• Title, Summary, Keyword: Mid-life crisis

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A Study on the Efficiency and Productivity Change of Korean Non-Life Insurance Company After Financial Crisis (금융위기 이후 국내 손해보험회사의 효율성 및 생산성 변화 연구)

  • Park, Chun-Gwang;Kim, Byeong-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.57-83
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency and productivity change and inefficiency cause of the korean non-life insurance companies of the before($1993{\sim}1996$) and after($1998{\sim}2004$) of IMF. we use DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model to measure company efficiency and MPI(Malmquist productivity indices) to measure company productivity change and Tobit regression to analyze inefficiency cause. we utilize ten non-life insurance companies in korea and the time-series data for eleven from 1993 to 2004 except 1997. The empirical results show the following findings. First, total cost efficiency shows that the after of IMF decrease of 3.7% over the before of IMF and MPI change indicates that the after of IMF increase 7.7% over the before IMF. Second, the results of Tobit regression to analysis the cause of inefficiency show that total cost efficiency is positively related invested assets, acquisition expenses ratio, collection expenses ratio and is negatively related solicitors ratio, personnel expenses ratio, land & buildings expenses ratio, loss ratio, net operating expenses ratio. Especially inefficiency of small-to-mid sized companies is main cause of total cost efficiency of non-life insurance companies in korea. Small-to-mid sized companies endeavored various aspects of business strategies.

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Differential Effects of Family Income on Self-rated Health by Age: Analysis of Seoul Citizens Health Indicators Survey 2001, 2005 (소득수준이 주관적 건강상태에 미치는 영향의 연령대별 차이: 2001, 2005년 서울시민보건지표조사 자료의 분석 결과)

  • Jung, Youn;Oh, Ju-Hwan;Cho, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.381-387
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    • 2007
  • Objectives: This study was conducted in order to determine how the association between socioeconomic position(SEP) and health status changes with age among Seoul residents aged 25 and over. Methods: We utilized the 2001 and 2005 Seoul Citizens Health Indicators Surveys. We used self-rated 'poor' health status as an outcome variable, and family income as an indicator of SEP. In order to characterize the differential effects of socioeconomic position on health by age, we conducted separate multivariate analyses by 10-year age groups, controlling for sociodemographic covariates. In order to assess the relative health inequality across socioeconomic groups, we estimated the Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Results: The risk of 'poor health' is significantly high in low family income groups, and this increased risk is seen at all ages. However, the magnitude of relative socioeconomic inequality in health, as measured by the odds ratio and RII, is not identical across age groups. The difference in health across income groups is small in early adulthood (ages 25-34), but increases with age until relatively late in life (ages 35-64). It then decreases among the elderly population (ages more than 65). When the RII reported in 2005 is compared to that reported in 2001, RII can be seen to have increased across all ages, with the exception of individuals aged 25-34. Conclusions: The magnitude of health inequality is the greatest during mid- to late adulthood (ages 45-64). In addition, health inequalities have worsened between 2001 and 2005 across all age groups after economic crisis.

Korean community in the society of immigrants in Spain: its prestige and trend (스페인 이민자 사회 내 한인공동체의 위상과 현황)

  • Jeon, Yong-gab;Hwang, Soo-hyun
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.29
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    • pp.177-199
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    • 2012
  • Nowadays migrations between the countries are getting each day more active and a mixture of people with different cultural backgrounds strengthens the hybridism, whereupon the point of view on the migration of Koreans has been changed from a diasporan perspective to an transnational one. The expansion of the transnationalism affects the identity of the subsequent generations of the immigration giving way to a psychologically deterritorialized social identity, which is an important consideration in the study of subsequent generations of the immigration. This study examined the Korean immigration history and the current status of the Korean community in Spain since the 1960s. The early immigrants like fishing vessel crew members, instructors of Taekwondo, chicken sexers who, despite the limits of foreigners in Spain, went to find out the source of life with no hesitation, overcame the difficulties of the early settlers and finally managed to achieve local success. Current history of immigration that began in the mid-1960s went through the maturity during the 1970s and 80s and the Koreans in Spain these days, who have undergone differentiation in the occupational structure because of the crisis of pelagic fisheries, face new challenges due to changes in the environment of the country they reside. The Korean community is regarded as an 'exemplary minority group (Model Minority)' even though it is a minority group in number. Now that the interest for overseas Koreans is higher than ever at home and abroad, due to the economic growth of the Republic of Korea, the spread of its cultural influence -the Korean Wave as proof-, and the overseas Koreans suffrage conducted, the research of the Korean residents in Spain will be important as an advanced research of an unexplored field, as well as an opportunity to broaden the horizons of the existing study area that has mainly dealt with major regions only.

