• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microbial biomass

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Determination of Microbial Growth by Protein Assay in an Air-Cathode Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

  • Li, Na;Kakarla, Ramesh;Moon, Jung Mi;Min, Booki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.1114-1118
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    • 2015
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gathered attention as a novel bioenergy technology to simultaneously treat wastewater with less sludge production than the conventional activated sludge system. In two different operations of the MFC and aerobic process, microbial growth was determined by the protein assay method and their biomass yields using real wastewater were compared. The biomass yield on the anode electrode of the MFC was 0.02 g-COD-cell/gCOD-substrate and the anolyte planktonic biomass was 0.14 g-COD-cell/g-COD-substrate. An MFC without anode electrode resulted in the biomass yield of 0.07 ± 0.03 g-COD-cell/g-CODsubstrate, suggesting that oxygen diffusion from the cathode possibly supported the microbial growth. In a comparative test, the biomass yield under aerobic environment was 0.46 ± 0.07 g-COD-cell/g-COD-substrate, which was about 3 times higher than the total biomass value in the MFC operation.

Effect of Oyster Shell Meal on Improving Soil Microbiological Activity (굴패화석 비료 시용이 토양의 생물학적 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ha, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Lee, Do-Kyoung;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.281-286
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    • 2005
  • The effect of oyster shell meal, which is made of a simple crushing and alkaline calcium materials, on soil microbial properties, microbial biomass C, N and P contents, and enzyme activities were evaluated in silt loam soil. The oyster shell meal fertilizer was added at the rates of 0, 4, 8, 12 and $16Mg\;ha^{-1}$. Microbial biomass C, N and P contents were significantly increased with increasing application of oyster shell meal. Soil enzyme activities, such as urease, ${\beta}$-glucosidase and alkaline phosphomonesterase were increased significantly by shell meal application, due to increased soil pH towards neutral range and increased nutrient availability in soil. In particular, the increased microbial biomass P content and phosphomonoesterase activities were strongly correlated with available P content in soil. Conclusively, oyster shell meal fertilizer could be a good supplement to improve soil microbial activities.

Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial activities and litter decomposition

  • Lim, Sung-Min;Cha, Sang-Seob;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2011
  • We assayed the effects of simulated acid rain on the mass loss, $CO_2$ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial biomass-C of decomposing Sorbus alnifolia leaf litter at the microcosm. The dilute sulfuric acid solution composed the simulated acid rain, and the microcosm decomposition experiment was performed at 23$^{\circ}C$ and 40% humidity. During the early decomposition stage, decomposition rate of S. alnifolia leaf litter, and microbial biomass, $CO_2$ evolution and dehydrogenase activity were inhibited at a lower pH; however, during the late decomposition stage, these characteristics were not affected by pH level. The fungal component of the microbial community was conspicuous at lower pH levels and at the late decomposition stage. Conversely, the bacterial community was most evident during the initial decomposition phase and was especially dominant at higher pH levels. These changes in microbial community structure resulting from changes in microcosm acidity suggest that pH is an important aspect in the maintenance of the decomposition process. Litter decomposition exhibited a positive, linear relationship with both microbial respiration and microbial biomass. Fungal biomass exhibited a significant, positive relationship with $CO_2$ evolution from the decaying litter. Acid rain had a significant effect on microbial biomass and microbial community structure according to acid tolerance of each microbial species. Fungal biomass and decomposition activities were not only more important at a low pH than at a high pH but also fungal activity, such as $CO_2$ evolution, was closely related with litter decomposition rate.

Impact of Slash and Burning on Microbial Biomass in Semi-Evergreen Tropical Deciduous Forest of Manipur, North-East India

  • Yadava, P.S.;Devi, A.Sarjubala
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 2004
  • The impact of slash and burning on microbial biomass C, N and P in soils of semi-evergreen tropical deciduous forest were studied from February 1999 to January 2000. The experimental sites were located near Moreh town in the Chandel district of Manipur state (India) along the Indo-Myanmar border between 23° 49' N-24°28'N latitude and 93°45'E-94°16'E longitude. Microbial biomass C ranged from 319.50 ㎍ g/sup -1/ 905.50㎍ g/sup -1/ in the slash and burnt site and from 209.50 ㎍ g/sup -1/ to 708.80 ㎍ g/sup -1/ soil in the forest site. Microbial N ranged from 19.30 ㎍ g/sup -1/ to 99.45 ㎍ g/sup -1/ in the slash and burnt site and from 16.08㎍ g/sup -1/ to 88.90 ㎍ g/sup -1/ in the forest site. Microbial P varied from 10.90 ㎍ g/sup -1/ to 32.21 ㎍ g/sup -1/ in the slash and burnt site and from 2.50 ㎍ g/sup -1/ to 17.60 ㎍ g/sup -1/ in the forest site in different months throughout the year. Microbial biomass C, N and P were recorded to be higher in the slash and burnt site compared to the forest site The conversion of forest into slash and burnt site for agriculture - the traditional shilling cultivation practiced by tribal people in the north- eastern India leads to addition of large amount of organic matter in the soil thereby exhibiting higher values of microbial biomass C, N and P in the recent slash and burnt site than that of the forest site. Relationship between the soil moisture, soil organic C and microbial biomass C, N and P were found to be correlated significantly in both the sites.

