• Title, Summary, Keyword: Microbial Phytase

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Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization I. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization (산란 생산성과 인 이용성에 대한 Microbial Phytase의 첨가 효과 I. 무기태인 수준이 다른 사료에 Microbial Phytase 첨가가 산란상 및 인 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;유동조;나재천;최철환;상병돈;이상진;이원준;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 2000
  • The effects of microbial phutase on laying performance and phosphorus utilization were examined at different levels of dietary nonphosphorus(NPP) in 320 23-week-old Hy-line brown hens for 12weeks. Diets were formulated 0.275%(T1), 0.220%(T2), 0.165%(T3) of NPP levels, and supplemental microbial phytase was 300DPU/kg diet constantly. Conventional diet(C) was formulated 0.275% NPP level without microbial phytase. Egg production and egg mass were higher in T2 than the others (p<0.05), and average egg weight was higher in T1 than the other (p<0.05). Egg productivity was tended to increase with supplemental phytase compared to conventional diet. Daily feed intake a hen also increased in T2 (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was improved slightly without significant difference. Eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly among the treatments. Haugh unit and yolk color were also not different. Calcium and phosphorus retention in body increased in T2 (p<0.05), but dry matter and nitrogen retention were not different significantly. Differences in nitrogen and calcium excretions were not found among the treatments. But phosphorus excretion decreased in order of dietary phosphorus levels with supplement phytase compared to C (p<0.05). Tibial ash, calcium and phosphorus were similar among the treatments. In conclusion, supplemental microbial phytase in laying diet may help to utilize phytase phosphorus, and could decrease NPP intake.

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The Effect of Calcium Level on Microbial Phytase Activity and Nutrient Balance in Swine

  • Li, Defa;Che, X.R.;Wang, Y.Q.;Qiao, S.Y.;Cao, H.;Johnson, W.;Thacker, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 1999
  • Three barrows weighing 45.0 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas in both the duodenum and terminal ileum, were assigned to diets in a $3{\times}3$ Latin Square design experiment to determine the effect of two calcium levels (0.8% vs 0.4%) on phytase activity and nutrient balance in growing pigs. The control diet contained 0.8% calcium, with no added inorganic phosphorus (0.45% total phosphorus) and no added phytase. The two additional experimental diets contained microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg) and supplied either 0.8% or 0.4% calcium. With added microbial phytase, ileal and total tract digestibility of rotal phosphorus were improved by 20.9 and 13.8 percentage units, respectively (p=0.01). The apparent duodenal and ileal digestibility of phytate phosphorus were increased by 51.8 and 49.7 percentage units (p=0.01). Lowering dietary calcium in the presence of microbial phytase increased the digestibility of phytate phosphorus by an additional 10.9 (p=0.001) and 5.7 percentage units for duodenal and ileal digestibility, respectively. Supplementation with microbial phytase significantly reduced fecal excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus and increased the percentage of these nutrients retained by the pig. Lowering dietary calcium further increased the percentage of dietary phosphorus retained. Overall, reducing dietary calcium appeared to increase the effectiveness of added microbial phytase in degrading phytate phosphorus. As a result, care should be taken to avoid high levels of dietary calcium when supplementing swine diets with microbial phytase.

Application of Phytase, Microbial or Plant Origin, to Reduce Phosphorus Excretion in Poultry Production

  • Paik, InKee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.124-135
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    • 2003
  • In order to prevent pollution from animal waste, the excretion of nutrients should be reduced through proper nutritional management. Among the many nutrients of concern, such as N, P, Cu, Zn and K, P is one of the most concerned nutrients to be managed. Seven feeding trials, three with layers and four with broilers, were conducted to determine if microbial phytase supplementation can reduce non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level in diets and results in concomitant reductions of P excretion. The results showed that microbial phytase can be successfully used to achieve these purposes. Activity of natural phytase in certain plant feedstuffs is high enough to be considered in feed formulation. Three experiments have been conducted to study the characteristics of plant phytase and its application to feeding of broilers. Selected brands of wheat bran could be successfully used as a source of phytase in broiler feeding.

