• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microbial diversity

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Deciphering Diversity Indices for a Better Understanding of Microbial Communities

  • Kim, Bo-Ra;Shin, Jiwon;Guevarra, Robin B.;Lee, Jun Hyung;Kim, Doo Wan;Seol, Kuk-Hwan;Lee, Ju-Hoon;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Isaacson, Richard E.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.2089-2093
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    • 2017
  • The past decades have been a golden era during which great tasks were accomplished in the field of microbiology, including food microbiology. In the past, culture-dependent methods have been the primary choice to investigate bacterial diversity. However, using culturein-dependent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes has greatly facilitated studies exploring the microbial compositions and dynamics associated with health and diseases. These culture-independent DNA-based studies generate large-scale data sets that describe the microbial composition of a certain niche. Consequently, understanding microbial diversity becomes of greater importance when investigating the composition, function, and dynamics of the microbiota associated with health and diseases. Even though there is no general agreement on which diversity index is the best to use, diversity indices have been used to compare the diversity among samples and between treatments with controls. Tools such as the Shannon-Weaver index and Simpson index can be used to describe population diversity in samples. The purpose of this review is to explain the principles of diversity indices, such as Shannon-Weaver and Simpson, to aid general microbiologists in better understanding bacterial communities. In this review, important questions concerning microbial diversity are addressed. Information from this review should facilitate evidence-based strategies to explore microbial communities.

Bacterial diversity and its relationship to growth performance of broilers

  • Bae, Yeonji;Koo, Bonsang;Lee, Seungbaek;Mo, Jongsuk;Oh, Kwanghyun;Mo, In Pil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2017
  • The microbial community is known to have a key role during the rearing period of broilers. In this study, gut microbial composition and diversity were examined to evaluate the relationships between these factors and broiler growth performance. By applying 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, six fecal samples from four- and 28-day-old chickens from three broiler farms and 24 intestinal samples of broilers with heavy and light body weights were analyzed. Microbial composition assessment revealed Firmicutes to be the most prevalent phylum at farm A, while Proteobacteria were predominant at farms B and C. Fecal microbial richness and diversity indices gradually increased from four to 28 days at all three farms. Microbial diversity assessment revealed that small intestine microbial diversity was lower in heavy birds than in light birds. In light birds, the Firmicutes proportion was lower than that in heavy birds. In conclusion, each broiler farm revealed a specific microbial profile which varied with the age of the birds. The microbial communities appeared to affect growth performance; therefore, gut microbial profiles can be utilized to monitor growth performance at broiler farms.

Metagenome, the Untapped Microbial Genome, toward Discovery of Novel Microbial Resources and Application into the Plant Pathology

  • Lee, Seon-Woo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 2005
  • Molecular ecological studies of microbial communities revealed that only tiny fraction of total microorganisms in nature have been identified and characterized, because the majority of them have not been cultivated. A concept, metagenome, represents the total microbial genome in natural ecosystem consisting of genomes from both culturable microorganisms and viable but non-culturable bacteria. The construction and screening of metagenomic libraries in culturable bacteria constitute a valuable resource for obtaining novel microbial genes and products. Several novel enzymes and antibiotics have been identified from the metagenomic approaches in many different microbial communities. Phenotypic analysis of the introduced unknown genes in culturable bacteria could be an important way for functional genomics of unculturable bacteria. However, estimation of the number of clones required to uncover the microbial diversity from various environments has been almost impossible due to the enormous microbial diversity and various microbial population structure. Massive construction of metagenomic libraries and development of high throughput screening technology should be necessary to obtain valuable microbial resources. This paper presents the recent progress in metagenomic studies including our results and potential of metagenomics in plant pathology and agriculture.

