• Title, Summary, Keyword: Methane ($CH_4$)

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Diamond-like Carbon Films Synthesized from $CH_4$, $CH_4-H_2$, and $CH_4-Ar$ Plasmas (메탄, 메탄-수소 및 메탄-아르곤 플라즈마로부터 합성된 다이아몬드성 탄소막)

  • Choi, Y.;Hong, J. W.;Lee, H. W.;Song, J. S.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 1995
  • Diamondlike carbon(DLC)films having good characteristics in mechanical and optical properties, were synthesized by rf-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Methane, methane-hydrogen, or methane-argon were used as source gases. The infrared transparency and composition of the films were investigate. Especially, the anti-reflection effect of KLC film in infrared region was confirmed by depositing it on Ge/Si sample. When DLC films were deposited on the plastic substrates and thermal distortion, which were originated before and during deposition, respectively, played a role as a crack source of the films.

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Correlation between Methane (CH4) Emissions and Root Aerenchyma of Rice Varieties

  • Kim, Woo-Jae;Bui, Liem T.;Chun, Jae-Buhm;McClung, Anna M.;Barnaby, Jinyoung Y.
    • Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.381-390
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    • 2018
  • Percentage of aerenchyma area has been closely linked with amounts of methane emitted by rice. A diversity panel of 39 global rice varieties were examined to determine genetic variation for root transverse section (RTS), aerenchyma area, and % aerenchyma. RTS and aerenchyma area showed a strong positive correlation while there existed no significant correlation between RTS area and % aerenchyma. Five varieties previously shown to differ in methane emissions under field conditions were found to encompass the variation found in the diversity panel for RTS and aerenchyma area. These five varieties were evaluated in a greenhouse study to determine the relationship of RTS, aerenchyma area, and % aerenchyma with methane emissions. Methane emissions at physiological maturity were the highest for 'Rondo', followed by 'Jupiter', while 'Sabine', 'Francis' and 'CLXL745' emitted the least. The same varietal rank, 'Rondo' being the largest and 'CLXL745' the smallest, was observed with RTS and aerenchyma areas. RTS and aerenchyma area were significantly correlated with methane emissions, r = 0.61 and r = 0.57, respectively (P < 0.001); however, there was no relationship with % aerenchyma. Our results demonstrated that varieties with a larger root area also developed a larger aerenchyma area, which serves as a gas conduit, and as a result, methane emissions were increased. This study suggests that root transverse section area could be used as a means of selecting germplasm with reduced $CH_4$ emissions.

Influence of Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts on Methane Autothermal Reforming (메탄 자열개질 반응에 대한 Ni/CeO2-ZrO2 촉매의 영향)

  • Kang, Min Goo;Lee, Tae Jun;Lee, Jong Dae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2009
  • The catalytic behavior of $Ni/Ce_XZr_{(1-X)}O_2$ loaded on the alumina coated honeycomb monolith was studied for the autothermal reforming reaction of methane. Among the catalysts with the different Ce/Zr ratios, the $Ni/Ce_{0.80}Zr_{0.20}O_2$ Catalyst showed the highest conversion of methane. By investigating the effect of Ni content on the $Ni/Ce_{0.80}Zr_{0.20}O_2$ catalysts, the catalyst loaded with 15wt% Ni had the highest activity. Also, $H_2$ yield was increased as $H_2O/CH_4$ ratio increased. Methane conversion was improved as $O_2/CH_4$ ratio was increased, whereas the yield of $H_2$ was decreased. Among the catalysts tested for 30 hours, $Ni(15wt%)/Ce_{0.80}Zr_{0.20}O_2$ showed the excellent conversion(${\geq}99%$) of methane and the stability at the condition of $GHSV=30,000h^{-1}$, feed ratio S/C/O=2/1/0.5 and reaction temperature $800^{\circ}C$.

Field Application of Biocovers in Landfills for Methane Mitigation (매립지 메탄 저감을 위한 바이오커버의 현장 적용 평가)

  • Jung, Hyekyeng;Yun, Jeonghee;Oh, Kyung Cheol;Jeon, Jun-Min;Ryu, Hee-Wook;Cho, Kyung-Suk
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.322-329
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    • 2017
  • Two pilot-scale biocovers (PBCs) were installed in a landfill, and the methane ($CH_4$) concentrations at their inlets and outlets were monitored for 240 days to evaluate the methane removability. Consequently, the packing materials were sampled from the PBCs, and their potential $CH_4$ oxidizing abilities were evaluated in serum vials. The $CH_4$ concentration at the inlet of the biocovers was observed to be in the range of 23.7-47.9% (average = 41.3%, median = 42.6%). In PBC1, where a mixture of soil, earthworm cast, and compost (7:2:1, v/v) was employed as the packing material, the $CH_4$ removal efficiency was evaluated to be between 60.7-85.5%. In PBC2, which was filled with a mixture of soil, earthworm cast, perlite, and compost (4:2:3:1, v/v), the removal efficiency was evaluated to be between 29.2-78.5%. Although the packing materials had an excellent $CH_4$ oxidizing potential (average oxidation rate for $CH_4=180-199{\mu}g\;CH_4{\cdot}g\;packing\;material^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$), $CH_4$ removal efficiency in PBC1 and PBC2 decreased to the range of 0-30% once the packing materials in the PBCs were clogged and channeled. Furthermore, seasonal effects exhibited no significant differences in the $CH_4$ removal efficiency of the biocovers. The results of this study can be used to design and operate real-scale biocovers in landfills to mitigate $CH_4$ buildup.

Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradability of Agro-industrial Biomass (농축산바이오매스 고온 혐기성 생분해도 평가)

  • Heo, Namhyo;Kang, Ho;Lee, Seungheon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.101-101
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    • 2010
  • Anaerobic digestion(AD) is the most promising method for treating and recycling of different organic wastes, such as organic fraction of municipal solid waste, household wastes, animal manure, agro-industrial wastes, industrial organic wastes and sewage sludge. During AD, i.e. organic materials are decomposed by anaerobic forming bacteria and fina1ly converted to excellent fertilizer and biogas which is a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. AD has been one of the leading technologies that can make a large contribution to produce renewable energy and to reduce $CO_2$ and other green-house gas(GHG) emission, it is becoming a key method for both waste treatment and recovery of a renewable fuel and other valuable co-products. Currently some 80% of the world's overall energy supply of about 400 EJ per year in derived from fossil fuels. Nevertheless roughly 10~15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. The representative biofuels produced from the biomass are bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas, and currently biogas plays a smaller than other biofuels but steadily growing role. Traditionally anaerobic digestion applied for different biowaste e.g. sewage sludge, manure, other organic wastes treatment and stabilization, biogas has become a well established energy resource. However, the biowaste are fairly limited in respect to the production and utilization as renewable source, but the plant biomass, the so called "energy crops" are used for more biogas production in EU countries and the investigation on the biomethane potential of different crops and plant materials have been carried out. In Korea, with steadily increasing oil prices and improved environmental regulations, since 2005 anaerobic digestion was again stimulated, especially on the biogasification of different biowastes and agro-industrial biomass including "energy crops". This study have been carried out to investigate anaerobic biodegradability by the biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of animal manures, different forage crops i.e. "energy crops", plant and industrial organic wastes in the condition of thermophilic temperature, The biodegradability of animal manure were 63.2% and 58.2% with $315m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of cattle slurry and $370m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of pig slurry in ultimate methane yields. Those of winter forage crops were the range 75% to 87% with ultimate methane yield of $378m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $450m^3CH_4/tonVS$ and those of summer forage crops were the range 81% to 85% with ultimate methane yield of $392m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $415m^3CH_4/tonVS$. The forge crops as "energy crops" could be used as good renewable energy source to increase methane production and to improve biodegradability in co-digestion with animal manure or only energy crop digestion.

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Indirect Estimation of CH4 from Livestock Feeds through TOCs Evaluation

  • Kim, M.J.;Lee, J.S.;Kumar, S.;Rahman, M.M.;Shin, J.S.;Ra, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.496-501
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    • 2012
  • Thirty-five available feeds were fermented in vitro in order to investigate their soluble total organic carbon (TOCs) and methane ($CH_4$) production rate. A fermentation reactor was designed to capture the $CH_4$ gas emitted and to collect liquor from the reactor during in vitro fermentation. The results showed that $CH_4$ production rate greatly varied among feeds with different ingredients. The lowest $CH_4$-producing feeds were corn gluten feed, brewer's grain, and orchard grass among the energy, protein, and forage feed groups, respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in digestibility, soluble total organic carbon (TOCs), and $CH_4$ emissions among feeds, during 48 h of in vitro fermentation. Digestibility and TOCs was not found to be related due to different fermentation pattern of each but TOCs production was directly proportional to $CH_4$ production (y = 0.0076x, $r^2$ = 0.83). From this in vitro study, TOCs production could be used as an indirect index for estimation of $CH_4$ emission from feed ingredients.

Prediction of methane emission from sheep based on data measured in vivo from open-circuit respiratory studies

  • Ma, Tao;Deng, Kaidong;Diao, Qiyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.1389-1396
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The current study analysed the relationships between methane ($CH_4$) output from animal and dietary factors. Methods: The dataset was obtained from 159 Dorper${\times}$thin-tailed Han lambs from our seven studies, and $CH_4$ production and energy metabolism data were measured in vivo by an opencircuit respiratory method. All lambs were confined indoors and fed pelleted diet during the whole experimental period in all studies. Data from two-thirds of lambs were used to develop linear and multiple regressions to describe the relationship between $CH_4$ emission and dietary variables, and data from the remaining one third of lambs were used to validate the established models. Results: $CH_4$ emission (g/d) was positively related to dry matter intake (DMI) and gross energy intake (GEI) (p<0.001). $CH_4$ energy/GEI was negatively related to metabolizable energy/gross energy and metabolizable energy/digestible energy (p<0.001). Using DMI to predict $CH_4$ emission (g/d) resulted in a coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of 0.80. Using GEI, digestible energy intake, and metabolizable energy intake predict $CH_4$ energy/GEI resulted in a $R^2$ of 0.92. Conclusion: the prediction equations established in the current study are useful to develop appropriate feeding and management strategies to mitigate $CH_4$ emissions from sheep.

