• Title, Summary, Keyword: Methane

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Surface Flux Measurements of Methane from Lamdfills by Closed Chamber Technique and its Validation (플럭스챔버에 의한 매립지표면 메탄의 배출량 측정과 분석)

  • 김득수;장영기;전의찬
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.499-509
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    • 2000
  • Next to carbon dioxide, methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Methane is emitted into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wetlands, termites, wildries, ocean and freshwater. Anthropogenic sources include landfill, natural gas and oil production, and agriculture. These manmade sources account for about 70% of total global methane emissions; and among these, landfill accounts for approximately 10% of total manmade emissions. Solid waste landfills produce methane as bacteria decompose organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. Methane accounts for approximately 45 to 50 percent of landfill gas, while carbon dioxide and small quantities of other gases comprise the remaining to 50 to 55 percent. Using the closed enclosure technique, surface emission fluxes of methane from the selected landfill sites were measured. These data were used to estimate national methane emission rate from domestic landfills. During the three different periods, flux experiments were conducted at the sites from June 30 through December 26, 1999. The chamber technique employed for these experiments was validated in situ. Samples were collected directly by on-site flux chamber and analyzed for the variation of methane concentration by gas chromatography equipped with FID. Surface emission rates of methane were found out to vary with space and time. Significant seasonal variation was observed during the experimental period. Methane emission rates were estimated to be 64.5$\pm$54.5mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr from Kimpo landifll site. 357.4$\pm$68.9mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr and 8.1$\pm$12.4mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at KwanJu(managed and unmanaged), 472.7$\pm$1056mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at JonJu, and 482.4$\pm$1140 mgCH$_4$/$m^2$/hr at KunSan. These measurement data were used for the extrapolation of national methane emission rate based on 1997 national solid waste data. The results were compared to those derived by theoretical first decay model suggested by IPCC guidelines.

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Clarification of Methane Emission Sources Using WDCGG Data: Case Study of Anmyeon-do Observatory, Korea

  • Park, Soo-Young;Park, JongGeol;Kim, Chung-Sil;Shin, ImChul
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2013
  • Methane concentrations have been monitored at the Anmyeon-do Observatory, Korea, since 1999. In recent years, the methane concentration has increased, but the sources of this increase have yet to be identified. This study was designed to identify the major source contributing to the increase by using World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG) data and the Greenhouse Gases Emission Presumption (GEP) method. The data were collected at Anmyeon-do between 2003 and 2009 (except 2008), and the analyses showed that the increase in methane concentration originated mainly in rice paddies around the observation point. The annual average methane concentration at Anmyeon-do was 1894 ppb, of which 100-103 ppb (5.3-5.4%) was shown to originate mainly from rice paddies. The seasonal fluctuation in methane concentration from May to October estimated by the GEP method was compared with experimental data of previous research conducted on rice paddies. The close match obtained through this comparison shows that the GEP method is effective. The difference in methane concentration was also analyzed in terms of land use and land cover. It was shown that although rice paddies account for only 14.7% of the area surveyed, they accounted for between 69 and 90% of the total increase in methane concentration. These results confirm that rice paddies are the main source of the increase in methane concentration observed at Anmyeon-do.

Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from ruminants

  • Haque, Md Najmul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.15.1-15.10
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    • 2018
  • Methane emission from the enteric fermentation of ruminant livestock is a main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and a major concern for global warming. Methane emission is also associated with dietary energy lose; hence, reduce feed efficiency. Due to the negative environmental impacts, methane mitigation has come forward in last few decades. To date numerous efforts were made in order to reduce methane emission from ruminants. No table mitigation approaches are rumen manipulation, alteration of rumen fermentation, modification of rumen microbial biodiversity by different means and rarely by animal manipulations. However, a comprehensive exploration for a sustainable methane mitigation approach is still lacking. Dietary modification is directly linked to changes in the rumen fermentation pattern and types of end products. Studies showed that changing fermentation pattern is one of the most effective ways of methane abatement. Desirable dietary changes provide two fold benefits i.e. improve production and reduce GHG emissions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss biology of methane emission from ruminants and its mitigation through dietary manipulation.