Temporal and Spatial Change in Microbial Diversity in New-developed Wetland Soil Covered by Tamarix chinesis Community in Chinese Yellow River Delta

  • Chen Weifeng;Ann Seoung-Won;Kim Hong-Nam;Shi Yanxi;Mi Qinghua
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.367-371
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    • 2005
  • Soil samples were collected from new-developed wetland soil ecosystem of Tamarix chinesis plantation in Chinese Yellow River Delta in different months of 2003. Soil characteristics, temporal change and spatial distribution of microbial community composition and their relationship with nitrogen turnover and circling were investigated in order to analyze and characterize the role of microbial diversity and functioning in the specific soil ecosystem. The result showed that the total population of microbial community in the studied soil was considerably low, compared with common natural ecosystem. The amount of microorganism followed as the order: bacteria> actinomycetes>fungi. Amount of actinomycetes were higher by far than that of fungi. Microbial population remarkably varied in different months. Microbial population of three species in top horizon was corrected to that in deep horizon. Obvious rhizosphere effect was observed and microbial population was significantly higher in rhizosphere than other soils due to vegetation growth, root exudation, and cumulative dead fine roots. Our results demonstrate that microbial diversity is low, while is dominated by specific community in the wetland ecosystem of Tamarix chinesi.

Effects of cultivation ages and modes on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soil of Panax ginseng

  • Xiao, Chunping;Yang, Limin;Zhang, Lianxue;Liu, Cuijing;Han, Mei
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2016
  • Background: Panax ginseng cannot be cultivated on the same land consecutively for an extended period, and the underlying mechanism regarding microorganisms is still being explored. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and BIO-LOG methods were used to evaluate the microbial genetic and functional diversity associated with the P. ginseng rhizosphere soil in various cultivation ages and modes. Results: The analysis of microbial diversity using PCR-DGGE showed that microbial communities were significantly variable in composition, of which six bacterial phyla and seven fungal classes were detected in P. ginseng soil. Among them, Proteobacteria and Hypocreales dominated. Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne pathogen, was found in all P. ginseng soil samples except R0. The results from functional diversity suggested that the microbial metabolic diversity of fallow soil abandoned in 2003was the maximum and transplanted soil was higher than direct-seeding soil and the forest soil uncultivated P. ginseng, whereas the increase in cultivation ages in the same mode led to decreases in microbial diversity in P. ginseng soil. Carbohydrates, amino acids, and polymers were the main carbon sources utilized. Furthermore, the microbial diversity index and multivariate comparisons indicated that the augmentation of P. ginseng cultivation ages resulted in decreased bacterial diversity and increased fungal diversity, whereas microbial diversity was improved strikingly in transplanted soil and fallow soil abandoned for at least one decade. Conclusion: The key factors for discontinuous P. ginseng cultivation were the lack of balance in rhizosphere microbial communities and the outbreak of soilborne diseases caused by the accumulation of its root exudates.

An Overview of Different Techniques on the Microbial Community Structure, and Functional Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria

  • Kim, Kiyoon;Islam, Rashedul;Benson, Abitha;Joe, Manoharan Melvin;Denver, Walitang;Chanratan, Mak;Chatterjee, Poulami;Kang, Yeongyeong;Sa, Tongmin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.144-156
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    • 2016
  • Soil is a dynamic biological system, in which it is difficult to determine the composition of microbial communities. Knowledge of microbial diversity and function in soils are limited because of the taxonomic and methodological limitations associated with studying the organisms. In this review, approaches to measure microbial diversity in soil were discussed. Research on soil microbes can be categorized as structural diversity, functional diversity and genetic diversity studies, and these include cultivation based and cultivation independent methods. Cultivation independent technique to evaluate soil structural diversity include different techniques such as Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis. Carbon source utilization pattern of soil microorganisms by Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP), catabolic responses by Substrate Induced Respiration technique (SIR) and soil microbial enzyme activities are discussed. Genetic diversity of soil microorganisms using molecular techniques such as 16S rDNA analysis Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) / Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP), Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) / Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) are also discussed. The chapter ends with a final conclusion on the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques and advances in molecular techniques to study the soil microbial diversity.

