• Title, Summary, Keyword: Methane ($CH_4$)

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Evaluation of Methane Emissions with Water Regime before the Cultivation Period in Paddy Fields

  • Park, Jun-Hong;Park, Sang-Jo;Kim, Jong-Su;Seo, Dong-Hwan;Park, So-Deuk;Kim, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2015
  • Anaerobic decomposition of organic material in flooded rice fields produces methane, which escapes to the atmosphere primarily by transport through the rice plants. The annual amount of $CH_4$ emitted from a given area of rice is a function of the number and duration of crops grown, water regimes before and during cultivation period, and organic and inorganic soil amendments. Soil type, temperature, and rice cultivar also affect $CH_4$ emissions. The field experiment was conducted for three years to develop methane emission factor for water regime before the cultivation period from the rice fields. It was treated with three different water regimes prior to rice cultivation, namely: non-flooded pre-season < 180 days, non-flooded pre-season > 180 days, flooded per-season in which the minimum flooding interval is set to 30 days. Methane emission increased with days after transplanting and soil redox potential (Eh) decreased rapidly after flooding during the rice cultivation. The average methane emission fluxes were $5.47kg\;CH_4\;ha^{-1}day^{-1}$in flooded pre-season > 30 days, 5.04 in non-flooded pre-season < 180 days and 4.62 in non-flooded pre-season > 180. Methane emission flux was highly correlated with soil temperature and soil Eh. Rice yields showed no difference among treatments with water regime before the cultivation period.

Evaluation of Resource Recovery from Sorted Waste by MBT System (MBT시스템에 의해 선별(選別)된 생활폐기물(生活廢棄物)의 자원화(資源化) 평가(評價)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Byung-Sun;Han, Sang-Kuk;Lee, Nam-Hoon;Kang, Jeong-Hee;Wie, June
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of resource recovery for municipal solid waste(MSW) that sorted by a MBT system. First, physical property of MSW was similar to wastes carried into Sudokown landfill site. However, moisture of MSW was little higher than that. As a result of BMP test using organic fraction of MSW(OFMSWs), approximately 60 ~ 80 mL $CH_4/g$-VS of methane was occurred. Compared to the other studies, the value of methane is lower. It seems to be caused that high ratio of vinyl/plastic in OFMSWs. The other BMP test using sample of MBT system located in Sudokwon landfill was conducted each physical properties. According to the result of experiment, food waste makes 193 mL $CH_4/g$-VS, and paper is 102 mL $CH_4/g$-VS. However, there was not methane production in vinyl and rubber. Additionally, others that can't sort no more show 30 m $CH_4L/g$-VS of methane production. From the result of experimental data OFMSWs has high fraction of vinyl, rubber and other substance that difficult for biodegradation. Therefore it is need to sort of them.

Distribution of Gas Extruded from Sanitary Landfill (쓰레기 매립지에서 대기중에 유출하는 가스 분포)

  • 이해승;이찬기
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 1997
  • This study presents a surveying of methane and carbon dioxide at sanitary landfills. The following results are obtained. (1) The majority of methane and the half of carbon dioxide pour out from vertical gas vents. (2) The quantity of carbon dioxide in cove. soil was greater than methane. (3) Even though gas extrusion in side slop area was small, the quantity of gas extrusion in side slop area was much greater than in coversoil area as especially carbon dioxide rate. (4) As were carried raw refuse layer, methane extrusion was trace, but carbon dioxide was large. (5) Gas extrusion quantity were changed by the compaction of soil, and the operating area of refuse. (6) Carbon dioxide portioned much larger in the whole landfill, but methane portioned much larger in gas vent and coversoil.

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A Study for Separation of $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ from Biogas (바이오가스의 $CH_4$, $CO_2$의 분리방법 연구)

  • Lee, Taek-Hong;Kim, Jae-Young;Chang, Sae-Hun;Lee, Hyo-Suk;Choi, Ik-Hwan
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2010
  • This paper is studying the selective separation of methane and carbon dioxide which are the main ingredients of biogas. Adsorption performance of molecular sieve 13x for carbon dioxide seems to be reasonable. In this experiments carbon dioxide contains about 3~5 ppm of methane and it is impossible to obtain high purity carbon dioxide. Applying the low temperature technique, it is possible to separate methane and carbon dioxide from bio gas. PRO II simulation shows results a small change of liquefaction temperatures and no difference with the used thermodynamic models. Applying low temperature technique, It is possible to separate carbon dioxide and methane from biogas.