Studies on the Microbial Population and the Amylase Activity of the Forest Soil (삼림토양의 미생물군집과 아밀라아제 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hee-Sun;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 1994
  • Soil condition, total number of bacteria, soil amylase activity and microbial biomass $(CO_2-C)$ were measured at soil of different forest types. And the difference of the allelopathic effect was determined between fresh leaf extract of Quercus acutissima and Pinus rigida to the bacteria isolated from soil of different forest types. 1. Total number of bacteria in Carpinus laxiflora forest soil was 4~7 times larger than that in pinus desiflora forest soil. 2. Soil amylase activity was positively correlated with total number of soil bacteria and soil organic matter content. The amylase activity at F layer was 4~5 times larger than that at H layer, and that at H layer was 2~4 times larger than that at A layer. 3. Seasonal changes of microbial biomass showed a peak in summer, and vertical distribution of microbial biomass decreased with increasing soil depth. The microbial biomass in Pinus densiflora forest soil was larger than that in Quercus serrata forest soil. 4. Fresh leaf extract of Pinus rigida and Quercus acutissima showed an acceleration or inhibition effect on the growth of soil bacteria, and that of !. acutissima inhibited larger number of soil bacterial strains than that of P. rigida. 4.2% and 25% of soil bacterial strains isolated from soil of P. rigida and Q. acutissima forests were inhibited by fresh leaf extract of P. rigida and Q. acutissima, respectively.

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Influence of Soil Microbial Biomass on Growth and Biocontrol Efficac of Trichoderma harzianum

  • Bae, Yeoung-Seuk;Guy R. Kundsen;Louise-Marie C. Dandurand
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2002
  • The hyphal growth and biocontrol efficacy of Trichodemo harzianum in soil may depend on its interactions with biotic components of the soil environment. The effect of soil microbial biomass on growth and biocontrol efficacy of T. hanianum isolate ThzIDl-M3 (green fluorescent protein transformant) was investigated using artificially prepared different levels of soil microbial biomass (153,328, or 517ug biomass carbon per g of dry soil; BC). The hyphal growth of T. harzanum was significantly inhibited in the soil with 328 or 517 $\mu$g BC compared with 153 ug BC. When ThzIDl-M3 was added to the soils as an alginate pellet formulation, the recoverable population of ThzIDl-M3 varied, but the highest population occurred in 517ug BC. Addition of alginate pellets of ThzIDl-M3 to the soils (10 per 50 g) resulted in increased indigenous microbial populations (total fungi, bacterial fluorescent Pseudomonas app., and actinomycetes). Furthermore, colonizing ability of ThzIDl-M3 on sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was significantly reduced in the soil with high revel of BC. These results suggest that increased soil microbial biomass contributes to increased interactions between introduced T. harzianum and soil microorganisms, consequently reducing the biocontrol efficacy of 1T. harzianum.

Enhancing the Anaerobic Digestion of Corn Stalks Using Composite Microbial Pretreatment

  • Yuan, Xufeng;Li, Peipei;Wang, Hui;Wang, Xiaofen;Cheng, Xu;Cui, Zongjun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.746-752
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    • 2011
  • A composite microbial system (XDC-2) was used to pretreat and hydrolyze corn stalk to enhance anaerobic digestion. The results of pretreatment indicated that sCOD concentrations of hydrolysate were highest (8,233 mg/l) at the fifth day. XDC-2 efficiently degraded the corn stalk by nearly 45%, decreasing the cellulose content by 22.7% and the hemicellulose content by 74.1%. Total levels of volatile products peaked on the fifth day. The six major compounds present were ethanol (0.29 g/l), acetic acid (0.55 g/l), 1,2-ethanediol (0.49 g/l), propionic acid (0.15 g/l), butyric acid (0.22 g/l), and glycerine (2.48 g/l). The results of anaerobic digestion showed that corn stalks treated by XDC-2 produced 68.3% more total biogas and 87.9% more total methane than untreated controls. The technical digestion time for the treated corn stalks was 35.7% shorter than without treatment. The composite microbial system pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly microbial method for efficient biological conversion of corn stalk into bioenergy.