A study on the ideological foundation of Park jin-young[朴震英] - Mainly studied the relationship of Jung gu[鄭逑] - (광서(匡西) 박진영(朴震英)의 사상적 토대 고찰 - 한강(寒岡) 정구(鄭逑)를 위시한 사승(師承) 관계를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, hyung-tae
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.54
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    • pp.235-252
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    • 2014
  • This paper is examining the ideological underpinnings of Park Jin-young[朴震英]. He was intellectual activity is based on Haman[咸安] Gyeongsang-namdo[慶尙南道]. And He was causing the Righteous Army[義兵] saved the country from the crisis of Imjin War[壬辰倭亂, 1592~1598] and the Byongja War[丙子胡亂, 1636~1637] in Mid-Joseon[朝鮮] Dynasty. Therefore, he had to practice patriotism and love people. The purpose of this paper is centered on the acts of Park Jin-young to focus on its ideological foundation to be sure. A cause[大義名分] was laying on the side and the real meaning of the terms of participation and his a far-sighted view [達觀] ever conduct of life[處世] divided into such discussions were developed. In addition, the formation of his ideas around the Jung gu[鄭逑] influenced correlating it with the teacher and student relationships were investigated. Park Jin-young is Im-Byeong War[壬丙兩難] since emerged on the Joseon [朝鮮] Social Jon-ju[尊周] thought was one of the representative figures. His mentor Jung gu was the cause, seriously. And he cause, the influence of the teacher very seriously here was typical of that era. The people loved teacher. And his disciples to overcome difficulties that influence the Righteous Army sought to raise the country. His teachers have taught him Confucian influence. And behave appropriately when life. Park Jin-young acted appropriately when affected by such a life. Consequently, he was a true intellectual in those times.

A Influence Effect of Mid-life Religious Life and Faith Maturity on the Couples' Life Satisfaction (중년기 종교 활동과 신앙성숙도가 부부생활만족도에 미치는 영향분석연구)

  • Jeong, Jin-O;Byeon, Sang-Hae;Kim, Jong-Su
    • 한국벤처창업학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.265-288
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    • 2009
  • The study has found that the main reasons affecting to the mature conjugal relations of middle-aged persons are closely related with sede factors brought about after marriage. Comparatively the factors before marriage have more or less weak power on the conjugal relations. They are mature relations wp between husbands and wives, stable and enough incede, and religious activities, which have deep relations with the satisfactory conjugal relations. C. G. Jung divided the whole life span as self-assuredness period in the first half and self-convergence period in the second half. The first is the period when one does his or her best to get external and physical self. On the contrary, the second is the middle-aged period one finds his or her meaning of life in the religious, philosophical, intuitional, and spiritual world, which lead life into harmony and integration. Therefore if one overcomes some psychological crisis related with middle-aged development he or she can enjoy happy senescence(old age). The study has suggested through literature investigation the definition of middle age and the developmental traits of middle age, and the relations between religions and conjugal relations of middle-aged husbands and wives. Futhermore, it has analyzed the theories which religions have close relations with the life satisfaction of middle-aged conjugal relations. In order to give an analysis the influence of the variable of religious activities and religious maturity, with the degree of conjugal satisfaction, 400 middle age are selected as the object of the study whose ages are ranging from 35 years to 60 years, and who reside in Seoul or near Seoul. They were asked to fill out the questionnaires asking about religious activities, religious maturity, and the conjugal satisfaction from March 25th to April 30th, 2009. The results of the survey have been statistically processed and analyzed. First, the higher religious maturity gives positive influence on the general religious activities including public service, human relations, and spiritual stability. That is, this result indicates that the individual, spiritual, and formal religious activities give to a degree influence on the religious maturity. Second, the maturity of religious life resulting from religious activities has a causation with the satisfaction of conjugal life. In more details, religious activities has a positive influence on the satisfaction of conjugal life(T=31.36, p<.001) In more details, religious activities has a positive influence on the religious maturity(T=31.36, p<.001), and religious activities has a positive influence on the satisfaction of conjugal life(T=33.81, p<.001), and the religious maturity has a positive influence on the satisfaction of conjugal life(T=28.64, p<.001) Third, as we analyze the main effects which religious activities and the religious maturity could give influence on the satisfaction of conjugal life, it is found that both religious activities(F=15.95, p<.001) and the religious maturity(F=23.94, p<.001) give a positive influence on the satisfaction of conjugal life. In conclusion, it is sure that religious activities and the religious maturity have a close relations with the satisfaction of conjugal life. Therefore it can be said that religious activities at the protestant religion, buddhism, and catholic religion can give an important influence on the satisfaction of middle-aged conjugal life.