Preparation and Characterization of Molecular Sieving Carbon by Methane and Benzene Cracking over Activated Carbon Spheres

  • Joshi, Harish Chandra;Kumar, Rajesh;Singh, Rohitashaw Kumar;Lal, Darshan
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2007
  • Molecular sieving carbon (MSC) for separating $O_2-N_2$ and $CO_2-CH_4$ has been prepared through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane and benzene on activated carbon spheres (ACS) derived from polystyrene sulfonate beads. The validity of the material for assessment of molecular sieving behavior for $O_2-N_2$ and $CO_2-CH_4$ pair of gases was assessed by the kinetic adsorption of the corresponding gases at $25^{\circ}C$. It was observed that methane cracking on ACS lead to deposition of carbon mostly in whole length of pores rather than in pore entrance, resulting in a reduction in adsorption capacity. MSC showing good selectivity for $CO_2-CH_4$ and $O_2-N_2$ separation was obtained through benzene cracking on ACS with benzene entrantment of $0.40{\times}10^{-4}\;g/ml$ at cracking temperature of $725^{\circ}C$ for a period of 90 minutes resulting in a selectivity of 3.31:1.00 for $O_2-N_2$ and 8.00:1.00 for $CO_2-CH_4$ pair of gases respectively.

Production of Hydrogen from Methane by 3phase AC GlidArc Plasma (3상 교류 부채꼴 방전을 이용한 메탄으로부터 수소 생산)

  • Chun, Young-Nam;Kim, Seong-Cheon;Lim, Mun-Seup
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2232-2237
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    • 2007
  • Steam reforming and catalytic reforming of $CH_4$ conversion to produce synthesis gas require both high temperatures and high pressure. Non-thermal plasma is considered to be a promising technology for the hydrogen rich gas production from methane. In this study, three phase AC GlidArc plasma system was employed to investigate the effects of gas composition, gas flow rate, catalyst reactor temperature and applied electric power on the $CH_4$ and $H_2$ yield and the product distribution. The studied system consisted of three electrode and it connected AC generate power system different voltages. In this study, air was used for the partial oxidation of methane. The results showed that increasing gas flow rate, catalyst reactor temperature, or electric power enhanced $CH_4$ conversion and $H_2$ concentration. The reference conditions were found at a $O_2$/C molar ratio of 0.45, a feed flow rate of 4.9 ${\ell}$/min, and input power of 1kW for the maximum conversions of $CH_4$ with a high selectivity of $H_2$ and a low reactor energy density.

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Relationships between Methane Production and Sulfate Reduction in Reclaimed Rice Field Soils

  • Lee, Ju-Hwan;Cho, Kang-Hyun
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.281-288
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    • 2004
  • The change in relationships between methane production and sulfate reduction was investigated in reclaimed rice field soils at different time points after reclamation of tidal flat in Korea. Sulfate concentrations of soils in the ca. 60-year-old and 26-year-old reclaimed rice fields were much lower than that in a natural tidal flat. During 60 d of anaerobic incubation, total methane production and sulfate consumption of the soil slurries were 7.0 ${\mu}$mol $CH_4$/g and 8.2 ${\mu}$mol $SO_4^{2-}$/g in the 60-year-old rice field, 5.6 ${\mu}$mol $CH_4$/g and 12.7 mmol $SO_4^{2-}$/g in the 26-year-old rice field, and ca. 0 mmol $CH_4$/g and 22.4 ${\mu}$mol $SO_4^{2-}$/g in a natural tidal flat. Relative percent electron flow through sulfate reduction in the 60-year-old rice field was much lower (50.8%) compared with the 26-year-old rice field (69.3%) and the tidal flat (99.9%). The addition of an inhibitor of methanogenesis (2-bromoethanesulfonate) had no effect on sulfate reduction in the soil slurries of the reclaimed rice fields. However, instant stimulation of methane production was achieved with addition of an inhibitor of sulfate reduction (molybdate) in the soil slurries from the 26-year-old reclaimed rice field. The specific inhibitor experiments suggest that the relationship of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction might become mutually exclusive or syntrophic depending on sulfate content in the soil after reclamation. Sulfate, thus sulfate reduction activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, would be an important environmental factor that inhibits methane production and determines the major pathway of electron and carbon flow in anaerobic carbon mineralization of reclaimed rice field soils.

