• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Yield and Composition

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EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS AND CALCIUM ON FEED INTAKE AND YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF MILK OF HOLSTEIN COWS

  • Morse, D.;Head, H.H.;Wilcox, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1994
  • Three concentrations of P (0.33, 0.43 and 0.54%) and two concentrations of Ca (0.60 and 0.97%) in ration dry matter were evaluated for effects on dry matter intake and on milk yield and composition using 24 Holstein cows. Cows were arranged in a $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment as an incomplete randomized block design with three 28-day periods. Each cow consumed at least one ration with each concentration of Ca. Dry matter intake, yield of 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk, and milk composition were not affected by concentration of P, but milk yield was greater when lowest concentration of P was fed (22.8 vs. 22.1 kg/day; p<0.07). Cows fed rations containing 0.60% Ca had greater milk (22.7 vs. 21.9 kg/day; p<0.02) and 3.5% Fat Corrected Milk yields (p<0.03) and slightly greater protein content than when fed 0.97% Ca. Dietary Ca:P ratios between 1.1:1 and 2.9:1 had no effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, or composition. Concentrations of P in plasma were within the normal range for all rations. Because cows had high dry matter intake, mean daily intakes of both P and Ca were greater than required for their level of milk yield.

Effect of protected Methionine and Lysine on Milk yield and Composition in Holstein Dairy Cow under Different Dietary Crude Protein Levels : Meta-analysis (사료 내 수준별 조단백질 조건에서 보호메티오닌과 보호라이신의 사료첨가 급여가 착유우유생산성 및 유성분에 미치는 영향 : 메타분석)

  • Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.957-967
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protected amino acid on milk yield and composition in dairy cow using meta-analysis. Total 21 research papers were employed in analysis, and mixed model was used for the analysis of effects. Effect of protected methionine (PM) and combination of protected methionine and lysine (PML) were investigated under two different levels of dietary crude protein (CP, <18% and >18%). For performance of dairy cow, milk yield, milk composition including milk fat and protein content and yield and 4% FCM (fat corrected milk) production were used for analysis. In case of milk yield, a trend of increment was found at PM supplementation at low CP (P=0.055). However, the effect of PM at high CP was detected as not significant (P>0.05). In case of milk protein, inclusion of PM at low CP showed significant decrement (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect of MP on milk protein at high CP (P>0.05). Supplementation of MP at high CP level showed significant increment of milk fat (P<0.05). MP supplementation represented significant increment of 4% FCM production (P<0.05) regardless of dietary CP levels. Effects of PML on milk yield and composition at both of low and high dietary CP were not significant in this study. However, it seem to be that there was a possible positive effect of MPL application at high dietary CP on performance of dairy cow.

Effects of Black Sugar Supplementation on Dry Matter Intake, Milk Yield, and Milk Composition in Holstein Dairy Cow

  • Seng, Tongheng;Lee, Sang Moo;Kim, Eun Joong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing additional sucrose, in the form of black sugar (BS), into the diet of Holstein dairy cows on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Eight Holstein dairy cows ($741{\pm}65.8kg$ body weight) were divided into two groups, including the control and BS groups. Animals in the control group were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, and the BS group was offered TMR with 300 g of BS/head/d. After two weeks of adaptation period, the animal performance, including DMI, milk yield and milk composition, was measured. Cows supplemented with BS appeared to consume more feed than that by the controls (i.e., 17.08 and 18.28 kg/d for the control and BS groups, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between treatments. Milk yield or milk composition, such as milk fat, milk protein, lactose, solids-non-fat, total solids and pH, did not differ between treatments. However, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The MUN concentration of the BS group was approximately 15% lower than that of the control group (i.e., 18.75 vs. 16.05 mg/dL for the control and BS groups, respectively), which suggests improved nitrogen metabolism in the animals. The somatic cell count was numerically lower in the cows of the BS group compared to those in the control group. However, a significant difference was not noted due to the substantial amount of variation among cows. In terms of the trace mineral composition for milk, the concentration of Cu from BS animals was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control animals. In summary, supplementing the diets of dairy cows with BS marginally affected animal performance and improved nitrogen metabolism. The level of supplementation and other factors, such as animal variation were discussed.

