• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Methane ($CH_4$)

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논 토양에서 벼 기상생태형별 $CH_4$ 배출양상 및 배출량 추정 (Methane Emission among Rice Ecotypes in Korean Paddy Soil)

  • 이경보;이덕배;이상복;김종구;김용웅
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1999
  • 유기물 시용 및 벼 기상 생태형별 $CH_4$ 발생양상을 구명하고 이를 근거로 논 토양에서 배출되는 $CH_4$ 배출량을 추정하기 위해 미사질 양토에서 시험한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 시기별 $CH_4$ 배출은 조생종이 2번의 peak를 나타냈으며 중생종과 만생종은 3번의 peak를 나타냈으며 줄기를 통한 $CH_4$ 배출은 온도가 높을수록 많은 경향이었다. 2. $CH_4$배출량은 조생종에 비하여 중생종과 만생종이 높은 경향이었으며, 볏짚 시용구와 비교해볼 때 볏짚 무시용구에서 46%의 $CH_4$ 배출이 감소되었다. 3. $CH_4$ 배출 계수($gm^{-2}day^{-1}$)는 조생종이 0.394, 중생종이 0.407, 만생종이 0.411이었으며, 볏짚 무시용시 $CH_4$ 배출계수는 조생종이 0.198, 중생종이 0.269, 만생종이 0.273이었다.

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물 관리와 유기물 시용이 다른 논에서 벼 식물체를 통한 메탄 배출의 계절변화 (Seasonal Change of Rice-mediated Methane Emission from a Rice Paddy under Different Water Management and Organic Amendments)

  • 신용광;이양수;안종웅;고문환;엄기철
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2003
  • 물관리와 유기물 시용이 다른 논에서 메탄 배출을 측정하였다. 벼 식물체를 통해 배출되는 메탄을 측정하기 위하여 벼를 심은 chamber와 심지 않은 chamber를 반복으로 포장에 설치하였다. 기체시료는 벼 재배기간중 주 1회 채취하였다. 상시담수에서는 벼를 심은 NPK구, NPK(+P),는 $0.174g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 심지 않은 NPK구, NPK(-P),는 $0.046g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. 벼를 심은 볏짚퇴비 시응구, RSC(+P), 는 $0.214g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 심지 않은 볏짚퇴비 시용구, RSC(-P),는 $0.076g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. 볏짚을 2월에 시용하고 벼를 심은 시험구, RS2(+P), 는 $0.328g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 볏짚을 2월에 시용하고 벼를 심지 않은 시험구, RS2(-P),는 $0.1g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을보였다. 볏짚을 5월에 시용하고 벼를 심은 시험구, RS5(+P). 는 $0.414g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 볏짚을 2월에 시용하고 벼를 심지 않은 시험구, RS5(-P),는 $0.187g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. 간단관개에서는 NPK(+P)는 $0.115g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 NPK(-P)는 $0.041g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. RSC(+P)는 $0.137g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 RSC(-P)는 $0.06g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. RS2(+P) 는 $0.204g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 RS2(-P)는 $0.09g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. RS2(+P)는 $0.273g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였으나 RS5(-P)는 $0.13g\;CH_4\;m^{-2}\;d^{-1}$의 배출을 보였다. 상시담수 처리에서 벼 식물체를 통한 메탄 수송은 NPK구, RSC구 (볏짚퇴비를 5월에 시용한 구), RS2구(볏짚을 2월에 시응한 구)와 RS5구 (볏짚을 5월에 시용한 구)에서 각기 73.6 %, 64.5%, 69.5%, 54.8%였었고 평균 65.6%였었다. 간단관개처리에서 벼 식물체를 통한 메탄 수송은 NPK구, RSC구, RS2구와 RS5구에서 각각 64.3, 59.2, 55.9, 52.4였다.