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Exploring Social Service Demand and Policy Implications of the Vulnerable in Rural Areas (농어촌 취약계층의 사회서비스 수요탐색과 정책함의)

  • Kim, Yun-Yong;Lee, Seok-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.332-345
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    • 2020
  • This study sought to explore the demand in the social service sector and present policy implications, focusing on the vulnerable in rural villages exposed to worse conditions amid the Covid-19 crisis. To this end, the social service needs of vulnerable groups by household type were analyzed by utilizing the raw data of the 2018 Survey on Rural Well-Being. Analysis showed that the greatest demand social services for all rural villages, the elderly, the disabled, one-person, one elderly and low-income households were income support services, while in household that included children the demand was for childcare and education-related services. The second-highest social services in terms of demand were cultural leisure vacation support services for all rural villages, healthcare-related services for the elderly, the disabled, one elderly and low-income households, cultural leisure vacation support services for households including children and daily life support services for single-person households. Based on these results, a measure was proposed to support social services, tailored to vulnerable groups in rural villages. In addition, the government's lack of a consultation system between urban and rural welfare policies, such as a basic plan for health and welfare in rural villages, led this paper to discuss the need for a feedback function and dedicated formulation of mid- to long-term policies in rural villages. It also proposed the establishment of conditions for providing customized social services for rural villages.

Forest Policy of Democratic People's Republic of Korea Represented in RodongShinmun (「로동신문」에 드러난 북한의 산림정책)

  • Song, Minkyung;Park, Mi-Sun;Youn, Yeo-Chang
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.123-148
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    • 2012
  • Deforestation and forest degradation in Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) accelerated from the mid 1980s through the economic crisis in 1990s and is still happening. DPRK has conducted afforestation and reforestation activities against this trend. However there are not many official documents on achievement of forest rehabilitation in DPRK. "Rodong Shinmun," as an official newspaper published by North Korean Workers Party, represents governmental policies and is one of a few accessible information on DPRK which is available in Republic of Korea (ROK). This paper aims to investigate the national forest policies of the DPRK represented in Rodong Shinmun. Total of 499 articles using the word 'Sanlim (forest)' and 'Rimsan (forest product)' in the title of articles were selected for content analysis. The national forest plans and forest policy instruments contained in the selected articles were analyzed. The subjects of represented forest policies were classified into four groups; forestation, forest management, land management and forest protection or conservation. The focus of forest policy was changed from economic utilization of forest resources such as timber production in the 1990s to forest protection in the 2000s. Rodong Shinmun reported more frequently about regulatory instruments and informational instruments than the economic instruments. Official commendation and awards were the main incentives given to the people who contributed to forestry achievements. In particular, forest policies were emphasized by Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il and afforestation and forest protection were described as patriotic activities in the Rodong Shinmun. In conclusion, this research revealed that Rodong Shinmun plays a role as a means for introducing, propagating and instigating forest policies in the society of the DPRK. The findings help to understand the forest policies of the DPRK which could be useful when designing development aids for DPRK.

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