• Title, Summary, Keyword: Methane ($CH_4$)

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Partial Oxidation of Methane over CeO2 Catalyst

  • Rho, Hyun-Seog;Jun, Ki-Won;Baek, Seung-Chan;Park, Sang-Eon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.799-803
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    • 2002
  • Partial oxidation of methane has been conducted over $CeO_2$and it has been found that $CeO_2$has an extraordinary catalytic activity in the reaction. Its activity was strongly dependent on the $CH_4/CO_2$ ratio. Total combustion was dominant with stoichiometric feed ratio$(CH_4/O_2=$ 2.0) but partial oxidation was achieved between the $CH_4/O_2$ ration of 3.8 4.3 and the period depended upon the feed composition. The proposed raaction mechanism it that oxygen vacancies in raduced deria are supplied with oxygen molecules from the reactant, and then activate adsorbed oxygen, followed by releasing activated axygen species reacting with methane to produce $H_2$ and CO.

Effects of $CO_2$ and $O_2$ Addition on Methane Dry Reforming Using Arc-Jet Plasma Reactor (아크제트 플라즈마를 이용한 메탄건식개질 반응에서 $CO_2$$O_2$ 첨가의 영향)

  • Hwang, N.K.;Cha, M.S.;Song, Y.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2008
  • The reaction mechanism of methane dry reforming has been investigated using an arc-jet reactor. The effects of input power, $CO_2/CH_4$ and added $O_2$ were investigated by product analysis, including CO, $H_2$, $C_{2}H_{Y}$ and $C_{3}H_{Y}$ as well as $CH_4$ and $CO_2$. In the process, input electrical power activated the reactions between $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ significantly. The increased feed ratio of the $CO_2$ to $CH_4$ in the dry reforming does not affect to the $CH_4$ conversion. but we could observe increase in CO selectivity together with decreasing $H_2$ generation. Added oxygen can also increase not only CO selectivity but also $CH_4$ conversion. However, hydrogen selectivity was decreased significantly due to a increased $H_{2}O$ formation.

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Effects of Cellulase Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Energy Utilization and Methane Emission by Boer Crossbred Goats

  • Wang, Lizhi;Xue, Bai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the effect of supplementing exogenous cellulase on nutrient and energy utilization. Twelve desexed Boer crossbred goats were used in a replicated $3{\times}3$ Latin square design with 23-d periods. Dietary treatments were basal diet (control, no cellulase), basal diet plus 2 g unitary cellulase/kg of total mixed ration dry matter (DM), and basal diet plus 2 g compound cellulase/kg of total mixed ration DM. Three stages of feeding trials were used corresponding to the three treatments, each comprised 23 d, with the first 14 d as the preliminary period and the following 9 d as formal trial period for metabolism trial. Total collection of feces and urine were conducted from the 4th d of the formal trial, and gas exchange measures were determined in indirect respiratory chambers in the last 3 d of the formal trial. Results showed that cellulase addition had no effect (p>0.05) on nutrient digestibility. Dietary supplementation of cellulase did not affect (p>0.05) N intake and retention in goats. Gross energy (GE) intake, fecal energy and urinary energy excretion, heat production were not affected (p>0.05) by the cellulase supplementation. Total methane emission (g/d), $CH_4$ emission as a proportion of live weight or feed intake (DM, organic matter [OM], digestible DM or digestible OM), or $CH_4$ energy output ($CH_4$-E) as a proportion of energy intake (GE, digestible energy, or metabolizable energy), were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. There was a significant (p<0.001) relationship between $CH_4$ and live weight (y = 0.645x+0.2, $R^2$ = 0.54), $CH_4$ and DM intake (y = 16.7x+1.4, $R^2$ = 0.51), $CH_4$ and OM intake (y = 18.8x+1.3, $R^2$ = 0.51) and $CH_4$-E and GE intake. Results from this study revealed that dietary supplementation of cellulase may have no effect on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention, energy metabolism, and methane emission in goat.

