• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Microwave microscopy

검색결과 109건 처리시간 0.047초

Characteristics of the Diamond Thin Film as the SOD Structure

  • Lee, You-Seong;Lee, Kwang-Man;Ko, Jeong-Dae;Baik, Young-Joon;Chi, Chi-Kyu
    • 한국진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.58-58
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    • 1999
  • The diamond films which can be applied to SOD (silicon-on-diamond) structure were deposited on Si(100) substrate using CO/H2 CH4/H2 source gases by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition(MPCVD), and SOD structure have been fabricated by poly-silicon film deposited on the diamond/Si(100) structure y low pressure chemical vapor deposition(LPCVD). The phase of the diamond film, surface morpholog, and diamond/Si(100) interface were confirmed by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), atomic force microscopy(AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. The dielectric constant, leakage current and resistivity as a function of temperature in films are investigated by C-V and I-V characteristics and four-point probe method. The high quality diamond films without amorphous carbon and non-diamond elements were formed on a Si(100), which could be obtained by CO/H2 and CH4/H2 concentration ratio of 15.3% and 1.5%, respectively. The (111) plane of diamond films was preferentially grown on the Si(100) substrate. The grain size of the films deposited by CO/H2 are gradually increased from 26nm to 36 nm as deposition times increased. The well developed cubo-octahedron 100 structure nd triangle shape 111 are mixed together and make smooth and even film surface. The surface roughness of the diamond films deposited by under the condition of CO/H2 and CH4/H2 concentration ratio of 15.3% and 1.5% were 1.86nm and 3.7 nm, respectively, and the diamond/Si(100) interface was uniform resistivity of the films deposited by CO/H2 concentration ratio of 15.3% are obtained 5.3, 1$\times$10-9 A/cm, 1 MV/cm2, and 7.2$\times$106 $\Omega$cm, respectively. In the case of the films deposited by CH4/H2 resistivity are 5.8, 1$\times$10-9 A/cm, 1 MV/cm, and 8.5$\times$106 $\Omega$cm, respectively. In this study, it is known that the diamond films deposited by using CO/H2 gas mixture as a carbon source are better thane these of CH4/H2 one.

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Evaluation of the inhibitive characteristics of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M $H_2SO_4$

  • Sounthari, P.;Kiruthika, A.;Sai santhoshi, J.;Chitra, S.;Parameswari, K.;Selvaraj, A.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 2013
  • The present investigation deals with the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M $H_2SO_4$ with 1, 4-dihydro pyridine and its derivatives prepared using microwave activation method. The synthesis of inhibitor was confirmed by IR spectra. The effect of 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1M $H_2SO_4$ was studied using weight loss and electrochemical polarization techniques. Influence of temperature (303-333K) and synergistic effect of halide ions ($I^-$, $Br^-$ and $Cl^-$) on the inhibition behaviour was also studied. Corrosion products on the metal surface were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a possible mechanism of inhibition by the compounds is suggested. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated using weight loss data in order to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Polarization measurements revealed that the studied compounds acted as mixed type inhibitor but slightly anodic in nature. Electrochemical impedance measurements revealed that the compounds were adsorbed onto the carbon steel surface and the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The synergistic effect of halide ions on the IE increases with increase in concentration. The IE obtained from atomic absorption spectrophotometric studies was found to be in good agreement with that obtained from the conventional weight loss method. SEM revealed the information of a smooth, dense protective layer in presence of the inhibitors.

In-vitro and In-vivo Biocompatibility Evaluation of Silica Based Bio-active Glass Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

