• Title, Summary, Keyword: Milk Production

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EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATING MILK PRODUCTION BY SOWS 4. A COMPARISON OF TWO WEIGH-SUCKLE-WEIGH TECHNIQUES (OFFSPRING AND MATERNAL) FOR ESTIMATING MILK PRODUCTION

  • Prawirodigdo, S.;King, R.H.;Hughes, P.E.;Dunkin, A.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.165-168
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    • 1991
  • The maternal weigh-suckle-weigh (WSW) method for estimating milk production of sows was further evaluated by comparing this to the traditional WSW method. Twenty one estimates of hourly milk production were obtained by both methods. Total hourly milk production between the two methods was not significantly different (292.4 vs 303.3 g/h, p > 0.05). Hourly milk production determined by the maternal WSW method was highly correlated with hourly milk production estimates using the traditional WSW method ($R_2$ = 0.94, p < 0.001). When corrections for metabolic and salivary losses were made, the milk production figures for the maternal WSW method were approximately 27% less than those estimated by the traditional WSW method.

Change on Milk Production of Lactating Women in Kwangwon Province during Lactation (강원도 일부지역 수유부의 기간별 모유분비량의 변화)

  • 이정실
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1105-1111
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    • 1996
  • Breast milk production and factors related to milk production were examined by test-weighting method in the part of Kangwon Province longitudinally from 0.5 to 5 months of postpartum. Milk production of total mothers averaged 639, 789, 871, 843, 848 and 851g/day at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months of postpartum respectively. Mean Milk production of multiparae appeared significantly higher than those of primiparac. The number of feed per day showed decreasing trend from 9.6 to 8.4 during the lactation. Mature milk production had a correlation with transitional milk production and no correlation with infants weight at birth, gestational period and weight gain during pregnancy of mothers. The energy, protein and lipid consumption of total mothers had a positive correlation with breast milk production.

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Dietary Fatty Acid Supplementation during Transitional Period Increases Milk Production in Dairy Cows

  • Nagao, K.;Takahara, Y.;Asai, H.;Hayashi, N.;Kitayama, T.;Yoshimura, Y.;Yokota, H.;Kita, Kazumi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1105-1109
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    • 2005
  • The effect of dietary fatty acid supplementation on milk production, milk composition and plasma constituents in dairy cows was examined. Dietary fatty acids including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid were given to cows from 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production was increased gradually during early lactation period and reached a plateau at 4 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production in lactating cows received dietary fatty acids was significantly higher than that of cows given a control diet alone. Although milk lactose concentration was slightly decreased by dietary fatty acid supplementation, milk fat and protein were not significantly influenced by dietary fatty acid supplementation. Dietary fatty acids did not affect plasma concentrations of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose during postpartum. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid supplementation has the potency to enhance energy balance and improve milk yield without any adverse effects on milk composition.

Selection on milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan

  • Togashi, Kenji;Osawa, Takefumi;Adachi, Kazunori;Kurogi, Kazuhito;Tokunaka, Kota;Yasumori, Takanori;Takahashi, Tsutomu;Moribe, Kimihiro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare intended and actual yearly genetic gains for milk production and conformation traits and to investigate the simple selection criterion practiced among milk production and conformation traits during the last two decades in Japan. Learning how to utilize the information on intended and actual genetic gains during the last two decades into the genomic era is vital. Methods: Genetic superiority for each trait for four paths of selection (sires to breed bulls [SB], sires to breed cows [SC], dams to breed bulls [DB], and dams to breed cows [DC]) was estimated. Actual practiced simple selection criteria were investigated among milk production and conformation traits and relative emphasis on milk production and conformation traits was compared. Results: Selection differentials in milk production traits were greater than those of conformation traits in all four paths of selection. Realized yearly genetic gain was less than that intended for milk production traits. Actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Retrospective selection weights of milk production and conformation traits were 0.73:0.27 and 0.56:0.44 for intended and realized genetic gains, respectively. Conclusion: Selection was aimed more toward increasing genetic gain in milk production than toward conformation traits over the past two decades in Japan. In contrast, actual annual genetic gain for conformation traits was equivalent to or greater than intended. Balanced selection between milk production and conformation traits tended to be favored during actual selection. Each of four paths of selection (SB, SC, DB, and DC) has played an individual and important role. With shortening generation interval in the genomic era, a young sire arises before the completion of sire's daughters' milk production records. How to integrate these four paths of selection in the genomic era is vital.