Study on dry reforming and partial oxidation of methane. (대기압 플라즈마를 이용한 메탄의 건식개질과 부분산화반응의 비교)

  • Hwang, Na-Kyung;Cha, Min-Suk;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Song, Young-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2892-2897
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    • 2008
  • Plasma techniques have been proposed to generate a hydrogen enrich gas to investigate a feasibility of plasma techniques on a fuel reforming, we considered a dry reforming and a partial oxidation with methane in the atmospheric pressure. For these experiments, we employed an arc jet plasma reactor. The effects of input power and oxidizer in each process were investigated by product analysis, including carbon monoxide, hydrogen, ethylene, propane, and acetylene as well as methane and carbon dioxide. In both processes, input electrical power activated the reactions significantly. The increased ratio of the carbon dioxide to methane in the dry reforming doesn't affect to a methane conversion, whereas increased ratio of oxidizer to methane in the partial oxidation was very effective for the reaction. Moreover, for a simultaneous treatment of methane and carbon dioxide, a feasibility of a dry reforming combined with partial oxidation also has been investigated.

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Assessment of Methane (CH4) Emissions from Rice Paddy and Crop Residues Burning in 2011 with the IPCC Guideline Methodology

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Lee, Jong Sik;Jeong, Hyun Cheol;Kim, Gun Yeob;So, Kyu Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 2013
  • Rice cultivation in the paddy field and the burning of crop residues have been identified as the important sources of methane emission in agricultural sector. This study aimed at assessment of the methane emission from croplands in the year of 2011 with the IPCC guideline methodology. Methane from rice cultivation was emitted 6,813 $CO_2$-eq Gg in 2011. According to the water management, methane emission amounts by continuously flooded and intermittently flooded were 1,499 and 5,314 $CO_2$-eq Gg, respectively. Methane emission by crop residues burning was highest in red pepper and followed by rice straw, pulses and barely in 2011. Methane emission by field burning was very little compared with rice cultivation.

Characteristics of methane and propane leaking gas images (methane과 propane의 누출 Optical Gas Image의 특성연구)

  • Park, Suri;Han, Sang-wook;Kim, Byung-jick
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2019
  • In this paper is image characteristics of main gas can be a basic data for the identification of the type of leaking gas and the estimation of the emission quantity in OGI(Optical Gas Image) technology. The purpose of this research is to observe the differences of leaking gas images of the two important hydrocarbons of methane and propane in the industry. We fabricated a wind shield of quartz-based with infrared-permeable properties was prepared and methane and propane were simultaneous emission and then photographed with an infrared OGI camera and we are analyzed it. We have a stable image with windbreak of quartz-based minimizes the effect of wind. As a result of analyzing the image of two hydrocarbons with a leakage gas reference value of 1 L/min, an easily recognizable distances by OGI camera were 6 m for methane and 9 m for propane. In the distances range of 1 to 10 m between the infrared camera and the leaking gas point, the gas plume size of the propane gas was larger and clear than that of the methane gas plume. Compared with the number of points in the image, propane was 3.8 times more than methane.

Control of Methane Emission in Ruminants and Industrial Application of Biogas from Livestock Manure in Korea

  • Song, Man-K.;Li, Xiang-Z.;Oh, Young-K.;Lee, Chang-Kyu;Hyun, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2011
  • Methane is known to be one of the major greenhouse gases. On a global scale, livestock farming may contribute 18% of total greenhouse gas emissions. Though methane contribution is less than 2% of all the factors leading to global warming, it plays an important role because it is 21 times more effective than carbon dioxide. Methane emission is a direct result of the fermentation process performed by ruminal microorganisms and, in particular, the archael methanogens. Reducing methane emission would benefit both ruminant production and the environment. Methane generation can be reduced by electron-sink metabolic pathways to dispose of the reducing moieties. An alternative way for methane control in the rumen is to apply inhibitors against methanogens. Generating methane from manure has considerable merit because it appears to offer at least a partial solution to two pressing problems-environmental crisis and energy shortage. An obvious benefit from methane production is the energy value of the gas itself. Control of methane emission by rumen microbes in Korea has mainly been focused on application of various chemicals, such as BES and PMDI, that inhibit the growth and activity of methanogens in the rumen. Alternatives were to apply long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and oils with or without organic acids (malate and fumarate). The results for trials with methane reducing agents and the situation of biogas production industries and a typical biogas plant in Korea will be introduced here.