  • Sarkar, Swapan Kumar;Nguyen, Phuong Thi;Lee, Byong-Taek
    • 한국재료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.53.1-53.1
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    • 2011
  • Bioactive glass powders were synthesized by hydrothermal chemical route by the use of ultrasonic energy irradiation. We used sodalime, calcium nitrate tetra hydrate and di ammonium hydrogen phosphate as the precursor material to synthesize $SiO_2$ rich bio-active glass materials. The $SiO_2$ content was varied in the precursor mixture to 60, 52 and 45 mole%. Dense compacts were obtained by microwave sintering at $1,100^{\circ}C$. Mechanical properties were characterized for the fabricated dense bioactive glasses and were found to be comparable with conventional CaO-$SiO_2$-$Na_2O$-$P_2O_5$ bioactive glass. Detailed biocompatibility evaluation of the glass composition was investigated by in-vitro culture of MG-63 cell and mesenchyme stem cell. Cell adhesion behavior was investigated for both of the cell by one cell morphology for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Cell proliferation behavior was investigated by culturing both of the cells for 1, 3 and 7 days and was found to be excellent. Both SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the investigation. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the bimolecular level interaction and extent and rate of specific protein expression. The ability to form biological apatite in physiological condition was observed with simulated body fluid (SBF). In-vivo bone formation behavior was investigated after implanting the materials inside rabbit femur for 1 and 3 month. The bone formation behavior was excellent in all the bioglass compositions, specially the composition with 60% $SiO_2$ content showed most promising trend.

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NH3-SCR performance and characterization over magnetic iron-magnesium mixed oxide catalysts

  • Xu, Liting;Niu, Shengli;Lu, Chunmei;Wang, Dong;Zhang, Kang;Li, Jing
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1576-1583
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    • 2017
  • A series of magnetic iron-magnesium mixed oxide catalysts ($Fe_{1-x}Mg_xO_z$) were synthesized via a novel co-precipitation method with microwave thermal treatment, and their activity in $NH_3$-SCR was tested on a quartz fixedbed reactor. Physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), $N_2$-adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). $Fe_{0.8}Mg_{0.2}O_z$ with excellent $N_2$ selectivity and resistance to $SO_2$ and $H_2O$ was validated as the proper SCR catalyst, with the maximum $NO_x$ conversion of 99.1% fulfilled at $325^{\circ}C$. Activity was strongly influenced by the ${\gamma}-Fe_2O_3$ crystalline phase, and magnesium existed in an amorphous phase and interacted with iron oxide intensively to form solid solution in favor of SCR. For $Fe_{0.8}Mg_{0.2}O_z$ catalyst, optimum pore diameter distribution, appropriate surface area, pore volume and abundant lattice oxygen on the surface could be guaranteed, which is good for the diffusion process and enhances the activity.

$MgTiO_3$산화물 박막의 성장 및 전기적 특성 연구 (Growth and electrical properties of $MgTiO_3$ thin films)

  • 강신충;임왕규;안순홍;노용한;이재찬
    • 한국진공학회지
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2000
  • 광소자와 마이크로파 유전체 소자 및 절연 산화막으로의 응용을 위한 $MgTiO_3$ 박막을 펄스레이저 증착법을 이용하여 다양한 기판 위에서 증착하였다. 사파이어 기판에(c-plane Sapphire) 성장된 $MgTiO_3$ 박막은 에피텍셜 성장(epitaxial growth)이 되었으며, $SiO_2$/Si 및 Pt/Ti/$SiO_2$/Si(plantinzed silicon)기판 위에 성장된 $MgTiO_3$ 박막의 경우, 기판과 관계없이 c축 방향으로 배향(oriented)되었다. 사파이어 기판 위에 증착된 $MgTiO_3$ 박막은 가시영역에서 투명하였으며, 약 290 nm 파장을 갖는 영역에서 급격한 흡수단을 보였다. 사파이어 기판 위에 성장된 박막의 AM(Atomic Force Microscopy)분석결과 약 0.87 nm rms roughness 값을 갖는 매우 평탄한 표면상태를 갖고 있음을 확인하였다. MIM(Pt/$MgTiO_3$/Pt) 구조의 캐패시터를 형성시켜 $MgTiO_3$박막의 유전특성 (dielectric properties)을 관찰하였는데, 펄스레이저 증착법으로 성장된 $MgTiO_3$ 박막의 유전율(relative dielectric constant)은 약 24.5였으며, 1 MHz에서 약 1.5%의 유전손실(dielectric loss) 값을 보였다. 또한 이때 $MgTiO_3$박막은 낮은 유전분산을 보였다.

