• Title, Summary, Keyword: Midsummer drainage

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A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Rice Production System in Farming without Agricultural Chemicals

  • Lee, Jong-Sik;Ryu, Jong-Hee;Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Choi, Eun-Jung;Kim, Gun-Yeob
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.374-380
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    • 2014
  • To estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, the inventory of rice cultivation at the farming without agricultural chemicals was established from farmers in Gunsan, Jeonbuk province in 2011~2012. The objectives of this study were to calculate carbon footprint and analyse the major factor of GHGs. To do this, we carried out a sensitivity analysis using the analyzed main factors of GHGs and estimated the mitigation potential of GHGs. Also we suggested agricultural methods to reduce GHGs that can be appled by farmers at this region. At the farming system without agricultural chemicals, carbon footprint of rice production unit of 1 kg was 2.15 kg $CO_2.-eq.kg^{-1}$. Although the amount of carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) emission was the largest among GHGs, methane ($CH_4$) emission had the highest contribution to carbon footprint on rice production system when it was converted to carbon dioxide equivalent ($CO_2-eq.$) multiplied by the global warming potential (GWP). Main source of $CO_2$ emission in the rice farming system without agricultural chemicals was combustion of fossil fuels used by agricultural machinery. Most of the $CH_4$ was emitted during rice cultivation practice and its major emission factor was flooded paddy field in anaerobic condition. Also, most of the $N_2O$ was emitted from rice cultivation process. Major sources of the $N_2O$ emission was application of fertilizer such as compound fertilizer. As a result of sensitivity analysis in energy consumption, diesel had the highest sensitivity among the energy inputs. With the reduction of diesel consumption by 10%, it was estimated that $CO_2$ potential reduction was about 2.0%. With reducing application rate of compound fertilizer by 10%, the potential reduction was calculated that $CO_2$ and $N_2O$ could be reduced by 0.5% and 0.9%, respectively. At the condition of 10% reduction of silicate and compost, $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ could be reduced by 1.5% and 1.6%, respectively. With 8 days more drainage than the ordinary practice, $CH_4$ emission could be reduced by about 4.5%. Drainage and diesel consumption were the main sources having the largest effect on the GHG reduction at the farming system without agricultural chemicals. Based on the above results, we suggest that no-tillage and midsummer drainage could be a method to decrease GHG emissions from rice production system.

Comparing Farming Methods in Pollutant runoff loads from Paddy Fields using the CREAMS-PADDY Model (영농방법에 따른 논에서의 배출부하량 모의)

  • Song, Jung-Hun;Kang, Moon-Seong;Song, In-Hong;Jang, Jeong-Ryeol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.318-327
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: For Non-Point Source(NPS) loads reduction, pollutant loads need to be quantified for major farming methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of farming methods on NPS pollutant loads from a paddy rice field during the growing season. METHODS AND RESULTS: The height of drainage outlet, amount of fertilizer, irrigation water quality were considered as farming factors for scenarios development. The control was derived from conventional farming methods and four different scenarios were developed based combination of farming factors. A field scale model, CREAMS-PADDY(Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems for PADDY), was used to calculate pollutant nutrient loads. The data collected from an experimental plot located downstream of the Idong reservoir were used for model calibration and validation. The simulation results agreed well with observed values during the calibration and validation periods. The calibrated model was used to evaluate farming scenarios in terms of NPS loads. Pollutant loads for T-N, T-P were reduced by 5~62%, 8~37% with increasing the height of drainage outlet from 100 mm of 100 mm, respectively. When amount of fertilizer was changed from standard to conventional, T-N, T-P pollutant loads were reduced by 0~22%, 0~24%. Irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir increased T-N of 9~65%, T-P of 9~47% in comparison with conventional. CONCLUSION(S): The results indicated that applying increased the height of drainage after midsummer drainage, standard fertilization level during non-rainy seasons, irrigation water quality below water criteria IV of reservoir were effective farming methods to reduce NPS pollutant loads from paddy in Korea.

