• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microbial Protein

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Effect of Protein Sources on Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis Using Rumen Simulated Continuous Culture System

  • Joo, J.W.;Bae, G.S.;Min, W.K.;Choi, H.S.;Maeng, W.J.;Chung, Y.H.;Chang, M.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.326-331
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    • 2005
  • A rumen simulated continuous culture (RSCC) system was used to study the influence of supplementation of the three different types of protein sources such as urea, casein and soy protein on rumen microbial synthesis in terms of rumen microbial synchronization. The urea treatment showed the highest pH value. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was rapidly increased after feeding and not significantly different in the urea treatment (13.53 mg/100 ml). Protozoa numbers were not significantly different for soy protein and casein treatment compared to urea treatments during incubation. The average concentration of total VFA (mMol) was not detected with significant difference among treatments, but iso-butyrate production showed the highest for soy protein treatment among treatments (p<0.001). The lowest concentration in total iso-acids (iso-butyrate and iso-valerate) production was observed in urea treatment. The soy protein treatment showed no significantly change in acetate/propionate. The amounts of dry matter (DM) out flow showed no significant difference among treatments. Organic matter (OM) flow was the highest for urea treatments and the lowest for casein treatment (p<0.03). The nitrogen flow for casein treatment was not significantly different from other treatments. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in terms of microbial nitrogen (MN) synthesis (g MN/kg ADOM) digested in the rumen was highest for casein treatment (58.53 g MN/kg ADOM) compared to soy protein and urea (p<0.05). This result suggests that rumen ammonia releasing rate may influence on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.

Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Measuring Purine Derivatives in Urine and Estimation of Microbial Protein Synthesis in the Rumen for Sheep

  • Atanassova, Stefka;Iancheva, Nana;Tsenkova, Roumiana
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • pp.1273-1273
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    • 2001
  • The efficiency of the luminal fermentation process influences overall efficiency of luminal production, animal health and reproduction. Ruminant production systems have a significant impact on the global environment, as well. Animal wastes contribute to pollution of the environment as ammonia volatilized to the air and nitrate leached to ground water. Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen satisfies a large proportion of the protein requirements of animals. Quantifying the microbial synthesis is possible by using markers for lumen bacteria and protozoa such as nucleic acids, purine bases, some specific amino acids, or by isotopic $^{15}N,^{32}P,\;and\;^{35}S$ labelled feeds. All those methods require cannulated animals, they are time-consuming and some methods are very expensive as well. Many attempts have been made to find an alternative method for indirect measurement of microbial synthesis in intact animals. The present investigations aimed to assess possibilities of NIRS for prediction of purine nitrogen excretion and ruminal microbial nitrogen synthesis by NIR spectra of urine. Urine samples were collected from 12 growing sheep,6 of them male, and 6- female. The sheep were included in feeding experiment. The ration consisted of sorghum silage and protein supplements -70:30 on dry matter basis. The protein supplements were chosen to differ in protein degradability. The urine samples were collected daily in a vessel containing $60m{\ell}$ 10% sulphuric acid to reduce pH below 3 and diluted with tap water to 4 liters. Samples were stored in plastic bottles and frozen at $-20^{\circ}C$ until chemical and NIRS analysis. The urine samples were analyzed for purine derivates - allantoin, uric acid, xantine and hypoxantine content. Microbial nitrogen synthesis in the lumen was calculated according to Chen and Gomes, 1995. Transmittance urine spectra with sample thickness 1mm were obtained by NIR System 6500 spectrophotometer in the spectral range 1100-2500nm. The calibration was performed using ISI software and PLS regression, respectively. The following statistical results of NIRS calibration for prediction of purine derivatives and microbial protein synthesis were obtained.(Table Omitted). The result of estimation of purine nitrogen excretion and microbial protein synthesis by NIR spectra of urine showed accuracy, adequate for rapid evaluation of microbial protein synthesis for a large number of animals and different diets. The results indicate that the advantages of the NIRS technology can be extended into animal physiological studies. The fast and low cost NIRS analyses could be used with no significant loss of accuracy when microbial protein synthesis in the lumen and the microbial protein flow in the duodenum are to be assessed by NIRS.

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Feeding Value of Ammoniated Rice Straw Supplemented with Rice Bran in Sheep : I. Effects on Digestibility, Nitrogen Retention and Microbial Protein Yield

  • Orden, E.A.;Yamaki, K.;Ichinohe, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2000
  • In vivo digestibility, nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield from diets of 100% ammonia treated rice straw (ARS) ($D_1$); 65% untreated rice straw (URS)+30% rice bran (RB)+5% SBM ($D_2$) and 85% ARS+15% RB ($D_3$) were determined using three Japanese Corriedale wethers in a $3{\times}3$ Latin Square Design. Results showed that DM consumption and organic matter digestibility were highest in $D_3$; but did not promote high protein digestibility, which RB+SBM had effected in URS based-diet. Dry matter intake and OM digestibility were the same for $D_1$ and $D_3$. Solubility of fiber bonds was increased by ammoniation, resulting in higher NDF digestibility. Nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield of rice bran supplemented groups was higher than ARS, but supplementation did not significantly increase efficiency of microbial protein synthesis from ARS which did occur when RB+SBM was added to untreated straw. The quality of ammoniated rice straw could be improved through RB supplementation because of its positive effects on DM digestibility, nitrogen retention and microbial protein yield. However, the addition of RB+SBM to URS resulted to more efficient N utilization.