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계면활성제 첨가에 의한 산화아연의 수열합성과 광촉매 특성 (Effect of Surfactants on ZnO Synthesis by Hydrothermal Method and Photocatalytic Properties)

  • 현혜현;이동규
    • 한국응용과학기술학회지
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2017
  • 금속산화물 반도체 중 하나인 산화아연은 인체에 무해하고 친환경적이며, 우수한 화학적, 열적 안정성의 특성을 지니며 3.37 eV의 넓은 밴드갭 에너지와 60 meV의 높은 엑시톤 바인딩 에너지로 인해 태양전지, 염료페기물의 분해, 가스센서 등 다양한 분야에 응용이 가능한 물질이다. 산화아연은 입자 형상 및 결정성의 변화에 따라 광촉매 활성이 변하게 된다. 따라서, 다양한 실험변수와 첨가제를 사용하여 입자를 합성하는 것이 매우 중요하다. 본 논문에서는 마이크로파 수열합성법을 사용하여 산화아연을 합성하였다. 전구체로는 질산아연을 사용하였고, 수산화나트륨을 사용하여 용액의 pH를 11로 조정하였다. 첨가제로는 계면활성제인 에탄올아민, 세틸트리메틸암모늄브로마이드, 소듐도데실설페이트, 솔비탄모노올레이트를 첨가하였다. 합성된 입자는 별모양, 원추형, 씨드형태, 박막형태의 구형의 형상을 보였다. 합성된 산화아연의 물리 화학적 특성은 XRD, SEM, TGA을 통하여 확인하였고, 광학적 특성은 UV-vis spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy으로 확인하였다.

대식세포가 β-tricalcium Phosphate 뼈이식제의 생분해에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Macrophage on Biodegradation of β-tricalcium Phosphate Bone Graft Substitute)

  • 김영희;;변인선;오익현;민영기;양훈모;이병택;송호연
    • 한국세라믹학회지
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.618-624
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    • 2008
  • Various calcium phosphate bioceramics are distinguished by their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Especially, the exceptional biodegradability of $\beta$-TCP makes it a bone graft substitute of choice in many clinical applications. The activation of osteoclasts, differentiated from macrophage precursor cells, trigger a cell-mediated resorption mechanism that renders $\beta$-TCP biodegradable. Based on this evidence, we studied the biodegradation process of granular-type $\beta$-TCP bone graft substitute through in vitro and in vivo studies. Raw 264.7 cells treated with RANKL and M-CSF differentiated into osteoclasts with macrophage-like properties, as observed with TRAP stain. These osteoclasts were cultured with $\beta$-TCP nano powders synthesized by microwave-assisted process. We confirmed the phagocytosis of osteoclasts by observing $\beta$-TCP particles in their phagosomes via electron microscopy. No damage to the osteoclasts during phagocytosis was observed, nor did the $\beta$-TCP powders show any sign of cytotoxicity. We also observed the histological changes in subcutaneous tissues of rats implanted with granule-type $\beta$-TCP synthesized by fibrous monolithic process. The $\beta$-TCP bone graft substitute was well surrounded with fibrous tissue, and 4 months after implantation, 60% of its mass had been biodegraded. Also, histological findings via H&E stain showed a higher level of infiltration of lymphocytes as well as macrophages around the granule-type $\beta$-TCP. From the results, we have concluded that macrophages play an important role in the biodegradation process of $\beta$-TCP bone graft substitutes.

Analysis of Surface Plasmon Resonance on Periodic Metal Hole Array by Diffraction Orders