Problems in methodology for estimating cost of milk production and its improvement (우유생산비 조사 및 계산상의 문제점과 합리화방안 연구)

  • Chun, Ryong;Seo, Seong-Won;Park, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.227-242
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    • 2012
  • Accurate estimation of milk production cost is very important for dairy farmers in establishing strategies for business management (e.g. planning a program for milk production, deciding the size of business and investment, determining the milk price for sale). Since the estimated cost of milk production is used as an important index to determine the basal price of milk in Korea, there has been much interest and debate on the method used to estimate milk production cost among the stakeholder. This study was thus carried out to identify problems in the current methodology for estimating cost of milk production, and to find a better way to improve it. We propose several alternatives and better ways to improve the current method for estimating cost of milk production. Estimation of the income and cost per head should be based on the number of cattle converted to grown cows. Cost estimation per liter of milk should be made for both whole milk and 3.4% milk fat corrected milk. The value of purchased cows and raised replacement heifers should be the same as their market value. The productive life span of cows should be less 4 years, and the terminal or salvage value of cows needs to be 30 to 40% less than her initial value. When calculating depreciation of cows over the productive life span, however, the salvage value should be 0 or 1 Korean won. On calculating labor costs, the farm labor wage corresponding to the average wage of nonfarm industrial workers should be assumed. Beside of these, better estimation procedures for other items are also given. The proposed methods from this study should improve the accuracy of estimation of milk production cost and help to achieve consensus among the stakeholder.

The Relation between Genetic Polymorphism Markers and Milk Yield in Brown Swiss Cattle Imported to Slovakia

  • Chrenek, P.;Huba, J.;Vasicek, D.;Peskovicova, D.;Bulla, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1397-1401
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to determine genotypes of four genetic markers and to investigate their association with milk production traits in Brown Swiss cattle imported to Slovakia. The bovine $\kappa$-casein, $\beta$-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin genotypes of 107 cows were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Effects all four genetic markers on milk, fat, protein and lactose yields and fat, protein and lactose percentage were estimated from a data set of 249 lactations. The frequency of desirable B allele of $\kappa$-casein gene to milk production was 0.46, alleles A of $\beta$-lactoglobulin gene was 0.55, allele and L of growth hormone gene was 0.45 and allele A and B of bovine prolactin gene were 0.61 and 0.39. The results of milk production obtained in our work showed that BB genotypes of $\kappa$-CN gene, AA genotypes of $\beta$-LG gene, LL genotypes of bGH gene were significantly associated with better milk production traits, mainly about the fat content. Association of a bovine prolactin genotypes with milk production were not found.

Effects of Milk Products on Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria in Soy Milk and Quality of Soy Yogurt (두유(豆乳)에 첨가된 유제품이 젖산균의 산생성(酸生成)과 대두요구르트의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Young-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 1990
  • Soy milk prepared from soy protein concentrate was added with each of four types of milk products. Acid production and growth of five species of lactic acid bacteria(LAB) in soy milk and sensory property of soy yogurt were investigated. Acid production by LAB increased in proportion to concentration of milk products added to soy milk. Among the four milk products tested, whey powder or skim milk powder stimulated acid production by LAB more than whole milk powder or modified milk powder. Stimulating effect by whey powder on acid production by LAB was greater than other milk products at low concentration. Acid production by LAB in soy milk added with glucose or milk products significantly increased during fermentation. Sensory property of soy yogurt added with whole milk powder or skim milk powder was better than that of reference (soy yogurt added with glucose) while sensory property of soy yogurt added with whey powder or modified milk powder was Inferior to that of reference.