경상남도 가좌산의 소나무, 참나무, 밤나무 우점 산림토양 별 메탄 산화능 평가 (Evaluation of Methane Oxidation Potentials of Alpine Soils Having Different Forestation Structure in Gajwa mountain)

  • 박용권;김상윤;권효숙;김필주
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.306-313
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Forest soils contain microbes capable of consuming atmospheric methane ($CH_4$), an amount matching the annual increase in $CH_4$ concentration in the atmosphere. However, the effect of plant residue production by different forest structure on $CH_4$ oxidation is not studied in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Korean alpine soils having different forestation structure on $CH_4$ uptake rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: the $CH_4$ flux was measured at three sites dominated with pine, chestnut and oak trees in southern Korea. The $CH_4$ uptake potentials were evaluated by a closed chamber method for a year. The $CH_4$ uptake rate was the highest in the pine tree soil ($1.05mg/m^2/day$) and then followed by oak ($0.930mg/m^2/day$) and chestnut trees ($0.497mg/m^2/day$). The $CH_4$ uptake rates were highly correlated to soil organic matter and moisture contents, and total microbial and methanotrophs activities. Different with the general concent, there was no any correlation between $CH_4$ oxidation rates, and soil temperature and labile carbon concentrations, irrespective with tree species. CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the methane oxidation rate was correlated in positive manner with organic matter, abundance of methanotrophs. Methane oxidation was different among tree species. This results could be used to estimate methane oxidation rate in forest of Korea after complementing information about statistical data and methane oxidation of other site.

플럭스챔버에 의한 매립지표면 메탄의 배출량 측정과 분석 (Surface Flux Measurements of Methane from Lamdfills by Closed Chamber Technique and its Validation)

  • 김득수;장영기;전의찬
    • 한국대기환경학회지
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.499-509
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    • 2000
  • Next to carbon dioxide, methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Methane is emitted into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wetlands, termites, wildries, ocean and freshwater. Anthropogenic sources include landfill, natural gas and oil production, and agriculture. These manmade sources account for about 70% of total global methane emissions; and among these, landfill accounts for approximately 10% of total manmade emissions. Solid waste landfills produce methane as bacteria decompose organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. Methane accounts for approximately 45 to 50 percent of landfill gas, while carbon dioxide and small quantities of other gases comprise the remaining to 50 to 55 percent. Using the closed enclosure technique, surface emission fluxes of methane from the selected landfill sites were measured. These data were used to estimate national methane emission rate from domestic landfills. During the three different periods, flux experiments were conducted at the sites from June 30 through December 26, 1999. The chamber technique employed for these experiments was validated in situ. Samples were collected directly by on-site flux chamber and analyzed for the variation of methane concentration by gas chromatography equipped with FID. Surface emission rates of methane were found out to vary with space and time. Significant seasonal variation was observed during the experimental period. Methane emission rates were estimated to be 64.5$\pm$54.5mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr from Kimpo landifll site. 357.4$\pm$68.9mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr and 8.1$\pm$12.4mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at KwanJu(managed and unmanaged), 472.7$\pm$1056mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at JonJu, and 482.4$\pm$1140 mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at KunSan. These measurement data were used for the extrapolation of national methane emission rate based on 1997 national solid waste data. The results were compared to those derived by theoretical first decay model suggested by IPCC guidelines.

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논 토양에서 질소비종이 CH4 배출에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Methane Emission in a Paddy Soil)

  • 이경보;이덕배;김종구;이상복;김재덕;한상수
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.212-219
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    • 2000
  • 논 토양에서 $CH_4$ 배출에 대한 질소비료의 영향을 조사하기 위해 요소, 황산암모늄, 완효성비료(LCU)를 시용한후 시기별 $CH_4$ 배출양상 및 용존 $CH_4$ 함량을 조사한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 볏짚시용구에서는 벼 생육초기부터 $CH_4$ 배출이 많았으나 간단관개로 인하여 $CH_4$ 배출을 줄일수가 있었다. 벼 생육시기에 따른 $CH_4$ 배출양상은 출수기 무렵에 $CH_4$ flux가 높은 경향이었다. 볏짚 무시용에 비하여 볏짚시용구에서 $CH_4$ 함량이 높았으며 용존 $CH_4$ 함량은 토심 5cm에서 가장 높았으며, 질소 비종별 용존 $CH_4$ 함량은 황산암모늄구에서 가장 낮았다. $CH_4$ 배출계수($g\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$)는 요소구가 0.192, 황산암모늄구는 0.165, 완효성비료(LCU)구는 0.179이었으며 볏짚 시용구에서는 요소구가 0.265, 황산암모늄구는 0.207, 완효성비료(LCU)구는 0.318로서 황산암모늄 시용구에서 가장낮았다.

