• Title, Summary, Keyword: Methane

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Application of a Numerical Model for the Prediction of Vertical Profiles of Electron Acceptors Based on Degradation of Organic Matter in Benthic Sediments (퇴적 유기물 분해과정에 따른 물질 거동 변화 예측을 위한 수치모델 적용)

  • Choi, Jung-Hyun;Park, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.151-157
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    • 2005
  • A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species in benthic sediments. The model accounted for microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent chemical reactions of interest using stoichiometric relationships. Depending on the dominant electron acceptors utilized by microorganisms, the benthic sediments were assumed to be vertically subdivided into six zones: (1) aerobic respiration, (2) denitrification, (3) manganese reduction, (4) iron reduction, (5) sulfate reduction, and (6) methanogenesis. The utilizations of electron acceptors in the biologically mediated oxidation of organic matter were represented by Monod-type expression. The mass balance equations formulated for the reactive transport of organic matter, electron acceptors, and their corresponding reduced species in the sediments were solved utilizing an iterative multistep numerical method. The ability of model to simulate a freshwater sediments system was tested by comparing simulation results against published data obtained from lake sediments. The simulation results reasonably agreed with field measurements for most species, except for ammonia. This result showed that the C/N ratio (106/16) in the sediments is lower than what the Redfield formula prescribes. Since accurate estimates of vertical profiles of electron acceptors and their reduced species are important to determine the mobility and bioavailability of trace metals in the sediments, the model has potential application to assess the stability of selected trace metals in the sediments.

Geochemical Characteristics of the Hydrocarbons from the Block 6-1, Ulleung Basin (울릉 분지 6-1 광구에서 발견된 탄화수소의 지화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Young-Joo;Cheong, Tae-Jin;Oh, Jae-Ho;Park, Se-Jin;Yi, Song-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Seventeen exploratory wells have been drilled in the Block VI-1 of offshore Korea, which is located in the southern part or the Ulleung Basin. Gas show has been recognized from most of the wells, and gas and condensate have been accompanied in some wells. Commercial discovery of gas, accompanied by condensate, has been made from Gorae V well. The reservoir gases or the Dolgorae III, Gorae I, and Gorae V wells in the Ulleung Basin mainly consists of hydrocarbon gases (>93%). These gases are thermogenic wet gases which contain more than 96% of the methane and result from the cracking of petroleum or kerogen. Based on the chemistry and composition of the gases and stable isotope data, they seem to be generated from different source rocks. The condensates from the Gorae I and V wells are mostly generated from terrestrial organic matter. Lacustrine organic matter may not play an important role for the generation of these condensates. The condensates from the Gorae V wells consist predominantly of terrestrial organic matter but with minor subsidiary input from marine organic matter. The condensates from Gorse I and V wells may be generated from different source rocks. The thermal maturity level of the condensates from the Gorae V well ranges from early to middle oil generation zone and condensate from Gorae I reaches middle oil window. Correlation or the thermal maturation level of the condensates and organic matter in the sediments reveals that a depth of the generation of liquid hydrocarbons can be inferred to 3,000 m and 3,900 m for the Gorae V and I wells, respectively. Gorae V well, however, did not reach the target depth and the geochemical data of the Gorae I well were obscured due to the severe sediment caving in.

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Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Garlic and May Flower Powder on CO2 and CH4 Emission by Hanwoo Cow (산사 및 마늘 분말이 한우암소의 이산화탄소 및 메탄 발생량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Du Ri;Ha, Jae Jung;Song, Young Han
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary garlic and may flower powder on $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ emission by Hanwoo cows fed TMR (Total Mixed Ration) based diet. Animals were housed in a hood-type respiration chamber and the environmental temperature was maintained at $20^{\circ}C$. Gases were measured for 24 hours using the multi-detector instrument gas monitoring system (Mamos-300, Australia). The treatments composed of groups with no intake of garlic and may flower powder (Control), with intake of garlic at 0.5% of DM (T1), with intake of garlic at 1% of DM (T2), with intake of may flower at 0.5% of DM (T3), with intake of may flower at 1% of DM (T4), with intake of garlic and may flower at 0.5% of DM (T5) and with intake of garlic and may flower at 1% of DM (T6). The results indicated that $CO_2$ emission in T3 was 53% lower than that of control (p<0.05), and $CH_4$ emissions was 57% lower than control (p<0.05). Also, the hourly pattern of $CO_2$ and $CH_4$ emissions in T3 showed the least difference with all treatments. Gas emissions pattern peaked after 1 hour of feeding and this gap was wider in the afternoon than in the morning hours.

