• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microorganisms

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PCR-DGGE as a Supplemental Method Verifying Dominance of Culturable Microorganisms from Activated Sludge

  • Zhou, Sheng;Wei, Chaohai;Ke, Lin;Wu, Haizhen
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1592-1596
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    • 2010
  • To verify the dominance of microorganisms in wastewater biological treatment, PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) was performed as a supplementary support method for screening of the dominant microorganisms from activated sludge. Results suggest that the dominant microorganisms in activated sludge are primarily responsible for strengthening its effectiveness as a biological treatment system, followed by the non-main dominant microorganisms, whereas the non-dominant microorganisms showed no effects. The degree of microbial abundance present on the profile of PCR-DGGE was in line with the treatment efficiency of augmented activated sludge with isolated cultures, suggesting that PCR-DGGE can be used as an effective supplementary method for verifying culturable dominant microorganisms in activated sludge of coking wastewater.

The world data center on microorganisms

  • Sugawara, Hideaki
    • The Microorganisms and Industry
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 1989
  • It is our common understanding that biological materials like microorganisms, tissue and cell cultures, seeds, plants and animals are inevitable resources for the development of science and technology. Culture collections which are reservior of biological materials now occupy a central position in life sciences and biotechnology. The World Data Center of Microorganisms (WDC) is a infrastructure of culture collections in the world realizing quick and smooth exchanges of information and microorganisms to support research and development in those fields. The WDC was relocated from University of Queensland in Australia to out institute RIKEN in 1986. This article introduces a function for WDC in RIKEN (RIKAGAKU-KENKYUUSHO, the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research)

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Alpine Microorganisms: Useful Tools for Low-Temperature Bioremediation

  • Margesin, Rosa
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.281-285
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    • 2007
  • Cold environments, including polar and alpine regions, are colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms able to thrive at low temperatures. There is evidence of a wide range of metabolic activities in alpine cold ecosystems. Like polar microorganisms, alpine microorganisms playa key ecological role in their natural habitats for nutrient cycling, litter degradation, and many other processes. A number of studies have demonstrated the capacity of alpine microorganisms to degrade efficiently a wide range of hydrocarbons, including phenol, phenol-related compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons, and the feasibility of low-temperature bioremediation of European alpine soils by stimulating the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms has also been shown.

TPH Removal of the Biodegradation Process Using 4 Indigenous Microorganisms for the Diesel Contaminated Soil in a Military Camp (디젤로 오염된 군부대 토양에 대하여 토착미생물 4종을 이용한 생분해법의 TPH 제거 효율 규명)

  • Park, Min-Ho;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2012
  • Batch experiments using indigenous and commercialized adventive microorganisms were performed to investigate the feasibility of the biodegradation process for the diesel contaminated soil, which was taken in US Military Camp 'Hialeah', Korea. TPH concentration of the soil was determined as 3,819 mg/kg. Four indigenous microorganisms having high TPH degradation activity were isolated from the soil and by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, they were identified as Arthrobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., Cupriavidus sp. and Bacillus sp.. Two kinds of commercialized solutions cultured with adventive microorganisms were also used for the experiments. Various biodegradation conditions such as the amount of microorganism, water content and the temperature were applied to decide the optimal bioavailability condition in the experiments. In the case of soils without additional microorganisms (on the natural attenuation condition), 35% of initial TPH was removed from the soil by inhabitant microorganisms in soil for 30 days. When the commercialized microorganism cultured solutions were added into the soil, their average TPH removal efficiencies were 64%, and 54%, respectively, which were higher than that without additional microorganisms. When indigenous microorganisms isolated from the contaminated soil were added into the soil, TPH removal efficiency increased up to 95% (for Bacillus sp.). According to the calculation of the average biodegradation rates for Bacillus sp., the remediation goal (87% of the removal efficiency: 500 mg/kg) for the soil would reach within 24 days. Results suggested that TPH removal efficiency of biodegradation by injecting indigenous microorganisms is better than those by injecting commercialized adventive microorganisms and only by using the natural attenuation.

Selection of Antagonistic Microorganisms against Plant Pathogens from Eco-friendly Formulations (친환경 제제로부터 식물병원균에 대한 길항 미생물의 선발)

  • Gang, Guen-Hye;Cha, Jae-Yul;Heo, Bit-Na;Yi, Og-Sun;Lee, Yong-Bok;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: Some microorganisms extant in nature have ability to suppress various plant pathogens, and also can promote plant growth. Thus microorganisms are such great source of antimicrobial agents to develop antagonistic microorganism production and eco-friendly crop management. We isolated the microorganisms in various eco-friendly formulations. The suppressive abilities against plant pathogens have been characterized in vitro level. METHODS AND RESULTS: The indigenous microorganisms have been isolated from Cooked rice, Black sugar, Rice Bran, and Red clay using dilution plating method. Population of bacteria and fungi were above 107 in the all formulations. We isolated and pure cultured the microorganisms based on morphological characteristics. Three major plant pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora capsici) have been used to select antagonistic microorganisms. Total 20 bacteria and 9 fungi showed the pathogen growth suppression ability in vitro condition. The selected microorganisms were identified by ITS sequence similarity. CONCLUSION: All tested eco-friendly formulations contained high-density of the microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms, Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces spp. showed the most effective antifungal activity against the plant pathogens such as F. oxysporum, R. solani, and P. capsici. Among the selected fungi Trichoderma sp. demonstrated antifungal activity. Our results suggest that the currently adapted eco-friendly formulations might useful for sustain agricultural system.