Inhibitory Activity against Protein Kinase C of Some Medicinal Plants (수종 생약의 Protein kinase C 저해활성)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sun;Ahn, Soon-Cheol;Kim, Bo-Hyun;Park, Moon-Su;Oh, Won-Keun;Yoon, Byung-Dae;Ahn, Jong-Seog;Mheen, Tae-Ick
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.142-145
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    • 1992
  • MeOH extract of twenty medicinal herbs were screened for their effects against protein kinase C (PKC) using bleb-forming assay and PKC enzyme assay. Smilax china and Sanguisorba officinalis showed potent anti-PKC activity. Campsis grandiflora and Galla Halepensis showed moderate inhibitory effect on PKC.

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Effect of inclusion of different levels of Leucaena silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

  • Nguyen, Thien Truong Giang;Wanapat, Metha;Phesatcha, Kampanat;Kang, Sungchhang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods: Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of $167{\pm}12kg$ were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control), T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results: Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p<0.05), whereas the amylolytic bacteria population was not affected by treatments (p>0.05). Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05). Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05) and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion: Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

Expression of E. coli Phosphofructokinase Gene in an Autotrophic Bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

  • Tian, Ke-Li;Lin, Jian-Qun;Liu, Xiang-Mei;Liu, Ying;Zhang, Chang-Kai;Yan, Wang-Ming
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2004
  • A plasmid pSDK-l containing the Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase-l gene (pfkA) was constructed, and transferred into extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Tt-7 by conjugation with the aid of plasmid RP4 at a frequency of $10^{-5}$ per recipient. This plasmid was stable in A. thiooxidans. The pfkA gene from E. coli could be expressed in this obligately autotrophic bacterium, but the enzyme activity (21.6 U/g protein) was lower than that in E. coli (K12: 85.9 Dig protein; DF1010 carrying plasmid pSDK-l: 96.6 U/g protein). In the presence of glucose, the Tt-7 transconjugants consumed glucose, leading to a better growth yield.

Protein Evaluation of Dry Roasted Whole Faba Bean (Vicia faba) and Lupin Seeds (Lupinus albus) by the New Dutch Protein Evaluation System: the DVE/OEB System

  • Yu, P.;Egan, A.R.;Leury, B.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.871-880
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    • 1999
  • The effects of dry roasting (110, 130, $150^{\circ}C$ for 15, 30, 45 min) on potential ruminant protein nutritional values in terms of: a), rumen bypass protein (BCP); b), rumen bypass starch (BST); c), fermented organic matter (FOM); d), true absorbed bypass protein (ABCP); e) microbial protein synthesized in the rumen based on available energy (E_MP); f), microbial protein synthesized in the rumen based on available nitrogen (N_MP); g), true protein supplied to the small intestine (TPSI); h), true absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein (AMP); i), endogenous protein losses (ENDP); j), true digested protein in the small intestine (DVE); k), degraded protein balance (OEB) of whole lupin seeds (WLS) and faba beans (WFB) were evaluated by the new Dutch DV/OEB protein evaluation system. Dry roasting significantly increased BCP, BST, TPSI, ABCP, DVE (p<0.001) and decreased FOM, E_MP, AMP, N_MP and OEB (p<0.001) with increasing temperatures and times except that when temperature was at $110^{\circ}C$. The values of BCP, BST, TPSI, ABCP and DVE at $150^{\circ}C/45min$ for WLS and WFB were increased 2.2, 3.7; -, 2.0; 1.7, 1.7; 2.3, 3.7 and 1.7, 1.7 times and the values of FOM, E_MP, AMP, N_MP and OEB at $150^{\circ}C/45min$ for WLS and WFB were decreased by 15.3, 25.8; 18.1, 25.8; 18.7, 25.8; 54.6, 41.6 and 82.3% 54.7%, respectively, over the raw WLS and WFB. The results indicated that though dry roasting reduced microbial protein synthesis due to reducing FOM, TPSI didn't decrease but highly increased due to increasing BCP more than enough for compensation of the microbial protein decreasing. Therefore the net absorbable DVE in the small intestine was highly increased. The OEB values were significantly reduced for both WLS and WFB but not to the level of negative. It indicated that microbial protein synthesis might not be impaired due to the sufficient N supplied in the rumen, but the high positive OEB values in the most treatments except of $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 and 45 min of WLS (The OEB values: 54.8 and 26.0 g/kg DM) indicated that there were the large amounts of N loss in the rumen. It was concluded that dry roasting at high temperature was effective in shifting protein degradation from rumen to intestines and it increased the DVE values without reaching the negative OEB values. No optimal treatment was found in WLS due to the too high OEB values in all treatments. But dry roasting at $150^{\circ}C$ for 30 and 45 min might be optimal treatments for WLS due to the very lower OEB values.