Relationship between the Methane Production and the CNCPS Carbohydrate Fractions of Rations with Various Concentrate/roughage Ratios Evaluated Using In vitro Incubation Technique

  • Dong, Ruilan;Zhao, Guangyong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1708-1716
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    • 2013
  • The objective of the trial was to study the relationship between the methane ($CH_4$) production and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate fractions of feeds for cattle and the suitability of CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as the dietary variables in modeling the $CH_4$ production in rumen fermentation. Forty-five rations for cattle with the concentrate/roughage ratios of 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50 were formulated as feed samples. The Menke and Steingass's gas test was used for the measurement of $CH_4$ production. The feed samples were incubated for 48 h and the $CH_4$ production was analyzed using gas chromatography. Statistical analysis indicated that the $CH_4$ production (mL) was closely correlated with the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g), i.e. CA (sugars); $CB_1$ (starch and pectin); $CB_2$ (available cell wall) in a multiple linear pattern: $CH_4=(89.16{\pm}14.93)$ $CA+(124.10{\pm}13.90)$ $CB_1+(30.58{\pm}11.72)$ $CB_2+(3.28{\pm}7.19)$, $R^2=0.81$, p<0.0001, n = 45. Validation of the model using 10 rations indicated that the $CH_4$ production of the rations for cattle could accurately be predicted based on the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions. The trial indicated that the CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, $CB_1$ and $CB_2$ were suitable dietary variables for predicting the $CH_4$ production in rumen fermentation in vitro.

Impacts of Elevated $CO_2$ on Algal Growth, $CH_4$ Oxidation and $N_2O$ Production in Northern Peatland (이탄습지에서 이산화탄소의 농도가 조류의 증식, 메탄 산화 및 아산화질소 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Freeman, Chris;Kang, Ho-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.261-266
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    • 2001
  • Effects of elevated carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) on soil microbial processes were studied in a northern peatland. Intact peat cores with surface vegetation were collected from a northern Welsh fen, and incubated either under elevated carbon dioxide (700 ppm) or ambient carbon dioxide (350 ppm) conditions for 4 months. Higher algal biomass was found under the elevated $CO_2$ condition, suggesting $CO_2$ fertilization effect on primary production, At the end of the incubation, trace gas production and consumption were analyzed using chemical inhibitors. For methane ($CH_4$ ), methyl fluoride ($CH_3F$) was applied to determine methane oxidation rates, while acetylene ($C_2H_2$) blocking method were applied to determine nitrification and denitrification rates. First, we have adopted those methods to optimize the reaction conditions for the wetland samples. Secondly, the methods were applied to the samples incubated under two levels of $CO_2$. The results exhibited that elevated carbon dioxide increased both methane production (210 vs. $100\;ng\;CH_4 g^{-1}\;hr^{-1}$) and oxidation (128 vs. $15\;ng\;CH_4 g^{-1}\;hr^{-1}$), resulting in no net increase in methane flux. For nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) , elevated carbon dioxide enhanced nitrous oxide emission probably from activation of nitrification process rather than denitrification rates. All of these changes seemed to be substantially influenced by higher oxygen diffusion from enhanced algal productivity under elevated $CO_2$.

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A Numerical Study on Methane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames Part 2. Global Strain Rate

  • Park, Woe Chul
    • International Journal of Safety
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.12-16
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    • 2003
  • In Part 1, the flame structure of the counterflow nonpremixed flames computed by using Fire Dynamics Simulator was compared with that of OPPDIF for different concentrations of methane in the fuel stream. In this study, comparisons were made for the global strain rate that is an important parameter for diffusion flames for further evaluation of FDS. At each of the three fuel concentrations, $20% CH_4+ 80% N_2, 50% CH_4 + 50% N_2, 90% CH_4 + 10% N_2$ in the fuel stream, the temperature and axial velocity profiles were investigated for the global strain rate in the range from 20 to $100s^{-1}$. Changes in flame thickness and radius were also compared with OPPDIF. There was good agreement in the temperature and axial velocity profiles between the axisymmetric simulations and the one-dimensional computations except for the regions where the flame temperature reach its peak and the axial velocity rapidly changes. The simulations of the axisymmetric flames with FDS showed that the flame thickness decreases and the flame radius increases with increasing global strain rate.