• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microwave microscopy

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Characteristics of Diamond Films Deposited on Cemented Tungsten Carbide Substrate (초경합금기판 위에 성장되는 다이아몬드 막의 특성)

  • 김봉준;박상현;박재윤
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.53 no.7
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2004
  • Diamond films were deposited on the cemented tungsten carbide WC-Co cutting insert substrates by using both microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition(MWPCVD) and radio frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition (RFPCVD) from $CH_4$$-H_2$$-O_2$ gas mixture. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to investigate the microstructure and phase analysis of the materials and Raman spectrometry was used to characterize the quality of the diamond coating. Diamond films deposited using MWPCVD from $CH_4$$-H_2$$-O_2$ gas mixture show a dense, uniform, well faceted and polycrystalline morphology. The compressive stress in the diamond film was estimated to be (1.0∼3.6)$\pm$0.9 GPa. Diamond films which were deposited on the WC-Co cutting insert substrates by RFPCVD from $CH_4$$-H_2$$-O_2$ gas mixture show relatively good adhesion, very uniform, dense and polycrystalline morphology.

The Characteristics of Bonding for Thermo-plastic using Solar Energy (태양에너지를 이용한 열경화성 플라스틱 접합특성)

  • Kim, Ok-Sam;Kim, Il-Soo;Son, Joon-Sik;Seo, Joo-Hwan;Moon, Chae-Joo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2007
  • In this research work attempts were made to study the bonding of thermo-plastics with adhesives using solar radiation. In order to study the curing behaviour necessary experiments were conducted under varying conditions of temperature, exposure time and power of solar energy. The cured samples were then studied under the optical microscope before subjecting to tensile testing in order to study their mechanical properties of thermo-plastics. The fracture surfaces were further studied under the Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) in order to research the microstructural changes that are taken place during curing. In order to measure the performance of solar energy cured joints the parameters such as; bond strength, surface morphology, the microstructual changes, variation in properties of adhesives bonded joints are compared to that of specimen cured at ambient conditions and specimen cured using microwave techniques.

Electromagnetic Interference Reflectivity of Nanostructured Manganese Ferrite Reinforced Polypyrrole Composites

  • Chakraborty, Himel;Chabri, Sumit;Bhowmik, Nandagopal
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.295-298
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    • 2013
  • Nano-size manganese ferrite reinforced conductive polypyrrole composites reveal a core-shell structure by in situ polymerization, in the presence of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid as the surfactant and dopant, and iron chloride as the oxidant. The structure and magnetic properties of manganese ferrite nano-fillers were measured, by using X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The morphology, microstructure, and conductivity of the composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and four-wire technique. The microwave-absorbing properties of composites reinforcement dispersed in resin coating with the coating thickness of 1.2 nm were investigated, by using vector network analyzers, in the frequency range of 8~12 GHz. A reflection loss of -8 dB was observed at 10.5 GHz.

Local Current Distribution in a Ferromagnetic Tunnel Junction Fabricated Using Microwave Excited Plasma Method (마이크로파 여기 프라즈마법으로 제조한 강자성 터널링 접합의 국소전도특성)

  • Yoon, Tae-Sick;Kim, Cheol-Gi;Kim, Chong-Oh;Masakiyo Tsunoda;Migaku Takahashi;Ying Li
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2003
  • Ferromagnetic tunnel junctions were fabricated by dc magnetron sputtering and plasma oxidation process. The local transport properties of the ferromagnetic tunnel junctions were studied using contact-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and the local current-voltage analysis. Tunnel junctions with the structure of sub./Ta/Cu/Ta/NiFe/Cu/Mn$\_$75/Ir$\_$25//Co$\_$70/Fe$\_$30//Al-oxide were prepared on thermally oxidized Si wafers. Al-oxide layers were formed with microwave excited plasma using radial line slot antenna (RLSA) for 5 and 7 sec. Kr gas was used as the inert gas mixed with $O_2$ gas for the plasma oxidization. No correlation between topography and current image was observed while they were measured simultaneously. The local current distribution was well identified with the distribution of local barrier height. Assuming the gaussian distribution of the local barrier height, the ferromagnetic tunnel junction with longer oxidation time was well fitted with the experimental results. As contrast, in the case of the shorter time oxidation junction, the current mainly flow through the low barrier height area for its insufficient oxygen. Such leakage current might result in the decrease of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio.