Influence of Diet on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Cattle Manure

  • Nampoothiri, Vinu M.;Mohini, Madhu;Thakur, S.S.;Mondal, Goutham
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2015
  • Livestock is one of the major contributors of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It accounts for 14.5% of the global GHGs emissions like methane ($CH_4$) from enteric fermentation and manure, nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) from manure and fertilizer. Since enteric emissions are a major contributor of $CH_4$ than that of manure emissions hence primary efforts were made on reducing enteric emissions, with minor attention to dung emissions. Many researches were conducted by dietary manipulation to mitigate enteric $CH_4$ emission. However dietary manipulation also had significant effects on manure GHGs emissions too. Several works proved that manure $CH_4$ emissions were increased with high level of concentrate supplementation despite reduction in enteric $CH_4$. Fat and CP content of the diet has shown inconsistent results on manure $CH_4$ emissions. Amount of concentrate in the diet has shown little effect whereas dietary CP content exhibited conflicting effects on manure $N_2O$ emissions.

Recovery of Sustainable Renewable Energy from Marine Biomass

  • Gurung, Anup;Oh, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.156-161
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    • 2012
  • Marine biomass is considered an important substrate for anaerobic digestion to recovery energy i.e. methane. Nevertheless, marine biomass has attracted little attention by researchers compared to terrestrial feedstock for anaerobic digestion. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to evaluate generation of renewable energy from starfish. A cumulative biogas yield of $748{\pm}67mL\;g^{-1}VS^{-1}$ was obtained after 60 days of digestion. The cumulative methane yield of $486{\pm}28mL\;CH_4\;g^{-1}VS^{-1}$ was obtained after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of the biogas was approximately 70%. The calculated data applying the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative $CH_4$ production showed good correlation with the experimental result obtained from this batch study. Since the result obtained from this study is comparable to results with other substrates, marine biomass can be co-digested with food waste or swine wastewater to produce $CH_4$ gas that will help to reduce the gap in global energy demand.

Analysis of research trends in methane emissions from rice paddies in Korea

  • Choi, Eun-Jung;Lee, Jae-Han;Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Su-Hun;Lim, Ji-Sun;Lee, Dong-Kyu;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.463-476
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    • 2017
  • Climate change is considered as the greatest threat to our future and descendants. The Korean government has set a target for 2030 to reduce emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by 37% from the business-as-usual levels which are projected to reach 851 million metric tons of $CO_2eq$ (Carbon dioxide equivalent). In Korea, GHGs emission from agriculture account for almost 3.1% of the total of anthropogenic GHGs. The GHGs emitted from agricultural land are largely classified into three types: carbon dioxide ($CO_2$), methane ($CH_4$), and nitrous oxide ($N_2O$). In Korea, rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural $CH_4$ sources. In order to analyze domestic research trends related to $CH_4$ emission from rice paddies, 93 academic publications including peer reviewed journals, books, working papers, reports, etc., published from 1995 to September 2017, were critically reviewed. The results were classified according to the research purposes. $CH_4$ characteristics and assessment were found to account for approximately 65.9% of the research trends, development of $CH_4$ emission factors for 9.5%, $CH_4$ emission reduction technology for 14.8%, and $CH_4$ emission modeling for 6.3%, etc. A number of research related to $CH_4$ emission characteristics and assessment have been studied in recent years, whereas further study on $CH_4$ emission factors are required to determine an accurate country-specific GHG emission from rice paddies. Future research should be directed toward both studies for reducing the release of $CH_4$ from rice paddies to the atmosphere and the understanding of the major controlling factors affecting $CH_4$ emission.

