets. Digestibility coefficients for pigs fed antibiotics tended to be intermediate to those of pigs fed rare earth mineralyeast or ZnO. In conclusion, the performance of pigs fed rare earth mineral-yeast was basically equal to that of pigs fed antibiotics or ZnO indicating that rare earth mineral-yeast can be successfully used as a growth promoter in diets fed to nursery pigs. The effects of rare earth mineral-yeast appeared to be mediated through improvements in nutrient digestibility.

Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

  • Hong, Se-Ra;Lee, Seung-Min;Lim, Na-Ri;Chung, Hwan-Wook;Ahn, Hong-Seok
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.212-219
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRls and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested.

A Study on the Mine Development of North Korea and the Inter-Korean Mineral Resources Cooperation (북한의 광물자원개발과 남북간 자원협력방안)

  • Kim You-Dong;Park Hong-Soo;Kim Seong-Yong;Lee Jae-Ho
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 2005
  • North Korea is plentiful in the mineral resources as magnesite, gold, zinc, iron, rare metal, and coal resources compared to South Korea and has 6 industrial zones which are located nearby to the mineralized areas. The industrial zones are provided with a sound infrastructures and accumulation of advanced technology. As a huge mineral and energy consuming country, South Korea imports mineral and coal resources equivalent to almost 8 trillion won annually. Inter-Korean cooperation for development of mineral resources in North Korea will be improved by the practical use of the North Korea's plentiful mineral resources, infiastructures related to development and refinement, and basic geo-technology, which would be considered toward combining with South Korean capital and Russian geo-technologies.

Potential Mapping of Moisan area Using SIP and 3D Geological Modeling (복소 전기비저항 및 3차원 지질모델링을 이용한 모이산 포텐셜 지도 구축)

  • Park, Gyesoon;Park, Samgyu;Son, Jeong-Sul;Kim, Changryol;Cho, Seong-Jun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2014
  • In order to develop a new mineral exploration technique, a study was carried out about the potential mapping of Moisan area using SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) data. The SIP inversion results were classified according to the geological regions, and the distribution characteristics of resistivity and phase values of SIP data were analyzed at the ore region. Based on the characteristics of SIP of ore bodies, we performed 3D potential mapping of Moisan area. The analyzed potential map was verified using that the locations and patterns of high potential regions of the results are well matched with those of the known ore bodies. If we get the higher spatial resolution SIP data, the potential mapping technique using SIP data can be effectively applied to the estimation of mining deposit.

Mineral Oriental Drugs in Korea (한국(韓國)의 광물성(鑛物性) 한약(漢藥) (I))

  • Hong, Moon-Wha
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.105-152
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    • 1973
  • Modern pharmaceutical scientists and medicinal chemists have shown only sporadic interest in mineral drugs of oriental medicine, although the use of minerals in medicine dates from early ancient cultures. The mineral, until recently, has been relatively neglected by the natural product and medicinal chemists. At this moment in time it is appropriate to review briefly the status of mineral oriental drugs in Korea, and eighty items of mineral drugs were listed in this review. This review is also concerned with those references, classic or current, pertaining to application, origin, and constituent of those mineral drugs. It is the aim of this review to facilitate presentation of useful informations in an attempt to entice the natural product and medicinal chemists to seek rediscovery and further application of mineral oriental drugs in Korea.

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Decomposition and leaching of Rare earth ore (희토류 광물의 분해 및 침출)

  • Lee, Jin-Yeong;Jeon, Ho-Seok;Kim, Joon-Soo
    • Mineral and Industry
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    • v.23
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2010
  • 희토류 정광으로부터 첨단산업 원료소재로 수요가 급증하고 있는 고순도 희토류 소재를 제조하기 위한 가장 첫 공정은 침출공정이다. 즉, 희토류 정광으로부터 원소별 희토류 성분을 분리하기 위해서는 용액상태로 전환이 필요한데, 이때 일반적인 산 및 알카리 용액에는 희토류 성분은 침출이 되지 않으므로 강산 또는 강 알카리 조건에서 희토류 정광을 침출 가능한 형태로 변환 시켜주는 분해공정이 선행되며 이후 산 침출에 의해 희토류 성분을 침출하게 된다. 본 고에서는 대표적인 희토류 광물인 모나자이트와 바스트나사이트, 그리고 이 광물의 혼합물 형태로 생산되는 혼합광물에 대한 분해 및 침출공정을 소개하고자 한다.

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