Microwave Dielectric Properties of Y2O3 and TiO2-Doped Ba(Mg0.5W0.5)O3 Ceramics (Y2O3 및 TiO2 첨가 Ba(Mg0.5W0.5)O3 세라믹스의 마이크로파 유전 특성)

  • Hong, Chang-Bae;Kim, Shin;Kwon, Sun-Ho;Yoon, Sang-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.212-215
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    • 2018
  • The phase evolution, microstructure, and microwave dielectric properties of $Ba(Mg_{0.5-2x}Y_{2x}W_{0.5-x}Ti_x)O_3$ (x = 0.005~0.05) ceramics sintered at $1,700^{\circ}C$ for 1h were investigated. All compositions exhibited a 1:1 ordered cubic perovskite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy image revealed a dense microstructure in all the compositions. As the value of x increased, the lattice parameter, dielectric constant, and quality factor increased. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency changed from $-19.6ppm/^{\circ}C$ to $-5.9ppm/^{\circ}C$ with increasing x value. The dielectric constant, quality factor, and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of $Ba(Mg_{0.40}Y_{0.10}W_{0.45}Ti_{0.05})O_3$ were 21.7, 132,685 GHz, and $-5.9ppm/^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Super-growth of Carbon Nanotubes by O2-assisted Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

  • Park, Sang-Eun;Kim, Yu-Seok;Kim, Seong-Hwan;Lee, Su-Il;Jo, Ju-Mi;Park, Jong-Yun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.387-387
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    • 2011
  • 탄소 나노튜브(Carbon nanotubes, CNTs)는 육각형 모양의 구조로서 오직 탄소만으로 이루어진 소재이다. CNT는 열전도율이 다이아몬드보다 약 2배 우수하고, 전기 전도는 구리에 비해 1,000배 높으며, 강도는 강철보다 100배나 뛰어나다. CNT의 이러한 특성을 이용한 트랜지스터, 태양전지, 가스 검출을 위한 고감도 센서, 나노 섬유, 고분자-탄소나노튜브 고기능 복합체 등 많은 분야에서 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 또한 수직으로 성장된 탄소 나노튜브는 일반적인 재료에서는 보기 드물게 힘들게 직경이 나노 크기인 반면 길이는 수 mm까지 합성 되기 때문에 앞서 언급한 분야로의 활용이 더욱 유리하며, 그 중에서도 나노 섬유, 나노 복합체로서의 활용에 극히 유용하다. 이러한 이유로 수직 배열된 CNT 합성에 많은 연구가 집중 되고 있다. 여러 합성 방법 중 성장 변수를 비교적 용이하게 조절 가능한 열 화학 기상 증착법(Thermal chemical vapor deposition, TCVD)을 이용하여 수직 배열된 수 mm의 CNT를 합성한 연구 결과들이 보고된 바 있다. 그러나 앞선 연구결과들은 CNT의 성장속도가 느릴 뿐만 아니라 합성 시간이 길어질수록 성장 속도가 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 반면, 마이크로웨이브 플라즈마 화학 기상 증착법(Microwave plasma CVD, MPCVD)은 기존의 다른 TCVD에 비해 낮은 온도에서 CNT를 합성할 수 있는 장점을 가지며, 고출력(~600 W 이상)의 플라즈마를 사용하기 때문에 성장률이 높고 고밀도의 CNT 합성이 가능하다. 본 연구에서는 철을 촉매금속으로 사용하고 MPCVD을 이용하여 얇은 다중벽 CNT를 합성하였다. 철은 직류 마그네트론 스퍼터(D.C magnetron sputter)를 사용하여 증착하였다. 합성시 가스는 탄소 공급원인 메탄($CH_4$)과 함께 플라즈마 공급원인 수소($H_2$)를 사용하였다. 또한 산소($O_2$)의 주입 여부에 따른 CNT의 성장 속도와 성장 길이를 비교하였다. 산소를 주입하였을 때, CNT의 성장 속도와 길이 모두 크게 향상됨을 확인 할 수 있었다. 이는 촉매금속 표면의 비정질 탄소의 흡착으로 인해 활성화된 촉매금속의 반응시간을 증가시키기 때문이다. 성장된 CNT는 주사전자 현미경(Scanning Electron Microscopy, SEM)과 라만 분광법(Raman spectroscopy)을 통해 표면형상과 결정성을 분석하였다.

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The Additional Effects of Various Materials on Microwave Heating Property of Frozen Dough (품질개량제 첨가가 냉동반죽의 Microwave 가열특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Han, Hye-Kyung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.873-881
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to improve the properties of frozen dough foods (buns and noodles etc.) on the quality deterioration with microwave oven cooking. Microwave is a useful cooking method, but it quickly takes moisture from food surface and makes lowering food quality abruptly. For improvement of these problems, mixing doughs with addition of various additives of 34 types manufactured respectively; starches, modified starches, gums and emulsifiers etc. Each mixing dough produced in sheet type $(30{\times}30{\times}1mm)$ and steamed them, was quickly froze at $-70^{\circ}C$ and packed with polyethylene. Packed samples kept at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 48 hours. After they were steam or microwave treatment packed or non-packed with polyethylene, studied for improvement effects of quality as sensory evaluation and selected 6 type additives; modified starches (TA, ST), gums (AR, GA) and emulsifiers (E, S1) as improvement agent. Because moisture loss from microwave oven cooking leads to quality deterioration of frozen dough foods, additive, such as including starches, modified starch, gums, and emusifiers were added to improve dough properties. Amylogram, scanning electron microscopy, textural analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry revealed addition of additives improved textural properties including surface-hardening of frozen dough foods compared to the control.