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Cropland Sector on Local Government Levels based on 2006 IPCC Guideline (2006 IPCC 가이드라인을 적용한 지자체별 경종부문 온실가스 배출량 평가)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Cheol;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Lee, Seul-Bi;Lee, Jong-Sik;Lee, Jung-Hwan;So, Kyu-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.842-847
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to estimate the greenhouse gas emissions on local government levels from 1990 to 2010 using 2006 IPCC guideline methodology. To calculate greenhouse gas emissions based on the 16 local governments, emission factor and scaling factor were used with default value and activity data came from the food, agricultural, forestry and fisheries statistical yearbook of MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries). The total emissions in crop sector gradually decreased from 1990 to 2010 due to a decline in agricultural land and nitrogen fertilizer usage. The annual average emission of greenhouse gas was the highest in Jeonnam (JN) with 1,698 Gg $CO_2$-eq and following Chungnam (CN), Gyungbuk (GB), Jeonbuk (JB) and Gyunggi (GG). The sum of top-six locals emission had occupied 83.4% of the total emission in cropland sector. The annual average emissions in 1990 by applying 2006 IPCC guideline were approximately 43% less than the national greenhouse gas inventory by 1996 IPCC guideline. Jeonnam (JN) province occupied also the highest results of greenhouse gas emission estimated by gas types (methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide) and emission sources such as rice cultivation, agricultural soil, field burning of crop residue and urea fertilizer.

Plasma-assisted Catalysis for the Abatement of Isopropyl Alcohol over Metal Oxides (금속산화물 촉매상에서 플라즈마를 이용한 IPA 저감)

  • Jo, Jin Oh;Lee, Sang Baek;Jang, Dong Lyong;Park, Jong-Ho;Mok, Young Sun
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 2014
  • This work investigated the plasma-catalytic decomposition of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and the behavior of the byproduct compounds over monolith-supported metal oxide catalysts. Iron oxide ($Fe_2O_3$) or copper oxide (CuO) was loaded on a monolithic porous ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ support, which was placed inside the coaxial electrodes of plasma reactor. The IPA decomposition efficiency itself hardly depended on the presence and type of metal oxides because the rate of plasma-induced decomposition was so fast, but the behavior of byproduct formation was largely affected by them. The concentrations of the unwanted byproducts, including acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methane, carbon monoxide, etc., were in order of $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ < $CuO/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ < ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ from low to high. Under the condition (flow rate: $1L\;min^{-1}$; IPA concentration: 5,000 ppm; $O_2$ content: 10%; discharge power: 47 W), the selectivity towards $CO_2$ was about 40, 80 and 95% for ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$, $CuO/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ and $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$, respectively, indicating that $Fe_2O_3/{\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ is the most effective for plasma-catalytic oxidation of IPA. Unlike plasma-alone processes in which tar-like products formed from volatile organic compounds are deposited, the present plasma-catalyst hybrid system did not exhibit such a phenomenon, thus retaining the original catalytic activity.

Corrections on CH4 Fluxes Measured in a Rice Paddy by Eddy Covariance Method with an Open-path Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (개회로 파장 변조 분광법과 에디 공분산 방법으로 논에서 관측된 CH4 플럭스 자료의 보정)

  • Kang, Namgoo;Yun, Juyeol;Talucder, M.S.A.;Moon, Minkyu;Kang, Minseok;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Kim, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2015
  • $CH_4$ is a trace gas and one of the key greenhouse gases, which requires continuous and systematic monitoring. The application of eddy covariance technique for $CH_4$ flux measurement requires a fast-response, laser-based spectroscopy. The eddy covariance measurements have been used to monitor $CO_2$ fluxes and their data processing procedures have been standardized and well documented. However, such processes for $CH_4$ fluxes are still lacking. In this note, we report the first measurement of $CH_4$ flux in a rice paddy by employing the eddy covariance technique with a recently commercialized wavelength modulation spectroscopy. $CH_4$ fluxes were measured for five consecutive days before and after the rice transplanting at the Gimje flux monitoring site in 2012. The commercially available $EddyPro^{TM}$ program was used to process these data, following the KoFlux protocol for data-processing. In this process, we quantified and documented the effects of three key corrections: (1) frequency response correction, (2) air density correction, and (3) spectroscopic correction. The effects of these corrections were different between daytime and nighttime, and their magnitudes were greater with larger $CH_4$ fluxes. Overall, the magnitude of $CH_4$ flux increased on average by 20-25% after the corrections. The National Center for AgroMeteorology (www.ncam.kr) will soon release an updated KoFlux program to public users, which includes the spectroscopic correction and the gap-filling of $CH_4$ flux.