  • 황정우;윤수진;강상우;노삼규;이상준
    • 한국진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.176-177
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    • 2013
  • Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have attracted the attention of scientists and engineers involved in a wide area of research, microscopy, diagnostics and sensing. SPPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor, usually metals. These are essentially light waves that are trapped on the surface because of their interaction with the free electrons of conductor. In this interaction, the free electrons respond collectively by oscillating in resonance with the light wave. The resonant interaction between the surface charge oscillation and the electromagnetic field of the light constitutes the SPPs and gives rise to its unique properties. In this papers, we studied theoretical and experimental extraordinary transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) of 2 dimensional metal hole array (2D-MHA) on GaAs in consideration of the diffraction orders. The 2d-MHAs was fabricated using ultra-violet photolithography, electron-beam evaporation and standard lift-off process with pitches ranging from 1.8 to $3.2{\mu}m$ and diameter of half of pitch, and was deposited 5-nm thick layer of titanium (Ti) as an adhesion layer and 50-nm thick layer of gold (Au) on the semiinsulating GaAs substrate. We employed both the commercial software (CST Microwave Studio: Computer Simulation Technology GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) based on a finite integration technique (FIT) and a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to calculate transmittance and reflectance. The transmittance was measured at a normal incident, and the reflectance was measured at variable incident angle of range between $30^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}$ with a Nicolet Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a KBr beam splitter and a MCT detector. For MHAs of pitch (P), the peaks ${\lambda}$ max in the normal incidence transmittance spectra can be indentified approximately from SP dispersion relation, that is frequency-dependent SP wave vector (ksp). Shown in Fig. 1 is the transmission of P=2.2 um sample at normal incidence. We attribute the observation to be a result of FTIR system may be able to collect the transmitted light with higher diffraction order than 0th order. This is confirmed by calculations: for the MHAs, diffraction efficiency in (0, 0) diffracted orders is lower than in the (${\pm}x$, ${\pm}y$) diffracted orders. To further investigate the result, we calculated the angular dependent transmission of P=2.2 um sample (Fig. 2). The incident angle varies from 30o to 70o with a 10o increment. We also found the splitting character on reflectance measurement. The splitting effect is considered a results of SPPs assisted diffraction process by oblique incidence.

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RF and Optical properties of Graphene Oxide

  • 임주환;;윤형서;오주영;정영모;박형구;전성찬
    • 한국재료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.68.1-68.1
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    • 2012
  • The best part of graphene is - charge-carriers in it are mass less particles which move in near relativistic speeds. Comparing to other materials, electrons in graphene travel much faster - at speeds of $10^8cm/s$. A graphene sheet is pure enough to ensure that electrons can travel a fair distance before colliding. Electronic devices few nanometers long that would be able to transmit charge at breath taking speeds for a fraction of power compared to present day CMOS transistors. Many researches try to check a possibility to make it a perfect replacement for silicon based devices. Graphene has shown high potential to be used as interconnects in the field of high frequency electrical devices. With all those advantages of graphene, we demonstrate characteristics of electrical and optical properties of graphene such as the effect of graphene geometry on the microwave properties using the measurements of S-parameter in range of 500 MHz - 40 GHz at room temperature condition. We confirm that impedance and resistance decrease with increasing the number of graphene layer and w/L ratio. This result shows proper geometry of graphene to be used as high frequency interconnects. This study also presents the optical properties of graphene oxide (GO), which were deposited in different substrate, or influenced by oxygen plasma, were confirmed using different characterization techniques. 4-6 layers of the polycrystalline GO layers, which were confirmed by High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction analysis, were shown short range order of crystallization by the substrate as well as interlayer effect with an increase in interplanar spacing, which can be attributed to the presence of oxygen functional groups on its layers. X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ hybridization due to the disordered crystal structures of the carbon atoms results from oxidation, and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and XPS analysis shows the changes in oxygen functional groups with nature of substrate. Moreover, the photoluminescent (PL) peak emission wavelength varies with substrate and the broad energy level distribution produces excitation dependent PL emission in a broad wavelength ranging from 400 to 650 nm. The structural and optical properties of oxygen plasma treated GO films for possible optoelectronic applications were also investigated using various characterization techniques. HRTEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the oxygen plasma treatment results short range order crystallization in GO films with an increase in interplanar spacing, which can be attributed to the presence of oxygen functional groups. In addition, Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the $sp^2$ and $sp^3$ hybridization due to the disordered crystal structures of the carbon atoms results from oxidation and XPS analysis shows that epoxy pairs convert to more stable C=O and O-C=O groups with oxygen plasma treatment. The broad energy level distribution resulting from the broad size distribution of the $sp^2$ clusters produces excitation dependent PL emission in a broad wavelength range from 400 to 650 nm. Our results suggest that substrate influenced, or oxygen treatment GO has higher potential for future optoelectronic devices by its various optical properties and visible PL emission.

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