Effects of Microbial Phytase Supplementation to Low Phosphorus Diets on the Performance and Utilization of Nutrients in Broiler Chickens

  • Um, J.S.;Lim, H.S.;Ahn, S.H.;Paik, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.824-829
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    • 2000
  • A five wk feeding experiment was conducted with day-old one thousand broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) to determine the effects of microbial phytase (Natuphos$^{(R)}$) supplemented to low nonphytate P (NPP) corn-soy diets. Five pens of 50 mixed sex birds each were randomly assigned to each of the four dietary treatments: T1, control diet containing normal NPP level; T2, T1-0.1% NPP+600 U of phytase/kg diet; T3, T1 - 0.2% NPP+600 U of phytase/kg diet; and T4, T1 - 0.3% NPP+600 U of phytase/kg diet. T1, T2, and T3 showed similar growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency, indicating that NPP level in broiler diets could be reduced by approximately 0.2% by the microbial phytase supplementation. But T4 showed significantly (p<0.05) lower weight gain than others. The phytase supplementation improved P availability resulting in low P excretion. Weight and girth of metatarsal bone were increased by phytase supplementation at low NPP diet treatments but ash contents were not significantly different. It can be concluded that NPP level of corn-soy broiler diets can be safely lowered by approximately 0.2 % by supplementing 600 U of microbial phytase/kg diet. With the adjusted level of NPP and phytase supplementation, P excretion could be reduced by 50%.

Effect of Supplemental Microbial Phytase and Nonphytate Phosphorus Levels on Performance, Digestibility and Egg Quaility in Layer (Microbial Phytase와 무기태 인 수준별 급여가 산란 생산성, 소화율 및 계란 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;유동조;박수영;이상진;박용윤;이원준
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.243-254
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    • 2000
  • The effect of supplemental microbial phytase and non - phytate phosphorus(NPP) levels on layer productivity and nutrient digestibility were conducted in 640 21 weeks - old HyLine brown layer for 12 weeks. Supplemented phytase levels were 0, 300, 500 and 1,000 DPU/kg diet. NPP levels were adjusted with tricalcium phosphate(TCP), which were 0(0.11% NPP), 0.5(0.20), 1.0(0.29) and 1.5%(0.38). ME, CP and Ca levels were maintained at 2,800㎉/kg diet, 16% and 3.5%, respectively. Egg production was increased with phytase compared to without phytase(P〈0.05). Increasement of egg production was higher latter of experimental period. Egg production was not different to phytase levels. Egg production in TCP levels were increased in above 0.5% compared to 0% TCP. Difference of egg production by TCP was higher after 6 week. Especially, egg production to supplemental phytase was higher in 0% TCP. Egg weight was not different to phytase and TCP levels. Egg mass was increased with phytase compared to without phytase, but not difference significantly. There was similar to phytase levels. Egg mass in TCP group was increased in TCP supplementation(P〈0.05). Feed intake was not different in phytase levels, and greater with increasing TCP levels(P〈0.05). Feed conversion was improved with phytase(P〈0.05), and not difference in TCP levels. All of nutrients digestibility tended to improve with phytase, P(P〈0.05), especially. There were not different among phytase levels. The effect of adding phytase was higher in low phosphorus diets compared normal levels. Eggshell breaking strength and eggshell thickness also improved in added phytase(P〈0.05). Tibial ash and P content were slightly increased with phytase, and Ca content also was higher(P〈0.05) compared without phytase. We concluded that supplemental phytase in low phosphorus diet was showed to increase laying performance, feed efficiency, nutrients digestibility, egg quality, and bone development. Phytase supplementation was able to compensate for low NPP diet. We also thought optimum phytase level is 300 DPU, and can decrease NPP supplementation adding phytase in later diet.