Anaerobic Digestion Biochemical Sludge Produced from Municipal Sewage Treatment Process (하수처리시설에서 발생된 약품 잉여슬러지의 혐기성 소화 특성)

  • Cho, Sang Sun;Kang, Ho;Lim, Bong Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.561-569
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to get the characteristics of anaerobic digestion for chemical/biological sludge produced from municipal sewage treatment plant for phosphorus. Anaerobic mesophilic batch tests showed that the ultimate biodegradability of waste activated sludge showed 31%, PACl sludge 24%, Alum sludge 26%, respectively. At the S/I 1.0, 75% of total biodegradable volatile solids (TBVS) of waste activated sludge was degraded with an initial rapid decay coefficient, k1 of $0.1129day^{-1}$ and 74% of TBVS of PACl sludge with k1 of $0.0998day^{-1}$, and 76% of TBVS of Alum sludge with k1 of $0.1091day^{-1}$ for 20 days. During the operation of SCFMRs, the 3 reactor (Control, PACl, Alum) pH maintained 6.7~7.0 and the reactor alkalinity maintained 1,800~ 2,200 mg/L as $CaCO_3$. The average biogas production rates of SCFMRs fed with PACl sludge and Alum sludge were 0.089 v/v-d and 0.091 v/v-d, respectively, which was 27~28% lower than that of the control (0.124 v/v-d) at an HRT (hydraulic retention times) of 20 days. And the methane content during the operation ranged 70~76% in 3 reactor. The average TVS removal efficiency of SCFMRs fed with PACl sludge and Alum sludge were 19.6% and 19.9%, respectively, at an HRT of 20 days, which showed 4% lower than that of the control (23.8%). The average BVS removal efficiency of SCFMRs fed with PACl sludge and Alum sludge were 25.8% and 26.9%, respectively, at an HRT of 20 days, which was 8~9% lower than that of the control (34.5%).

Thermal and Electrochemical Stability of Morpholinium Ionic Liquids (모폴린계 이온성 액체의 열 및 전기화학적 안정성)

  • Kim, Hyun-Taek;Hong, Yeon Ki;Kang, Jeong Won;Lee, Young-Woo;Kim, Ki-Sub
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.702-707
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    • 2012
  • During the last few decades, toxic chemicals used in various industries have caused global pollution and the side products such as carbon dioxide and methane gas have contributed to global warming. Thus, it is desirable to develop new alternative solvents. It is well known that ionic liquids display a variety of environmentally friendly physical properties: nonvolatile, nonflammable, wide electrochemical windows, high inherent conductivities, wide thermal operating ranges, chemically inert, and limited miscibilities with organic solvents. Because of these characteristics, ionic liquids are promising candidates as solvents for synthetic chemistries, catalysis, and gas separations. In this study, we synthesized morpholiunium salts as N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Bromide, N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Tetrafluoroborate, N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate, N-butyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate, and N-octyl-N-methylmorpholine Hexafluorophosphate. The melting points, decomposition temperatures and electrochemical stabilities of the salts were measured by DSC, TGA, and CV, respectively. The salts with halide anion showed high melting points ($150{\sim}200^{\circ}C$), low decomposition temperatures ($200{\sim}230^{\circ}C$), narrow electrochemical stabilities (3.4~3.6 V). The synthesized salts with inorganic anions, on the other hand, presented low melting point ($50{\sim}110^{\circ}C$), high decomposition temperatures ($250{\sim}380^{\circ}C$), wide electrochemical stabilities (6.1~6.3 V). We also found that the properties depend on the length of the carbon chain.