Indicator Microorganisms Used as Fecal Contamination in Aquatic Environments (수계환경에서 분변성 오염의 지표로 사용되는 미생물들)

  • 이건형
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2002
  • The direct detection of intestinal pathogens and viruses often requires costly, tedious, and time-consuming procedures. These requirements developed a test to show that the water was contaminated with sewage-borne pathogens by assessing the hygienic quality of water based on indicator microorganisms whose presence indicates that pathogenic microorganisms may also be present. Various groups of microorganisms have been suggested and used as indicator microorganisms. Proposed and commonly used microbial indicators are total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, bacteriophage, and so on. Unfortunately, most, if not all, of these indicators are not ideal because of the sensitivity and resistance to environment stresses and disinfection. However, the development of gene probes and PCR technology may give hope for the discovery of rapid and simple methods toy detecting small number of fecal pathogens in various environments.

Analysis of the Survey on the Consumer's Knowledge and Laundry Habits to Microorganisms Living in Clothing (의류 중의 미생물에 대한 소비자의 지식과 세탁습관 실태조사 분석)

  • 최해운;정찬진;박명자
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.781-792
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    • 2002
  • Microorganisms living in clothing cause damage to fabric as well as unhygienic conditions with unpleasant odor fur wearers. Removal or growth of microorganisms are affected by the conditions during washing and storage. The purpose of this research was to study the consumer's knowledge and habits in laundering with respect to microorganisms in clothing. For survey method, questionnaires were administered to 580 housewives, age of 20∼60s living in Seoul. Employing 479 respondents, the data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results are as follows: The level of knowledge about microorganisms of clothing was high in general, but wasn't expert level. Many people had experienced damages of textiles, clothing and unpleasant odor due to microorganisms. Fabric softeners and bleaches were rarely used for disinfection but usually used for antistatic, whitening or removal of stains. There was no relationship between laundering habits, the knowledge of microorganism, and experience of clothing damage by microorganism.

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Isolation of Soil Microorganisms Having Antibacterial Activity and Antimigratory Effects on Sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced Migration of PANC-1 Cells

  • Kang, Jun-Hee;Park, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Ji;Kim, Yu-Ri;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2011
  • To obtain soil microorganisms producing antimigratory activity which is important in controlling the metastasis of cancer cells, more than three hundreds of soil microbes were isolated from sixteen soil sources including Namsan mountain and designated as DGU1001-10338. At first, their antibiotic activities were examined by paper-disc method. More than 40 soil microbes produced compounds with antibiotic activity. Then, antimigratory activities of selected soil microorganisms were examined in a sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced migration assay in PANC-1 cells. Six of 42 soil microorganisms having antibacterial activity also had more than 45% inhibitory activity on migration of PANC-1 cells. These results suggested that selected soil microorganisms were a useful starting point to find compounds for controlling metastasis of cancer cells.

Antimicrobial Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Microorganisms (이산화탄소의 항균 효과)

  • 홍석인;변유량
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1258-1267
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    • 1997
  • Corbon dioxide id effective for extending the shelf-life of perishable foods by retarding microbial growth. The overall effect of carbon dioxide is to increase both the lag phase and generation time of microorganisms. However, the role of carbon dioxide in affecting the growth and metabolism of any given microorganisms is not clear yet, although its inhibitory effect is generally found at moderate to high concentrations. Systematic studies of the effects of carbon dioxide on microorganisms are therefore warranted. It is also necessary to understand the role of carbon dioxide in the preservation of foods as well as the control by carbon dioxide of fermentations of biotechnological importance. In this review, the antimicrobial effect of carbon dioxide on microorganisms is investigated in terms of its gas and solution properties, inhibition of microbial growth and specific metabolic processes, perturbation of membrane structure.

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Effect of biofilm formation, and biocorrosion on denture base fractures

  • Sahin, Cem;Ergin, Alper;Ayyildiz, Simel;Cosgun, Erdal;Uzun, Gulay
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to investigate the destructive effects of biofilm formation and/or biocorrosive activity of 6 different oral microorganisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three different heat polymerized acrylic resins (Ivocap Plus, Lucitone 550, QC 20) were used to prepare three different types of samples. Type "A" samples with "V" type notch was used to measure the fracture strength, "B" type to evaluate the surfaces with scanning electron microscopy and "C" type for quantitative biofilm assay. Development and calculation of biofilm covered surfaces on denture base materials were accomplished by SEM and quantitative biofilm assay. According to normality assumptions ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis was selected for statistical analysis (${\alpha}$=0.05). RESULTS. Significant differences were obtained among the adhesion potential of 6 different microorganisms and there were significant differences among their adhesion onto 3 different denture base materials. Compared to the control groups after contamination with the microorganisms, the three point bending test values of denture base materials decreased significantly (P<.05); microorganisms diffused at least 52% of the denture base surface. The highest median quantitative biofilm value within all the denture base materials was obtained with P. aeruginosa on Lucitone 550. The type of denture base material did not alter the diffusion potential of the microorganisms significantly (P>.05). CONCLUSION. All the tested microorganisms had destructive effect over the structure and composition of the denture base materials.