Importance of microbial diversity

  • Ahn, Tae-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Zoological Society Korea Conference
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    • pp.88-88
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    • 1995
  • Microorganism are centIal core to biosphere sm1ainablity and biogeochemical cycles on this earth. Most of food, medical and pabamceutical new materials through biotechnology are derived from many kinds of microorganisms. Microorganisms are important resources of biotechnology. Beside these, micorbial diversity is key to explore the frontiers of knowledge about the strategies and limits of life. Through the micorotganisms, we can monitor the environmental changes and conditions. Moreover, the microorganismsms play a role in conservation and restoration of higher plants and animals. And we can get a lot of ecological, evolutionary knowledges from microbial models. In spite of these importances, the microbial diversity is not properly evaluted because of their unculturablity. Only 0.001 - 3 % of total bacteria in natural habitats are cultumble and the rest are viable but uncultumble. Only 3,100 species are listed up in the Bergey's Manual. Considering the symbisis and estimated numbers of insect are more than 800,000, the symbiotic microorganisms are about 1,000,000 species. Recently, by using the genetic and molecular technics, the microbial diversity is now unveiled. In this symposium, the genetic, species and ecological diversity will be given. given.

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Rhizospheric fungi of Panax notoginseng: diversity and antagonism to host phytopathogens

  • Miao, Cui-Ping;Mi, Qi-Li;Qiao, Xin-Guo;Zheng, You-Kun;Chen, You-Wei;Xu, Li-Hua;Guan, Hui-Lin;Zhao, Li-Xing
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2016
  • Background: Rhizospheric fungi play an essential role in the plantesoil ecosystem, affecting plant growth and health. In this study, we evaluated the fungal diversity in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old healthy Panax notoginseng cultivated in Wenshan, China. Methods: Culture-independent Illumina MiSeq and culture-dependent techniques, combining molecular and morphological characteristics, were used to analyze the rhizospheric fungal diversity. A diffusion test was used to challenge the phytopathogens of P. notoginseng. Results: A total of 16,130 paired-end reads of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were generated and clustered into 860 operational taxonomic units at 97% sequence similarity. All the operational taxonomic units were assigned to five phyla and 79 genera. Zygomycota (46.2%) and Ascomycota (37.8%) were the dominant taxa; Mortierella and unclassified Mortierellales accounted for a large proportion (44.9%) at genus level. The relative abundance of Fusarium and Phoma sequenceswas high, accounting for 12.9% and 5.5%, respectively. In total,113 fungal isolates were isolated from rhizosphere soil. They were assigned to five classes, eight orders (except for an Incertae sedis), 26 genera, and 43 species based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer. Fusarium was the most isolated genus with six species (24 isolates, 21.2%). The abundance of Phoma was also relatively high (8.0%). Thirteen isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one test fungus. Conclusion: Our results suggest that diverse fungi including potential pathogenic ones exist in the rhizosphere soil of 2-yr-old P. notoginseng and that antagonistic isolates may be useful for biological control of pathogens.

Microbial population dynamics in constructed wetlands: Review of recent advancements for wastewater treatment

  • Rajan, Rajitha J.;Sudarsan, J.S.;Nithiyanantham, S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2019
  • Constructed wetlands are improvised man-made systems, designed for adopting the principle of natural wetlands for purifying wastewater - the elixir of life. They are used widely as a cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for treating greywater generated from different tertiary treatment sources. It provides an elaborate platform for research activities in an attempt to recycle earth's natural resources. Among the several organic impurities removal mechanisms existing in constructed wetland systems, the earth's active microbial population plays a vital role. This review deals with the recent advancements in constructed wetland systems from a microbiological perspective to (effect/ devise/ formulate) chemical and physical treatment for water impurities. It focuses on microbial diversity studies in constructed wetlands, influence of wetland media on microbial diversity and wetland performance, role of specific microbes in water reuse, removal of trace elements, some heavy metals and antibiotics in constructed wetlands. The impurities removal processes in constructed wetlands is achieved by combined interactive systems such as selected plant species, nature of substrate used for microbial diversity and several biogeochemical effected reaction cycles in wetland systems. Therefore, the correlation studies that have been conducted by earlier researchers in microbial diversity in wetlands are addressed herewith.