Study for Clean Energy Farming System by Mass and Energy Balance Analysis in the Controlled Cultivation of Vegetable Crop (Cucumber) (물질 및 에너지 수지 분석을 통한 시설채소(오이)의 청정에너지 농업 시스템 구축을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Shin, Kook-Sik;Kim, Seung-Hwan;Oh, Seong-Yong;Lee, Sang-En;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.280-286
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    • 2012
  • Clean energy farming is the agricultural activity to improve an efficiency of agricultural energy use and to replace fossil fuels. This study was carried out to establish the clean energy farming system in the controlled cultivation of vegetable crop (cucumber) adopting the biogas production facility. In order to design the clean energy farming system, mass and energy balance was analyzed between the controlled cultivation system and the biogas production facility. Net yearly heating energy demands ($E_{YHED}$) of forcing and semi-forcing cultivation types were 48,697 and $13.536Mcal\;10^{-1}$ in the controlled cultivation of vegetable cucumber. To cover these $E_{YHED}$, the pig slurry of 511 and $142m^3\;10a^{-1}$ (biogas volume of 9,482 and $2,636Nm^3\;10a^{-1}$, respectively, as 60% methane content) were needed in forcing and semi-forcing cultivation types. The pig slurry of $511m^3\;10a^{-1}$ caused N 1,788, $P_2O_5$ $511kg\;10a^{-1}$ in the forcing cultivation type, and the pig slurry of $142m^3\;10a^{-1}$ caused N 497, $P_2O_5$ $142kg\;10a^{-1}$ in the semi-forcing cultivation type. The daily heating energy demand ($E_{i,DHED}$) by the time scale analysis showed the minimum $E_{i,DHED}$ of $7.7Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$, the maximum $E_{i,DHED}$ of $515.1Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$, and the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ of 310.2 in the forcing cultivation type. And the minimum $E_{i,DHED}$, the maximum $E_{i,DHED}$, and the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ were 5.3, 258.0, and $165.1Mcal\;10a^{-1}\;day^{-1}$ in the semi-forcing cultivation type, respectively. Input scale of biogas production facility designed from the mean $E_{i,DHED}$ were 3.3 and $1.7m^3\;day^{-1}$ in the forcing and the semi-forcing cultivation type. The maximum $E_{i,DHED}$ gave the input scale of 5.4 and $2.7m^3\;day^{-1}$ in the forcing and the semi-forcing cultivation type.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2011 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2011년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Choi, Jong-Min;Paik, Yong-Kyoo;Kim, Su-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 2012
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2011. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of fluid machinery and fluid flow, thermodynamic cycle, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were presented in the field of fluid machinery and fluid flow. Research issues mainly focused on the rankine cycle in the field of thermodynamic cycle. In the new and renewable energy area, researches were presented on geothermal energy, fuel cell, biogas, reformer, solar water heating system, and metane hydration. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, nanofluids and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included heat transfer above liquid helium surface in a cryostat, methane hydrate formation, heat and mass transfer in a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, thermoelectric air-cooling system, heat transfer in multiple slot impinging jet, and heat transfer enhancement by protrusion-in-dimples. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on pool boiling of water in low-fin and turbo-B surfaces, pool boiling of R245a, convective boiling two-phase flow in trapezoidal microchannels, condensing of FC-72 on pin-finned surfaces, and natural circulation vertical evaporator were actively performed. In the area of nanofluids, thermal characteristics of heat pipes using water-based MWCNT nanofluids and the thermal conductivity and viscosity were measured. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on fin-tube heat exchangers for waste gas heat recovery and Chevron type plate heat exchanger were implemented. (3) Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as $CO_2$, hydrocarbons, and mixed refrigerants were studied. Heating performance improvement of heat pump systems were tried applying supplementary components such as a refrigerant heater or a solar collector. The effects of frost growth were studied on the operation characteristic of refrigeration systems and the energy performance of various defrost methods were evaluated. The current situation of the domestic cold storage facilities was analyzed and the future demand was predicted. (4) In building mechanical system fields, a variety of studies were conducted to achieve effective consumption of heat and maximize efficiency of heat in buildings. Various researches were performed to maximize performance of mechanical devices and optimize the operation of HVAC systems. (5) In the fields of architectural environment and energy, diverse purposes of studies were conducted such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy. In particular, renewable energy and building energy-related researches have mainly been studied as reflecting the global interests. In addition, various researches have been performed for reducing cooling load in a building using spot exhaust air, natural ventilation and energy efficiency systems.