A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System

  • Ryu, Jong-Hee;Lee, Jong-Sik;Kim, Kye-Hoon;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Choi, Eun-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 2013
  • To estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, we established inventory of conventional rice cultivation from farmers in Gunsan and Iksan, Jeonbuk province in 2011~2012. This study was to calculate carbon footprint and to analyse the major factor of GHGs. We carried out a sensitivity analysis using the analyzed main factors of GHGs and estimated the mitigation potential of GHGs. Also we tried to suggest agricultural methods to reduce GHGs that farmers of this case study can apply. Carbon footprint of rice production unit of 1 kg was 2.21 kg $CO_2.-eq.kg^{-1}$. Although amount of $CO_2$ emissions is largest among GHGs, methane had the highest contribution of carbon footprint on rice production system after methane was converted to carbon dioxide equivalent ($CO_2$-eq.) multiplied by the global warming potential (GWP). Source of $CO_2$ in the cultivation of rice farming is incomplete combustion of fossil fuels used by agricultural machinery. Most of the $CH_4$ emitted during rice cultivation and major factor of $CH_4$ emission is flooded paddy field in anaerobic condition. Most of the $N_2O$ emitted from rice cultivation process and major sources of $N_2O$ emission is application of fertilizer such as compound fertilizer, urea, orgainc fertilizer, etc. As a result of sensitivity analysis due to the variation in energy consumption, diesel had the highest sensitivity among the energies inputs. If diesel consumption is reduced by 10%, it could be estimated that $CO_2$ potential reduction is about 2.5%. When application rate of compound fertilizer reduces by 10%, the potential reduction is calculated to be approximately 1% for $CO_2$ and approximately 1.8% for $N_2O$. When drainage duration is decreased until 10 days, methane emissions is reduced by approximately 4.5%. That is to say drainage days, tillage, and reducing diesel consumption were the main sources having the largest effect of GHG reduction due to changing amount of inputs. Accordingly, proposed methods to decrease GHG emissions were no-tillage, midsummer drainage, etc.

The Effects of Organic Materials on Yield and N Use Efficiency of Organic Rice Grown under Frequent Heavy Rains (잦은 강우 조건에서 유기질자재에 따른 유기재배 벼의 수량과 질소이용효율)

  • Cho, Jung-Lai;Lee, Youn;Choi, Hyun-Sug;Kim, Wol-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate growth and yield of organically grown rice under a typhoon during a fall. The treatments included NPK chemical fertilizer, compost, oilcake, oilcake 2X, hairyvetch, and vetch+rye. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nutrient applications were made at rates equivalent to approximately 0.9 kg of actual N per acre. Oilcake and hairyvetch treatments had the lowest C:N ratio, but compost had the highest C:N ratio of 34:1. Rice treated by organic nutrient sources had great growth and development at the beginning of the growing season but had depressed growth and yield at the harvest. Oilcake 2X-treated rice in early growing season, especially, showed better growth and development than rice treated by other nutrient sources but was severely lodged at the harvest season due to the typhoon. Compost treatment with high C:N ratio slowly released inorganic N and produced poor rice growth and yield; however, it recued rice lodging. N uptake was the greatest for the oilcake 2X and vetch+rye treatments but the lowest for the compost, which was the similar pattern to the N use efficiency; the greatest and lowest N use efficiency was observed for the oilcake 2X (55%) and compost (5%), respectively. CONCLUSION(s): Rice lodging should be prevented by reducing the excessive nitrogen supplement, resulting from the lower C:N ratio of the organic materials as well as prevented by the radical midsummer drainage. Vetch+rye treatment with 25:1 of C:N had optimum vegetative growth and reduced rice lodging, which increased N use efficiency and yield.

Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea (수도집단재배의 기술체계에 관한 연구)

  • Min-Shin Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-177
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    • 1970
  • For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.

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