Function of Microbial Electrochemical Technology in Anaerobic Digestion using Sewage Sludge (하수슬러지를 이용한 혐기성소화조에서 미생물 전기화학기술의 역할)

  • Tian, Dongjie;Lee, Beom;Park, Jungye;Jun, Hangbae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2016
  • Microbial electrochemical technology (MET) has recently been studied to improve the efficiency of a traditional anaerobic digestion (AD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of MET in the system when MET was combined with traditional AD (i.e., AD-MET). Electrodes used in the MET were Cu coated graphite electrodes. They were supplied with a voltage of 0.3 V. AD started to generate methane in 80 days. But AD-MET started to generate methane from the initial operation after the system started. It was observed that AD-MET reached steady state faster and produced higher methane yield than AD. During the steady state, the average daily methane productions in AD and AD-MET were 2.3L/d and 4.9L/d, respectively. Methane yields were 0.07-CH4/g‧CODre in AD and 0.25L-CH4/g‧CODre in AD-MET. In AD-MET, the production rates of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) were 0.12 mg TVFAs/mg VS‧d and 0.35 mg SCOD/mg VS‧d, respectively. They were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in AD. However, the concentrations of residual TVFAs in both systems were not significantly (p > 0.05) different from each other, confirming that methane conversion in AD-MET was greater than that in AD.

The Measurement of Biochemical Methane Potential in the Several Organic Waste Resources (유기성 폐자원별 메탄 생산 퍼텐셜 측정 연구)

  • Kim, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2010
  • This research studied the bio-methane potential of several waste biomass materials as alternative sources for biogas production, and the laboratory procedure for measuring the biochemical methane potential was described. The wastes from four agro-industries (sewage, livestock, food wastewater treatment sludge and cattle rumen substance generating in slaughter house) were evaluated as substrates for the assay of biochemical methane potential. In order to estimate the ultimate methane yield, two empirical equations (modified Gompertz equation and exponential equation) was investigated. The ultimate methane yield of sewage, livestock, food sludge and lumen substance estimated by the modified Gompertz equation were 0.086, 0.147, 0.146, and 0.121 L $CH_{4}\;g^{-1}\;VS_{added}$, respectively. The ultimate methane yield estimated by the exponential equation were 0.109, 0.246 and 0.174 L $CH_{4}\;g^{-1}\;VS_{added}$ in sewage, livestock sludge and lumen substance. And the ultimate methane yield estimated by the exponential equation showed more high values in the range of 26.7 ~67.3% than the ultimate methane yield estimated by the modified Gompertz equation.

Structure of Edge Flame in a Methane-Oxygen Mixing Layer (메탄/순산소 혼합층에서 Edge Flame의 구조)

  • Choi, S.K.;Kim, J.;Chung, S.H.;Kim, J.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2006
  • Structure of edge flame established in a mixing layer, formed between two uniformly flowing pure $CH_4$ and pure $O_2$ streams, is numerically investigated by employing a detailed methane-oxidation mechanism. The numerical results exhibited the most outstanding distinction of using pure oxygen in the fuel-rich premixed-flame front, through which the carbon-containing compound is found to leak mainly in the form of CO instead of HC compounds, contrary to the rich $CH_4-air$ premixed flames in which $CH_4$ as well as $C_2H_m$ leakage can occur. Moreover, while passing through the rich premixed flame, a major route for CO production, in addition to the direct $CH_4$ decomposition, is found to be $C_2H_m$ compound formation followed by their decomposition into CO. Beyond the rich premixed flame front, CO is further oxidized into $CO_2$ in a broad diffusion-flame-like reaction zone located around moderately fuel-rich side of the stoichiometric mixture by the OH radical from the fuel-lean premixed-flame front. Since the secondary CO production through $C_2H_m$ decomposition has a relatively strong reaction intensity, an additional heat-release branch appears and the resulting heat-release profile can no longer be seen as a tribrachial structure.

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