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Relationships between Milk Yield, Post-Partum Body Weight and Reproductive Performance in Friesian × Bunaji Cattle

  • Oni, O.O.;Adeyinka, I.A.;Afolayan, R.A.;Nwagu, B.I.;Malau-Aduli, A.E.O.;Alawa, C.B.I.;Lamidi, O.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1516-1519
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    • 2001
  • The data consisted of 369 lactation records for calvings over a sixteen-year period (1972-1987) and included only cows that had normal milk records. The data were analysed using a linear model containing the fixed effects of parity, year of calving and season of calving. The least squares means${\pm}$S.E. were $1,273{\pm}58.4kg$ for milk yield, and for post-partum body weight (kg) at 2, 3 and 4 months after calving were $343.40{\pm}3.96$, $346.10{\pm}4.10$ and $352.54{\pm}4.26$, respectively. With the exception of season of calving, the effects of parity and year of calving were significant (p<0.01) on the performance of the animals. Thus, the mean-milk yields 1162, 1351 and 1350, were similar for pre-, peak- and post rainy seasons, respectively. On the other hand, as parity increased from 1 to 3, milk yield also increased, but thereafter, there was a gradual decline in milk yield. Similarly, post-partum body weight also increased with parity. However, no consistent pattern for year effect was observed which probably was a reflection of the variation in climatic conditions, or forage quality and/or availability. The phenotypic correlations between milk yield and post-partum body weights were negative and small (ranging from -0.01 to -0.08). However, high milk production in cows was associated with longer calving interval. The implications from the phenotypic correlations are suggestive of one or two possibilities. Firstly, selection for increased body weight may actually result in decreased milk yield. Also, a substantial genetic antagonism may exist between milk yield and fertility in the crossbred cows. Therefore, it is important that selection to improve milk production should take into consideration the reproductive performance of the cows.

Production and Supply of Milk in Joseon during Japanese Colonial Period (1910~1945) (일제 강점기(1910~1945) 조선의 우유 생산과 보급)

  • Lee, Kyou-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.400-410
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to discuss how 'milk' was produced and supplied introduced and spread in the modern Joseon period. Condensed milk and powdered milk were mainly consumed in Joseon during the Japanese colonial period since they could be conveniently preserved for a long time, although raw milk was also produced and consumed. For areas adjacent to farms, milk delivery service was offered while areas with great consumption received an additional supply from different areas by rail. Since no manufacturing plants were operational in Korea, condensed milk and powdered milk consumed in Joseon had to be imported. In the case of condensed milk, when production in Japan increased, extra supply was aggressively sent into their colony, Joseon. The 'Gyeongseong Milk Association' founded in 1937 is considered significant in that it led to standardization of the production system and prices as well as pasteurization of milk. In the late Japanese colonial era, milk production and consumption were controlled. As milk was purchased as a war supply, the milk consumption market became distorted and limited.

Current Issues on the Free Trade System for Dairy Industry (수입자유화와 낙농에 관한 소고)

  • Lee, Man-Jae
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 1996
  • The world dairy industry has been driving their dairy policy on the basis of the self-supportihg principle. With progressing the GATT negotiation, the objective production amount has been reduced to maintain the optimum level, which decreasing the extra supply and over-stock before the U.R talks. The Oceania countries, where has the price competition capability, are continually increasing the milk production amount. Even through the USA is trying to increase their production amount with new export policy, the U.S.S.R collapse-down caused to decrease the milk production in world-wide basis. Because the U.S.S.R produced the highest amount of milk in the world. Moreover Europe Union countries, which recorded the half amount of dairy products in the world was decreasing their milk production. Therefore, about 4% of shortage is encountering at major dairy production countries in the standpoint of supply and demand. The drastic increasement of foreign dairy product import affects the domestic dairy industry with raw milk replacement and new dairy food demands creation since 1995, the initial period of free import system. Now, the domestic dairy industry are facing the inevitable problems such as the correction of producting and processing system. First of all, our dairy industry should resettle down the dairy production structure on the basis of self-supply of raw milk and offer the accurate dairy food informations. We still need to improve the raw milk quality. Also, more efforts are needed to have proper raw milk price policy. General domestic policies including the settlement of raw milk supply and demand, the reliability of inspection system in raw milk, ideal raw milk price system, centralization of raw milk collection, specially separated dairy organization should be improved legally in our dairy industry.

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