The effect of simulated acid rain on microbial community structure in decomposing leaf litter

  • Cha, Sangsub;Lim, Sung-Min;Amirasheba, Bahitkul;Shim, Jae-Kuk
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.223-233
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    • 2013
  • Acid deposition is one of the most serious environmental problems in ecosystems. The present study surveyed the effects of simulated acid rain on leaf litter mass loss and microbial community in the decomposing leaf litter of Sorbus anifolia in a microcosm at $23^{\circ}C$ and 40% humidity. Microbial biomass was measured by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), and the microbial community structures were determined by composition of PLFAs at each interval of decomposition in litter sample and at each pH treatment. The microbial biomass showed peaks at mid-stage of decomposition, decreasing at the late stage. The leaf litter mass loss of S. anifolia decreased with decreasing pH during early and mid-decomposition stages; however the mass loss becomes similar between pH treatments at late-decomposition stage. The acidification remarkably lowers the microbial biomass of bacteria and fungi; however, microbial diversity was unchanged between pH treatments at each stage of litter decomposition. With changes of decomposition stage and pH treatment there were considerable differences in replacement and compensation of microbial species. Fungi/bacteria ratio was considerably changed by pH treatment. The PLFA profile showed significantly larger fungi/bacteria ratio at pH 5 than pH 3 at the early stage of decomposition, and the difference becomes smaller at the later decomposition stage. At low pH, pH 3 and pH 4, the fungi/bacteria ratios were stable according to the litter decomposition stages. Simulated acid rain caused decreases of 10Me17:0, 16:1${\omega}$7c, 18:1${\omega}$7, 15:0, but increase of 24:0. In addition, litter mass loss showed significant positive correlation with microbial biomass measured by SIR and PLFA on the decomposing leaf litter.

Effects of Soil Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Activities and Litter Decomposition (토양 내 질소 증가가 미생물 활성 및 식물체의 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Chae, Hee Myung;Lee, Sang Hoon;Cha, Sang Sub;Shim, Jae Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.276-288
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigates the effects of elevated soil nitrogen on growth and decomposition of Oryza sativa shoots. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse until leaf senescence and the total biomass of the plant increased 1.9 times at nitrogen addition plot. Total C and N content in shoot increased; however, lignin, C/N, and lignin/N levels decreased in the N-treated soil. The shoot litters collected from the control and N-treated soil were tested for decay and microbial biomass, $CO_2$ evolution, and enzyme activities during decomposition on the control and N-treated soil at $25^{\circ}C$ microcosm. The remaining mass of the shoot litter was approximately 6% higher in the litter collected from the control soil (53.0%) than the litter collected from high N-treated soil (47.1%). However, the high N-containing litter exhibited faster decay in the control soil than in the N-treated soil. The litter containing high N, low C/N, and low lignin/N showed a higher decomposition rate than that of low quality litter. The N-addition showed decreased microbial biomass C and dehydrogenase activity in soil; however, it exhibited high microbial biomass N and urease activity in soil. When the high N-containing litter decays on the N-treated soil, the microbial biomass C increased rapidly at the initial phase of decomposition and decreased thereafter, and dehydrogenase activity was less that of other treatment; however, there was no effect on the microbial biomass N. The urease in the decomposing litter was highest during the early decomposition stage and dramatically decreased thereafter. The present findings suggested that the N-addition increased N content in litter, but inhibited the decomposition process of above-ground biomass in terrestrial ecosystems.

Total Microbial Biomass Measured by ATP in Three Marine Sedimentary Environments (아데노신 3인산(ATP; Adenosine-5′ triphosphate)을 이용한 심해저 및 연안퇴적토의 총 미생물 생체량 측정)

  • 현정호;김경홍;권개경;이정현;이홍금;김상진;김기현
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2002
  • ATP concentrations far estimating total microbial biomass in the sediment were measured in three different marine sedimentary environments. ATP concentrations were highest in the surface sediment and decreased with increasing sediment depth and distance from the land. The results indicated that the benthic microbial biomass is primarily controlled by nutrient inputs from the overlying water column. Because of the longer residence time and adsorption to the sediment, the variations in organic carbon (OC) contents with sites and depths were not as distinct as that of ATP, and the correlation between OC and ATP was not significant in the coastal sediments. No significant correlation between OC and ATP in the coastal sediments also suggested that microbial biomass in the labile organic-enriched coastal sediment is suppressed by the grazing of higher trophic level such as meiofauna. Overall regional and vertical distribution of ATP indicated that h\`w can be a relevant tool for measuring total microbial biomass in various marine sedimentary environments.