Milk Yield and Its Fat Content as Affected by Dietary Factors: A-Rewiew

  • Sawal, R.K.;Kurar, C.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.217-233
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    • 1998
  • Milk yield and its composition is governed by level of nutrition and the composition of diet. Higher concentrate input improves milk yield, whereas its input at moderate levels improves yield of milk fat. High level of dietary protein improves dry matter intake and milk production, however, CP content above 14% has less advantage. Milk yield is enhanced by the feeding of cottonseed and soyabean meal, whereas milk fat increases by the supplementation of cottonseed. Dietary fat increases energy intake, production of milk and milk fat. Quality and quantity of feeds consumed affect fermentation patterns in rumen. Among the rumen metabolites, volatile fatty acids (VFA) content and propionate proportion have been related positively with milk yield, whereas proportion of acetate and butyrate have been related positively with milk fat content. Dietary carbohydrates through the source of sugar, starch, roughage and fibre affect VFA concentration in rumen. Therefore, concentration of volatile fatty acids could be altered to the advantage of consumer through judicious manipulation of diet.

EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON MILK YIELD, MILK COMPOSITION AND BLOOD METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS IN HEREFORD × FRIESIAN CATTLE

  • Matthewman, R.W.;Merrit, J.;Oldham, J.D.;Horgan, G.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.607-617
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    • 1993
  • Three experiments were carried out in which lactating Hereford ${\times}$ Friesian cattle walked up to ten kilometers a day for three periods of five days with two non-walking days between each walking period and in which the animals were fed different diets. Measurements were made of milk yield, milk constituent yields and concentrations and blood metabolite concentrations. Exercise caused significant reductions in milk yield and in the yields of lactose and milk protein. Milk fat yield was not reduced when animals were exercised. During exercise the concentrations of ${\beta}-OH$ butyrate and free fatty acids increased, whereas the concentrations of glucose, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus decreased. Diet influenced the effect of exercise on some blood metabolite concentrations.

The Yield and Composition of Milk from Transgenic Rabbits

  • Chrenek, P.;Chrastinova, L.;Kirchnerova, K.;Makarevich, A.V.;Foltys, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.482-486
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    • 2007
  • Basic objective of this research was to compare the milk yield and composition of New Zealand White transgenic rabbit females expressing recombinant human factor VIII (hFVIII) in mammary gland during lactation with that of non-transgenic rabbit females of the same age during 30 days of lactation. Transgenic founders were generated by the microinjection of foreign DNA (mWAP-hFVIII gene construct) into the egg. F1, F2 and F3 generations of transgenic rabbits were obtained after mating of transgenic founder rabbits with non-transgenic rabbits. The amount of milk rejected was measured by weight-suckle-weight method at $10^{th}$, $20^{th}$and $30^{th}$ day of lactation. Quality of milk (content of fat, protein, lactose, dry ash, and some minerals) from transgenic and non-transgenic rabbit was also determined. Comparison of milk yield, determined by weight-suckle-weight method, showed significantly higher (p<0.05) milk production at day 20 of first lactation in non-transgenic females, but on the same day of second lactation higher milk yield was measured in transgenic ones. Significantly higher (p<0.05) content of milk fat and protein was determined in transgenic milk whilst higher content of lactose was found in non-transgenic milk. The content of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium) did not differ in both experimental and control groups. Our results showed that milk yield and composition of transgenic rabbit females (mammary specific transgenic over-expression of hFVIII) over several generations is only slightly and transiently different from milk yield of non-transgenic females, which had no significant consequence on the litter size and viability.

Effect of supplementary glycerin on milk composition and heat stability in dairy goats

  • Thoh, Deela;Pakdeechanuan, Patcharin;Chanjula, Pin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1711-1717
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment was studied the effects of various levels of crude glycerin (CG) in dairy goat diet on daily intake, milk yield, milk composition, some physical properties and some quality changes of goat milk after sterilization. Methods: Twelve 75% Saanen dairy goats (body weight = $49{\pm}3kg$; days in milk = $60{\pm}12d$) were randomly assigned in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of three experimental diets consisting of 0%, 5%, and 10% CG (dry matter basis) which were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of goats. Experimental dairy goats were evaluated for feed and milk yield. Milk samples were analyzed for their composition, including fatty acids, casein profile, fat globule size, and color, and were sterilized to evaluate milk heat stability. Results: There were no significant differences between 0% and 5% CG treatments infeed. Increasing CG supplementation from 0% to 5% increased milk yield from $2.38{\pm}0.12$ to $2.64{\pm}0.23kg/goat/d$. In addition, milk samples from 5% CG treatment had the highest total solids, fat content and lactose content, and largest fat globule size. Increasing CG to 10% resulted in a decrease in milk fat. After sterilizing at $116^{\circ}C$, $F_0=3min$, goat milk samples from 5% CG treatment had slightly higher sediment content and comparatively higher degree of browning. Conclusion: Considering milk yield, milk fat content and quality of sterilized milk, 5% CG supplementation in a total mixed ration has a potential for implementation in dairy goats.

