• Title, Summary, Keyword: MicroRNA-21

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MicroRNA-21 Regulates the Invasion and Metastasis in Cholangiocarcinoma and May Be a Potential Biomarker for Cancer Prognosis

  • Huang, Qiang;Liu, Lei;Liu, Chen-Hai;You, Hao;Shao, Feng;Xie, Fang;Lin, Xian-Sheng;Hu, San-Yuan;Zhang, Chuan-Hai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.829-834
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    • 2013
  • Background: MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNA-21 in cholangiocarcinomas and its relationship to cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell capacity for invasion and metastasis. Methods: MicroRNA-21 expression was investigated in 41 cases of cholangiocarcinoma samples by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. Influence on cholangiocarcinoma cell line invasion and metastasis was analyzed with microRNA-21 transfected cells. In addition, regulation of reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) by microRNA-21 was elucidated to identify mechanisms. Results: In situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR results for patients with lymph node metastasis or perineural invasion showed significantly high expression of microRNA-21 (P<0.05). There was a dramatic decrease in cholangiocarcinoma cell line invasion and metastasis ability after microRNA-21 knockdown (P<0.05). However, overexpression significantly increased invasion and metastasis (P<0.05). Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis showed that microRNA-21 could potentially inhibit RECK expression in RBE cells. Survival analysis showed that patients with higher expression levels of microRNA-21 more often had a poor prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: MicroRNA-21 may play an important role in cholangiocarcinoma invasion and metastasis, suggesting that MicroRNA-21 should be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting cholangiocarcinoma prognosis.

Roles of MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-29a in Regulating Cell Adhesion Related Genes in Bone Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer

  • Mohamad, Maisarah;Wahab, Norhazlina Abdul;Yunus, Rosna;Murad, Nor AzianAbdul;Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md;Sundaram, Murali;Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3437-3445
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    • 2016
  • Background: There is an increasing concern in the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis (BM) secondary to prostate cancer (CaP). In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that the expression of vinculin (VCL) and chemokine X3C ligand 1 (CX3CL1) might be down-regulated in clinical samples, most likely due to the post-transcriptional modification by microRNAs. Targeted genes would be up-regulated upon transfection of the bone metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC3, with specific microRNA inhibitors. Materials and Methods: MicroRNA software predicted that miR-21 targets VCL while miR-29a targets CX3CL1. Twenty benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 16 high grade CaP formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were analysed. From the bone scan results, high grade CaP samples were further classified into CaP with no BM and CaP with BM. Transient transfection with respective microRNA inhibitors was done in both RWPE-1 (normal) and PC3 cell lines. QPCR was performed in all FFPE samples and transfected cell lines to measure VCL and CX3CL1 levels. Results: QPCR confirmed that VCL messenger RNA (mRNA) was significantly down-regulated while CX3CL1 was up-regulated in all FFPE specimens. Transient transfection with microRNA inhibitors in PC3 cells followed by qPCR of the targeted genes showed that VCL mRNA was significantly upregulated while CX3CL1 mRNA was significantly down-regulated compared to the RWPE-1 case. Conclusions: The down-regulation of VCL in FFPE specimens is most likely regulated by miR-21 based on the in vitro evidence but the exact mechanism of how miR-21 can regulate VCL is unclear. Up-regulated in CaP, CX3CL1 was found not regulated by miR-29a. More microRNA screening is required to understand the regulation of this chemokine in CaP with bone metastasis. Understanding miRNA-mRNA interactions may provide additional knowledge for individualized study of cancers.

Identification of Caenorhabditis elegans microRNA target using a neural network (신경망을 이용한 예쁜 꼬마 선충 microRNA target 예측)