Microwave Dielectric Properties of (Pb,Ca)[(Fe,Nb)Sn]$O_3$ with CuO-$Bi_{2}O_{3}$Additives (CuO-$Bi_{2}O_{3}$첨가에 의한 (Pb,Ca)[(Fe,Nb)Sn]$O_3$세라믹스의 마이크로파 유전 특성)

  • 하종윤;최지원;윤석진;윤기현;김현재
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.563-566
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    • 2000
  • The effect of CuO and CuO-B $i_2$ $O_3$ additives on microwave dielectric properties of (P $b_{0.45}$C $a_{0.55}$)[F $e_{0.5}$N $b_{0.5}$)$_{0.9}$S $n_{0.1}$] $O_3$were investigated to decrease the sintering temperature for usage of Low Temperature Co-firing Ceramics (LTCC). The (P $b_{0.45}$C $a_{0.55}$)[F $e_{0.5}$N $b_{0.5}$)$_{0.9}$S $n_{0.1}$] $O_3$ceramics was sintered at 11$65^{\circ}C$. In order to decrease the sintering temperature, CuO and Cuo-B $i_2$ $O_3$ were added in the (Pb,Ca)[(Fe,Nb)Sn] $O_3$ with CuO-B $i_2$ $O_3$. For the addition of 0.4 wt.% CuO, the sintered density and the dielectric constant of the ceramics were revealed the maximum values of the 6.06g/c $m^2$ and 83 respectively and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency ($\tau$$_{f}$) shifted to the positive value. As increasing B $i_2$ $O_3$to the (Pb,Ca)[(Fe,Nb)Sn] $O_3$ with CuO-B $i_2$ $O_3$with 0.2 wt.% CuO, the sintered density, the $\varepsilon$$_{r}$ and the Q was decreased, and $\tau$$_{f}$ was minimized at 0.2 wt.% CuO, and 0.2 wt.% B $i_2$ $O_3$. For this composition, dielectric properties were $\varepsilon$$_{r}$ of 81, Q. $f_{0}$ of 4400 GHz, and $\tau$$_{f}$ of 5 ppm/$^{\circ}C$ at sintering temperature of 100$0^{\circ}C$. the relationship between the microstructure and properties of ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM).copy(SEM).oscopy(SEM).copy(SEM).EM).

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Methylene Blue Photodegradation Properties of Anatase/brookite Hybrid TiO2 Photocatalyst Prepared with Different Acid Catalysts (산 촉매에 따른 아나타제/브루카이트 혼성형 TiO2 광촉매의 메틸렌블루 광분해특성)

  • Yun, Seok-Min;Kim, Jinhoon;Jeong, Euigyung;Im, Ji Sun;Lee, Young-Seak
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2011
  • In this study, anatase/brookite hybrid $TiO_2$ was prepared using different acid catalysts and microwave to improve photodegradation of organic pollutants. The methylene blue photodegradation properties of the prepared photocatalysts with different particle/crystal size and brookite fractions were investigated. Surface characteristics and particle sizes of anatase/brookite hybrid $TiO_2$ were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction particle size analyzer, respectively and crystal structures were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Methylene blue photodegradation properties were evaluated with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Anatase and anatase/brookite hybrid $TiO_2$ had less than 500 nm size of clusters and the average particle size of $6.66{\sim}6.85{\mu}m$, suggesting that types of acid catalysts did not affect the size. XRD of the prepared $TiO_2$ showed that the photocatalysts had anatase/brookite hybrid crystal structure and applying microwave did not change their crystal structure. Photodegradation of methylene blue with the prepared photocatalyst did not increased proportionally to the fraction of brookite and the crystal size and decreased when brookite fraction and the crystal size increased further. Anatase/brookite hybrid $TiO_2$ with brookite fraction of 9.4% and crystal size of 4.53 nm shows the best photodegradation activity of methylene blue.

Characterization of structural and field-emissive properties of diamond films in terms of growth conditions and additive gases (증착변수 및 첨가가스에 따른 다이아몬드 박막의 구조적 물성 및 전계방출 특성의 변화 분석)

  • Park, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Tae-Hoon;Park, Chang-Kyun;Seo, Soo-Hyung;Park, Jin-Seok
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1571-1573
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    • 2003
  • Diamond films including nanocystalline and graphite phase are grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using $N_2$ additives and negative substrate bias at growth step. The microstructure of the films is controlled by changing $N_2$ gas ratio and negative bias. Defects and grain boundaries between diamond and graphite are proposed to be crucial factors for forming the conducting path of electron emissions. The effect of growth parameters on the film microstructure are investigated by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Electron emission characteristics are also examined in terms of the film growth conditions.

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