Influence of Varying Level of Sodium Bicarbonate on Milk Yield and Its Composition in Early Lactating Nili Ravi Buffaloes

  • Sarwar, M.;Shahzad, M. Aasif;Nisa, Marhr-un
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1858-1864
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    • 2007
  • Influence of varying level of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on milk yield and its composition was examined in a randomized complete block design in early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes during summer. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. The diet 0B contained 0 while LB, MB and HB diets contained 0.50, 1.0 and 1.50% SB levels, respectively. The diets were randomly allotted to twenty buffaloes, five in each group. A linear increase in nutrient and water intake was recorded with increasing SB level. Buffaloes fed MB and HB diets showed higher nitrogen balance than those fed 0B and LB diets. A significant increase in blood pH and serum bicarbonate was noticed with increasing SB level. Urine pH increased significantly with increased SB level. A linear increase in milk yield was also noticed with increasing SB level. Milk fat% increased significantly in buffaloes fed MB and HB diets compared with those fed 0B and LB diets. Buffaloes fed HB diet had higher conception rate and less services per conception than those fed 0B diet. This study indicated that a high SB diet not only increased dry matter and water intake, milk yield, milk fat% but also increased conception rate in early lactating buffaloes during summer.

Effects of k-Casein Variants on Milk Yield and Composition in Dairy Cattle

  • Chung, Eui-Ryong;Chung, Ku-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.328-332
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    • 2005
  • The effect of k-casein (k-CN) variant on milk production traits (milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage and protein percentage) was estimated for 568 Holstein cows in the first lactation. The k-CN valiant were determined by PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique at the DNA level. Single trait linear model was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Result of this study indicated that k-CN variant affected significantly milk yield (P<0.05) and protein yield (P<0.01). Animals with the BB variant produced 622kg milk more and had protein yield higher by 32kg compared with animals with the AA variant No associations between the k-CN variants and other milk production trait were found. Therefore, milk and protein yield may be improved through milk protein typing by increasing the frequencies of k-CN B variant in dairy cattle population. In cheese making, it will be also preferable to have milk with the B variant of k-CN, which gives higher yield having a better quality than the A variant milk.

Effect of Replacing Corn Silage with Whole Crop Rice Silage in Total Mixed Ration on Intake, Milk Yield and Its Composition in Holsteins

  • Ki, K.S.;Khan, M.A.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, S.B.;Yang, S.H.;Baek, K.S.;Kim, J.G.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.516-519
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing whole crop corn silage (WCCS) with whole crop rice silage (WCRS) in the total mixed ration (TMR) on nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition in Holstein cows. The Chucheong rice variety (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) and corn (Pioneer 32 P75) were harvested at yellow-ripe stage and were ensiled in round bales and in trench silos, respectively. Two TMR containing either WCCS or WCRS were prepared. These diets were randomly assigned to 16 midlactating Holstein cows (8 cows per treatment) and were fed for 120 days. The first 20 days were used for dietary adaptation and for the next 100 days daily feed intake, milk yield and its composition were recorded. The pH, lactic acid, NDF, ADF, CP, Ca and P contents were similar in WCRS and WCCS. The DM, ash and EE contents of WCRS were greater compared with WCCS. Nutrient (DM, NDF, TDN and CP) intakes were similar in cows fed WCCS- and WCRS-based TMR. Daily and 4% fat corrected milk yield were not affected by the treatments. Milk composition (percent milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids) was similar in cows fed either WCCS- or WCRSbased TMR. The concentration of milk urea N was greater in cows fed WCRS-based TMR than those fed WCCS-based TMR. In conclusion, round-baled WCRS can replace WCCS in the diet of mid- to late-lactating Holsteins without any deleterious effects on feed consumption, milk yield and its composition. The present findings raise the possibility that WCRS can be used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of dairy cows in countries with surplus rice production.