  • Lee, Wha-Jin;Zhang, Byoung-Tak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Bioinformatics Conference
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2004
  • microRNA (miRNA)는 21-25 nucleotide (nt)의 single-stranded RNA 분자로서 mRNA의 3' untranslated region (3' UTR)에 상보적으로 결합하여 유전자 발현을 제어하는 새로운 조절물질이다. 지금까지 실험을 통해 수백 개의 miRNA가 알려져 있으나, miRNA에 의해 조절되는 target 유전자는 실험상의 어려움으로 아직까지 거의 알려지지 않았다. miRNA는 서열의 길이가 짧고 target과 느슨한 상보적 결합을 하기 때문에 기존의 서열 비교 방법으로 miRNA의 target을 찾는 것은 쉬운 일이 아니다. 본 논문은 신경망을 이용하여 Caenorhabditis elegans mRNA의 3' UTR에서 miRNA가 결합하는 영역을 예측하였다. 신경망은 복잡한 비선형 데이터를 잘 분리해내고 불완전하고 잡음이 많은 입력에 강하기 때문에 miRNA target 예측에 적합하다. miRNA와 mRNA의 결합 영역을 다양하게 분석하였고 민감도 0.59, 특수도 0.99의 성능을 갖는 신경망을 구현하였다. 신경망 입력 값을 달리하여 각각의 특성이 결과에 미치는 영향을 분석하였고 기존 예측 방법에 의한 결과와 비교하여 성능을 평가하였다.

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Expression of Micro RNA in Paraffin Embedded Tissue of Multiple Myeloma (다발성골수종 환자의 파라핀포매조직에서 MicroRNA 발현)

  • Choi, Woo Soon;Kwon, Kye Chul
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.292-297
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    • 2015
  • Research of thyroid cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer has been reported in Korea. However microRNA research of multiple myeloma has never been reported. Hence we intended to confirm whether microRNA can be utilized as a diagnostic marker to patients of multiple myeloma. We also intended to evaluate whether microRNA can be detected in paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE). This research was conducted targeting 8 samples from patients of multiple myeloma who do not have any other diseases, and 2 control samples. From January 2010 to July 2012, we selected miR-15a, miR-16, miR-21, miR-181a and miR-221 as microRNA target genes. It was decided that for a sample to be significant, the results should show values more than 1.5 or less than -1.5. Our findings of fold change were highly significant in miR-15a with a value of 37.5% (3/8). From these studies, we learned that miR-15a is useful with westerners. miR-221, on the other hand, shows conflicts with westerners, so more research will be needed in this area. In addition, it was confirmed that microRNA can be detected in paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE).

MicroRNA-directed cleavage of targets: mechanism and experimental approaches

  • Park, June Hyun;Shin, Chanseok
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.8
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2014
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of post-transcriptional regulators, which are 21-24 nt in length and play a role in a wide variety of biological processes in eukaryotes. The past few years have seen rapid progress in our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the mechanism of action, which commonly entails a combination of target degradation and translational repression. The target degradation mediated by Argonaute-catalyzed endonucleolytic cleavage exerts a significant repressive effect on target mRNA expression, particularly during rapid developmental transitions. This review outlines the current understanding of the mechanistic aspects of this important process and discusses several different experimental approaches to identify miRNA cleavage targets.

microRNA-29b: an Emerging Player in Human Cancer

  • Liu, Hao;Wang, Bin;Lin, Jie;Zhao, Liang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9059-9064
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    • 2014
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at a post transcriptional/translational level. They have emerging as playing crucial roles in cancer at all stages ranging from initiation to metastasis. As a tumor suppressor miRNA, aberrant expression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) has been detected in various types of cancer, and its disturbance is related with tumor development and progression. In this review, we summarize the latest findings with regard to the tumor suppressor signatureof miR-29b and its regulatory mechanisms. Our review highlights the diverse relationships between miR-29b and its target genes in malignant tumors.

Expression of MicroRNA-221 in Korean Patients with Multiple Myeloma (한국인의 다발성골수종 환자에서 MicroRNA-221의 발현)

  • Choi, Woo-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2018
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is the leading cause of death among hematologic neoplasms. Recently, microRNA has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. This study examined whether miR-221 could be used as a diagnostic marker for multiple myeloma. The study was performed on 20 patients with multiple myeloma without any other hematological diseases. MicroRNA extraction was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues obtained from the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma. miR-15a, miR-16, miR-21, miR-181a, and miR-221 were selected as the microRNA target genes for multiple myeloma. The significance of microRNA was based on a fold change of <1.5. To quantify the fold changes, data normalized to the human gene, SNORD43, were used as the values of the patient group. Fold change values greater than 1.5 were defined as "overexpression", whereas values less than -1.5 were defined as "underexpression". Of note, 65.0% (13/20) of samples showed significant "overexpression" in the levels of miR-221 expression and plasma cells with a group of more and less than 30% in MM patients did not show any significance of plasma cell (P<0.05). The results of other studies showing a correlation between the expression of miR-221 and MM in Caucasians were confirmed. These results suggest that miR-221 may be a useful indicator for diagnosing patients with MM. In conclusion, miR-221 is useful in the diagnosis and determining the prognosis of multiple myeloma in Koreans.