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가축분뇨와 간척지 사료작물의 메탄발생량 (Biochemical Methane Potential of Animal Manure and Cultivated Forage Crops at the Reclaimed Tideland)

  • 허남효;이승헌;김병기
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.79-82
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    • 2008
  • Anaerobic biodegradability(AB), which can be determined with the ultimate methane yield by the decomposition of organic materials, is one of the important parameters for the design and the operation of anaerobic digestion plant. In this study, Biochemical Methane Potential(BMP) test has been carried out to evaluate the methane yield of animal manures, such as pig and cattle slurries, and different forage crops cultivated at the reclaimed tideland, such as maize, sorghum, barley, rye, Italian ryegrass(IRG), rape, rush and sludge produced from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant(SWTP). In the ultimate methane yield of animal manure, that of pig slurry(no used a EM) was 407 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ higher than 242 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ of cattle slurry. The ultimate methane yield of spike-crop rye was 442.36 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ the highest among different forage crops, the other showed the value above a methane yield of 300 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$. The forage crop could be used as a good substrate to improve the methane production in anaerobic co-digestion together with animal manure.

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Methane Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soils: A Review

  • Abushammala, Mohammed F.M.;Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad;Irwan, Dani;Younes, Mohammad K.
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2014
  • Migration of methane ($CH_4$) gas from landfills to the surrounding environment negatively affects both humankind and the environment. It is therefore essential to develop management techniques to reduce $CH_4$ emissions from landfills to minimize global warming and to reduce the human risks associated with $CH_4$ gas migration. Oxidation of $CH_4$ in landfill cover soil is the most important strategy for $CH_4$ emissions mitigation. $CH_4$ oxidation occurs naturally in landfill cover soils due to the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria. However, the activities of these bacteria are influenced by several controlling factors. This study attempts to review the important issues associated with the $CH_4$ oxidation process in landfill cover soils. The $CH_4$ oxidation process is highly sensitive to environmental factors and cover soil properties. The comparison of various biotic system techniques indicated that each technique has unique advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of the best technique for a specific application depends on economic constraints, treatment efficiency and landfill operations.

A review: methane capture by nanoporous carbon materials for automobiles

  • Choi, Pil-Seon;Jeong, Ji-Moon;Choi, Yong-Ki;Kim, Myung-Seok;Shin, Gi-Joo;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2016
  • Global warming is considered one of the great challenges of the twenty-first century. In order to reduce the ever-increasing amount of methane (CH4) released into the atmosphere, and thus its impact on global climate change, CH4 storage technologies are attracting significant research interest. CH4 storage processes are attracting technological interest, and methane is being applied as an alternative fuel for vehicles. CH4 storage involves many technologies, among which, adsorption processes such as processes using porous adsorbents are regarded as an important green and economic technology. It is very important to develop highly efficient adsorbents to realize techno-economic systems for CH4 adsorption and storage. In this review, we summarize the nanomaterials being used for CH4 adsorption, which are divided into non-carbonaceous (e.g., zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, and porous polymers) and carbonaceous materials (e.g., activated carbons, ordered porous carbons, and activated carbon fibers), with a focus on recent research.

온대 낙엽 활엽수림에서의 강수량에 따른 메탄 흡수 감소 (Precipitation Decreases Methane Uptake in a Temperate Deciduous Forest)

  • 나다르 후세인 코카르;박재우
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회지:지하수토양환경
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-34
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    • 2019
  • Soil moisture regulates the fate of methane ($CH_4$) in forest soil via biological and chemical processes. The instant effect of variable precipitation on $CH_4$ uptake is, however, unclear in the forest ecosystems. Here, we measured $CH_4$ flux in a temperate forest soil immediately after variable volume of water applications equivalent to 10, 20 40, and $80mm\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$ precipitation. $CH_4$ uptake was significantly higher when the water was not applied. The $CH_4$ uptake decreased significantly with increasing water application. $CH_4$ uptake was linked with air filled porosity and water filled porosity. $CH_4$ uptake response to actual precipitation intensity was in agreement with $CH_4$ uptake results in this study. $CH_4$ uptake decreased 55% at highest precipitation intensity. Since annual $CH_4$ flux is calculated with interpolation of weekly or biweekly field observations, instant effect of precipitation can mislead the interpolated annual results.