Biochemical Methane Potential of Animal Manure and Cultivated Forage Crops at the Reclaimed Tideland (가축분뇨와 간척지 사료작물의 메탄발생량)

  • Heo, Nam-Hyo;Lee, Seung-Heon;Kim, Byeong-Ki
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.79-82
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    • 2008
  • Anaerobic biodegradability(AB), which can be determined with the ultimate methane yield by the decomposition of organic materials, is one of the important parameters for the design and the operation of anaerobic digestion plant. In this study, Biochemical Methane Potential(BMP) test has been carried out to evaluate the methane yield of animal manures, such as pig and cattle slurries, and different forage crops cultivated at the reclaimed tideland, such as maize, sorghum, barley, rye, Italian ryegrass(IRG), rape, rush and sludge produced from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant(SWTP). In the ultimate methane yield of animal manure, that of pig slurry(no used a EM) was 407 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ higher than 242 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ of cattle slurry. The ultimate methane yield of spike-crop rye was 442.36 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$ the highest among different forage crops, the other showed the value above a methane yield of 300 $mlCH_4/gVS_{fed}$. The forage crop could be used as a good substrate to improve the methane production in anaerobic co-digestion together with animal manure.

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Effects of Addition of Hydrogen and Water Vapor on Flame Structure and NOx Emission In $CH_4$-Air Diffusion Flame (메탄-공기 확산화염에서 수소와 수증기 첨가가 화염구조와 NOx 배출에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Jeong;Keel, Sang-In;Yun, Jin-Han
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2007
  • Blending effects of hydrogen and water vapor on flame structure and NOx emission behavior are numerically studied with detailed chemistry in methane-air counterflow diffusion flames. The composition of fuel is systematically changed from pure methane and pure hydrogen to the blending fuels of methane-hydrogen-water vapor through the molar addition of $H_2O$. Flame structure is changed considerably for hydrogen-blending methane flames and hydrogen-blending methane flames diluted with water vapor in comparison to pure methane flame. These complicated changes of flame structures also affect NOx emission behavior considerably. The changes of thermal NO and Fenimore NO are analyzed for various combinations of the fuel composition. Importantly contributing reaction steps to thermal NO and Fenimore NO are addressed in pure methane, hydrogen-blending methane flames, and hydrogen-blending methane flames diluted with water vapor.

Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells

  • Roh, Hyun-Seog;Jun, Ki-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 2009
  • Low temperature methane steam reforming to produce $H_2$ for fuel cells has been calculated thermodynamically considering both heat loss of the reformer and unreacted $H_2$ in fuel cell stack. According to the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, it is possible to operate methane steam reforming at low temperatures. A scheme for the low temperature methane steam reforming to produce $H_2$ for fuel cells by burning both unconverted $CH_4$ and $H_2$ to supply the heat for steam methane reforming has been proposed. The calculated value of the heat balance temperature is strongly dependent upon the amount of unreacted $H_2$ and heat loss of the reformer. If unreacted $H_2$ increases, less methane is required because unreacted $H_2$ can be burned to supply the heat. As a consequence, it is suitable to increase the reaction temperature for getting higher $CH_4$ conversion and more $H_2$ for fuel cell stack. If heat loss increases from the reformer, it is necessary to supply more heat for the endothermic methane steam reforming reaction from burning unconverted $CH_4$, resulting in decreasing the reforming temperature. Experimentally, it has been confirmed that low temperature methane steam reforming is possible with stable activity.