Plasma Post-operative miR-21 Expression in the Prognosis of Gastric Cancers

  • Ma, Guo-Jian;Gu, Rong-Min;Zhu, Ming;Wen, Xu;Li, Jin-Tian;Zhang, Yuan-Ying;Zhang, Xiao-Mei;Chen, Sen-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7551-7554
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    • 2013
  • Tumor-associated microRNAs have been detected in serum or plasma, but whether plasma microRNA-21 (miR-21) could be a potential circulating biomarker for gastric cancer (GC) prognosis in Chinese is still uncertain. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed in this study to compare the relative expression of miR-21 between pre-operative and post-operative paired plasmas from 42 patients with primary GCs. The results showed that the expression levels of miR-21 in the post-operative plasmas were significantly reduced by an average of 18.2 times in all patients when compared to the pre-operative plasmas, and by 22.1 times in the subgroup of patients without family history, while only 1.76 times in the subgroup of patients with a family history. With respect of clinicopathological characteristics, the plasma miR-21 expression was highly associated with differentiation degree and lymph node metastasis rate. The results suggested plasma miR-21 could be a novel potential biomarker for GC prognosis and evaluation of surgery outcomes, especially in patients without a family history.

MicroRNA-126 Regulates the Expression of Stem Cell Transcription Factors (Sox2 and Lin28) in Various Ovarian Tumors (MicroRNA-126은 난소 종양세포의 줄기세포 전사인자 (Sox2와 Lin28) 발현을 조절한다)

  • Park, Ho;Jekal, Seung Joo
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.298-305
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    • 2015
  • Stem cell-like tumor cells are reported to be the main reason for tumor recurrence and metastasis. As one of the new approaches to overcome cancer, studies are emerging to inhibit the expressions of stem cell transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf-4, and Lin28) in cancer cells. MicroRNAs are master genetic regulators that can control development and differentiation of stem cells. In this study using various ovarian tumors (Skov3, Ovcar3, Tov112D, Tov21G, PA-1 and Hsc832(c)T), we examined the expressions of stem cell-related transcription factors, and the biological changes in cell survival and growth by miR-126 that targets stem cell transcriptional factors. We observed that treatment of miR-126 induced the morphological changes and cell suspension in most cells. In addition, miR-126 induced gradual regression of cell division except Skov3 cells, especially significant time-dependent reduction in Tov112D, Tov21G and PA-1. When we examined the expression of stem cell transcriptional factors, Sox2 was shown to be down-regulated after miR-126. Our results demonstrate that miR-126 treatment can provide the reversible environment to regulate cell division and to induce cell death of ovarian tumors, suggesting the molecular biological clues for clinical usage.

Detection of MicroRNA-21 Expression as a Potential Screening Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis

  • Jiang, Jian-Xin;Zhang, Na;Liu, Zhong-Min;Wang, Yan-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7583-7588
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    • 2014
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death and cancer-related incidence worldwide. The potential of microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a biomarker for CRC detection has been studied in several studies. However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to systematically assess the diagnostic value of miR-21 for CRC. Materials and Methods: Using a random-effect model, the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic performance of miR-21 for CRC. A summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and an area under the curve (AUC) were also generated to assess the diagnosis accuracy of miR-21 for CRC. Q test and I2 statistics were used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by the Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test. Results: A total of 986 CRC patients and 702 matched healthy controls from 8 studies were involved in the meta-analysis. The pooled results for SEN, SPE, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 57% (95%CI: 39%-74%), 87% (95%CI: 78%-93%), 4.4 (95%CI: 2.4-8.0), 0.49 (95%CI: 0.32-0.74), 9 (95%CI: 4-22), and 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.86), respectively. Subgroup analyses further suggested that blood-based studies showed a better diagnostic accuracy compared with feces-based studies, indicating that blood may be a better matrix for miR-21 assay and CRC detection. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that miR-21 has a potential diagnostic value for CRC with a moderate level of overall diagnostic accuracy. Hence, it could be used as auxiliary means for the initial screening of CRC and avoid unnecessary colonoscopy, which is an invasive and expensive procedure.