Studies on Constituents of the Higher Fungi of Korea(XXXVII) - Antitumor Components of Armillariella mellea - (한국산(韓國産) 고등(高等) 균류(菌類)의 성분(成分) 연구(硏究)(제(第)37보(報)) - 뽕나무버섯의 항암(抗癌) 성분(成分) -)

  • Kim, Jin-Sook;Choi, Eung-Chil;Kim, Hye-Ryoung;Lee, Chong-Kil;Lee, Chong-Ock;Chung, Kyeong-Soo;Shim, Mi-Ja;Kim, Byong-Kak
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 1983
  • To find antitumor components in Korean basidiomycetes, the carpophores of Armillariella mellea which were collected in Gyeong Gi Province were extracted with distilled water at $90{\sim}100^{\circ}C$ for eight hours. The hot water extract was concentrated under reduced pressure, mixed with three-fold volumes of ethanol and allowed to stand at $4^{\circ}C$ overnight. The precipitate was centrifugated and lyophilized to yield a protein-polysaccharide fraction. It was examined for antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 implanted in ICR mice. The fraction showed 75.7%, 83.9%, and 94.1% of tumor inhibition ratios at the doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. The chemical analysis of the fraction showed that it contained a polysaccharide(41.3%) and a protein (35.0%). The hydrolyzates of the polysaccharide moiety contained fucose (4.5%), xylose (1.1%), galactose (17.4%), glucose (55.4%), mannose(19.4%), and one unknown monosaccharide. The protein moiety contained seventeen amino acids. The protein-polysaccharide from A. mellea was administered, i.p., to mice and caused an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at $5{\sim}24$ hours which was followed by an accumulation of macrophages and disappearance of the PMN at $48{\sim}72$ hours.

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The Requirement of Ruminal Degradable Protein for Non-Structural Carbohydrate-Fermenting Microbes and Its Reaction with Dilution Rate in Continuous Culture

  • Meng, Q.X.;Xia, Z.G.;Kerley, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1399-1406
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    • 2000
  • A continuous culture study was conducted to determine the impact of ruminal degradable soy protein (S-RDP) level and dilution rate (D) on growth of ruminal non-structural carbohydrate-fermenting microbes. Corn starch, urea and isolated soy protein (ISP) were used to formulate three diets with S-RDP levels of 0, 35 and 70% of total dietary CP. Two Ds were 0.03 and $0.06h^{-1}$ of the fermenter volume in a single-effluent continuous culture system. As S-RDP levels increased, digestibilities of dietary dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) linearly (p=0.001) decreased, whereas digestion of dietary starch linearly (p=0.001) increased. Increasing D from 0.03 to $0.06h^{-1}$ resulted in decreased digestibilities of dietary DM and OM, but had no effect on digestibilities of dietary starch (p=0.77) and CP (p=0.103). Fermenter pH, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and daily VFA production were unaffected (p=0.159-0.517) by S-RDP levels. Molar percentages of acetate, propionate and butyrate were greatly affected by S-RDP levels (p=0.016-0.091), but unaffected by D (p=0.331-0.442). With increasing S-RDP levels and D, daily bacterial counts, daily microbial N production (DMNP) and microbial efficiency (MOEFF; grams of microbial N produced per kilogram of OM truly digested) were enhanced (p=0.001). The increased microbial efficiency with increasing S-RDP levels is probably the result of peptides or amino acids that served as a stimulus for optimal protein synthesis. The quantity of ruminal degradable protein from soy proteins required for optimum protein synthesis of non-structural carbohydrate-fermenting microbes appears to be equivalent to 9.5% of dietary fermented OM.

Effects of Formalin Treated Soy Bean as a Source of Rumen Undegradable Protein on Rumen Functions of Non-lactating Dairy Cows on Concentrate Based-diets

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Vajrabukka, C.;Sindhuvanich, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1439-1444
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    • 2002
  • An objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing contents of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) from formalin treated soy bean (FSBM) on rumen functions. Four rumen canulated non-lactating cows were randomly allocated to total mixed rations (TMR) containing different proportions of soy bean meal (SBM) and FSBM. Of rumen fermentation characteristics, concentrations of ruminal fluid ammonia and molar proportions of isoacids decreased with increasing contents of RUP in diets (p<0.01). The animals on TMR containing only SBM gained less weight and had smaller rumen volume than those on TMR containing RUP from FSBM (p<0.05). Organic matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility in sacco were not different (p>0.05). The density of protozoa particularly small Entodinium sp. in ruminal fluid was higher in animal fed TMR containing SBM:FSBM (34:66) and FSBM than those fed TMR containing SBM:FSBM (66:34) and SBM (p<0.01). Total viable count, and net microbial protein synthesis as indicated by purine derivatives in urine increased with increasing contents of RUP from FSBM (p<0.01). It can be concluded that a reduction in net microbial protein synthesis in the rumen with increasing contents of RUP in the diet can be due to the reduction of preformed protein available for microbial growth as well as an increased turnover rate of microbial cells by predatory activity of protozoa.