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Effects of Microbial Phytase Replacing Partial Inorganic Phosphorus Supplementation and Xylanase on the Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets

  • Peng, Y.L.;Guo, Y.M.;Yuan, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments were conducted with broilers to investigate the feasibility of microbial phytase replacing partial inorganic phosphorus supplementation and the synergistic effects of xylanase (320 FTU/kg) supplementation alone or in combination with phytase (750 U/kg) replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, on the growth performance and utilization of nutrients in broilers fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, 540 broilers were fed five diets for 6 weeks. Diets C0 and C1 were corn-based diets and 0.08% inorganic P supplementation was replaced with 750 U phytase/kg feed in Diet C1. Diets W0, W1 and W2 were wheat-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase 0, 750, 750 U/kg feed and 0, 0.08% and 0.16% dietary inorganic P were replaced, respectively. In Experiment 2, 432 broilers were divided into four treatments to determine the synergistic effects of supplemental xylanase and phytase replacing 0.08% inorganic P. Four experimental diets were arranged according to a $2{\times}2$ factorial design. The results indicated that addition of phytase increased the digestibility of phytic P by 31.0 to 55%, dramatically decreased the excretion of phytic P and total P by 31.6 to 55.0% and 13.8 to 32.9%, respectively (p<0.01). It is feasible to completely replace 0.08% inorganic phosphorus supplementation with microbial phytase 750 U/kg in corn- or wheat-based diets for broilers. Addition of xylanase alone or in combination with phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic P, increased body weight gain and feed utilization efficiency of broilers fed wheat-based diets (p<0.10) and decreased overall mortality (p<0.10). In the groups of birds supplementing xylanase 320 FTU/kg feed, a marked elevation of the dietary AME was observed (p<0.05). Addition of phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, concurrently with xylanase supplementation had additive effects on the apparent digestibility of dietary phytic P and overall feed conversion ratio (p<0.05).

Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a New Phytase from the Phytopathogenic Bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae DSMZ 18074

  • Shao, Na;Huang, Huoqing;Meng, Kun;Luo, Huiying;Wang, Yaru;Yang, Peilong;Yao, Bin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1221-1226
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    • 2008
  • The soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium wasabiae is an economically important pathogen of many crops. A new phytase gene, appA, was cloned from P. wasabiae by degenerate PCR and TAIL-PCR. The open reading frame of appA consisted of 1,302 bp encoding 433 amino acid residues, including 27 residues of a putative signal peptide. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 45 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.5. The amino acid sequence contained the conserved active site residues RHGXRXP and HDTN of typical histidine acid phosphatases, and showed the highest identity of 48.5% to PhyM from Pseudomonas syringae. The gene fragment encoding the mature phytase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant phytase had a specific activity of 1,072$\pm$47 U/mg for phytate substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified phytase were pH 5.0 and 50$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The $K_m$ value was 0.17 mM, with a $V_{max}$ of 1,714 $\mu$mol/min/mg. This is the first report of the identification and isolation of phytase from Pectobacterium.

Utilization of Plant Phytase to Improve Phosphorous Availability for Broiler (육계의 인 이용율 향상을 위한 식물성 Phytase의 이용)

  • Kim, B.H.;Namkung, H.;Paik, I.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.407-418
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wheat and wheat bran  as the source of phytase in a 5 week broiler feeding trial. One thousand day-old broiler chickens(Ross$^{(R)}$) were divided into 20 pens of 50 broilers(25 male and 25 female) each. Four pens were randomly arranged to one of the five dietary treatments: T1, control diet containing normal nonphytate P(NPP) ;  T2, T1 - 0.1% NPP; T3, T2 + 600IU microbial phytase(NOVO$^{(R)}$) per kg diet; T4, T2 + 600IU plant phytase from wheat and wheat bran; T5, T2 + 600IU plant phytase from wheat and hydrothermally treated wheat bran. Reduction of NPP level by 0.1%(T2) reduced weight gain and feed intake but plant phytase treatments(T4 and T5) recovered the lost performance. Plant phytase treatments showed better (p<0.05) weight gain and intake than the microbial phytase treatment(T3). There was no difference between regular wheat bran treatment(T4) and hydrothermally treated wheat bran treatment(T5). Mortality was the highest by low NPP diet(T2). Availability of ether extract and crude ash of grower diet was the highest(p<0.05) in normal wheat bran diet(T4). Availability of Ca and P of grower diet was the highest(p<0.05) in T4 followed by T3 and T5. Availability of Mg, Fe and Zn was drastically improved by phytase treatments(T3, T4 and T5). Excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Zn was the lowest(p<0.05) with microbial phytase treatment(T3). Serum level of Ca and Mg was the highest(p<0.05) with the low NPP treatment(T2). Tibial ash content of T2 and T3 was lower(p<0.05) than that of T1, T4 and T5. However, tibial Ca content was higher(p<0.05) in T1 and T2 than other treatments. Tibial P and Mg contents were the highest(p<0.05) in T1. It was concluded that plant phytase from wheat bran can be effectively used to improve P utilization. Hydrothermal treatment of wheat bran prior to inclusion in the diet had no beneficial effects.

Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization II. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels and High Calcium Content on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization (산란생산성과 인 이용성에 대한 Microbial Phytase의 첨가 효과 II. 무기태인 수주닝 다르고 칼슘수준이 높은 사료에 Microbial Phytase 첨가가 산란성 및 인 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;유동조;이상진;강보석;서옥석;최철환;이원준;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2000
  • Present study was conducted to investigate effects of microbial phytase in laying hen diets on utilization of non-phytate phosphorus(NPP) whose levels were adjusted to be adequate or lower than that of NRC requirements. Birds of control roup were fed a diet containing 0.275% NPP and 3.4% Ca, satisfying the NRC(1994) feeding standard. bird on T1, T2 and T3 were allowed to eat diets containing NPP at 100, 80 and 60%, respectively, of Control group, and 4.0% Ca level along with a microbial phytase added at a level of 300 DPU. Three hundred and sixty, ISA Brown layers, 23-week-old, divided into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 12 weeks. Levels of feed intake were not different among the groups, The egg mass/feed intake ratio appeared better in T2 group by about 8%, though without a statistical significance, compared to that of control. Egg production fate tended to be improved over the control group by feeding the 100%(T1) and 80%(T2) NPP diets added with phytase, with a significant difference for T2(p<0.05). Mean egg weight and egg shell quality, measured by breaking strength and thickness of the egg shell, of the T2 group tended to show numerically better, without a significance than those of control. Furthermore, birds of the T2 group showed higher calcium and phosphorus contents in tibia by about 9%(p<0.05) than the control. Overall performances of birds in T1 appeared better than those of control, but tended to be lower than those of the T2. The birds in T3 performed similar to the those of the other dietary groups except the relatively low tibia calcium level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase at a level of 300 DPU was effective to spare about 20% of NPP in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances and bone quality.

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Response of broiler chickens to diets containing different levels of sodium with or without microbial phytase supplementation

  • Akter, Marjina;Graham, Hadden;Iji, Paul Ade
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2019
  • Phytate induced excessive mineral excretion through poultry litter leads to poor performance and environmental pollution. Exogenous microbial phytase supplementation to poultry diets reduce the environmental excretion of nutrient and improve bird's performance. However, excessive dietary sodium (Na) level may hinder the phytase-mediated phytate hydrolysis and negate the beneficial effects of phytase. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentration dietary Na on phytase activity and subsequent impact on broiler performance, bone mineralisation and nutrient utilisation. In this study, six experimental diets, consisting of three different levels of Na (1.5, 2.5, or 3.5 g/kg) and two levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 U/kg) were formulated by using $3{\times}2$ factorial design. The six experimental diets were offered to 360 day-old Ross 306 male chicks for 35 days, where, each experimental diet consisted of 6 replicates groups with 10 birds. Along with growth performance, nutrient utilization, intestinal enzyme activity, dry matter (DM) content of litter and mineral status in bone were analysed. Dietary Na and phytase had no effect on bode weight gain and feed intake. Birds on the low Na diet showed higher (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the mid-Na diets. High dietary Na adversely affected (p < 0.001) excreta DM content. Phytase supplementation to the high-Na diet increased (p < 0.01) the litter ammonia content. High dietary Na with phytase supplementation improved ($Na{\times}phytase$, p < 0.05) the AME value and ileal digestibility of Ca and Mg. The total tract retention of Ca, P, and Mg was reduced with high Na diet, which was counteracted by phytase supplementation ($Na{\times}phytase$, p < 0.001). The diets containing mid-level of Na improved (p < 0.001) the function of Na-K-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in the jejunum. The overall results indicate that high dietary Na did not affect phytase activity but influenced the nutrient utilization of birds, which was not reflected in bird overall performance.