Assessment of Methane (CH4) Emissions from Rice Paddy and Crop Residues Burning in 2011 with the IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Lee, Jong Sik;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2013
  • Rice cultivation in the paddy field and the burning of crop residues have been identified as the important sources of methane emission in agricultural sector. This study aimed at assessment of the methane emission from croplands in the year of 2011 with the IPCC guideline methodology. Methane from rice cultivation was emitted 6,813 $CO_2$-eq Gg in 2011. According to the water management, methane emission amounts by continuously flooded and intermittently flooded were 1,499 and 5,314 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. Methane emission by crop residues burning was highest in red pepper and followed by rice straw, pulses and barely in 2011. Methane emission by field burning was very little compared with rice cultivation.

Effect of By-Product Gypsum Fertilizer on Methane Gas Emissions and Rice Productivity in Paddy Field

  • Park, Jun-Hong;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Kong, Myung-Suk;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Park, Sang-Jo;Won, Jong-Gun;Lee, Suk-Hee;Seo, Dong-Hwan;Park, So-Deuk;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2016
  • Rice cultivation in paddy field affects the global balance of methane ($CH_4$) as a key greenhouse gas. To evaluate a potential use of by-product gypsum fertilizer (BGF) in reducing $CH_4$ emission from paddy soil, $CH_4$ fluxes from a paddy soil applied with BGF different levels (0, 2, 4 and $8Mg\;ha^{-1}$) were investigated by closed-chamber method during rice cultivation period. $CH_4$ flux significantly decreased (p<0.05) with increasing level of BGF application. $8Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of BGF addition in soil reduced $CH_4$ flux by 60.6% compared to control. Decreased soil redox potential (Eh) resulted in increasing $CH_4$ emission through a $CO_2$ reduction reaction. The concentrations of dissolved calcium (Ca) and sulfate ion (${SO_4}^{2-}$) in soil pore water were significantly increased as the application rate of BGF increased and showed negatively correlations with $CH_4$ flux. Decreased $CH_4$ flux with BGF application implied that ${SO_4}^{2-}$ ion led to decreases in electron availability for methanogen and precipitation reaction of Ca ion with inorganic carbon including carbonate and bicarbonate as a source of $CH_4$ formation under anoxic condition. BGF application also increased rice grain yield by 16% at $8Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of BGF addition. Therefore, our results suggest that BGF application can be a good soil management practice to reduce $CH_4$ emission from paddy soil and to increase rice yield.

The Addition Effect of on Methane Ignition behind Reflected Shock Waves

  • Ji, Seong Bae;Kim, Gil Yeong;Sin, Gwan Su
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.957-958
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    • 2000
  • The addition effect of $CH^3Br$ on the ignition of methane was investigated in the temperature range of 1537-1920 K behind reflected shock waves. The ignition delay times were measured by the sudden increase of pres-sure and OH emission in the $CH_4-O_2-Ar$ system containing small amount of $CH_3Br.$ The delay times of mix-tures with $CH_3Br$ were shorter than those without $CH_3Br.$ The promotion of ignition by $CH_3Br$ was caused by the relative fast decomposition rate in additive. To clarify the addition effect of $CH_3Br$ from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism, computational analyses were performed in $CH_4-CH_3Br-O_2-Ar$ mixtures.

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Study on Production Characteristic of Methane Gas in Anaerobic Digestion Reactor according to Input Type of Food Waste (음식물쓰레기 주입형태에 따른 혐기성소화조의 메탄가스 발생특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Hyeong;Park, Sung-Hyun;Sung, Nak-Chang
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to investigate production characterisitic of methane gas in anaerobic digestion reactor according to input type of food waste. In the production rates of $CH_4$ gas per g $VS_{added}$, reactor R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 in which sewage sludge and food waste were combined with mixing ratio of 1:0.1, 1:0.3, 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 showed 85mL, 62mL, 67mL, 72mL, and 73mL $CH_4/g$ $VS_{added}$ which were much more than sewage sludge digestion alone. Methane content according to crushing size of food waste respectively showed 51.1%(raw food), 53.1%(2~4mm), and 50.6%(<2mm), In case of methane production according to washing of food waste, R12(7~8 times washing) showed the highest methane production.

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