• Title, Summary, Keyword: Metastatic RCC

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Cutaneous metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the scalp

  • Yang, Hyee Jae;Kang, Sang Yoon
    • Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.392-396
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    • 2019
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2% to 3% of human cancers and is aggressive, with metastatic capability. The frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, and liver. Reports of RCC metastatic to skin, and especially scalp are rare. Here we present an 83-year-old woman who was diagnosed with RCC 19 years prior and had a metastatic scalp lesion. An 83-year-old woman presented with a red-to-purple, protruding lesion at the right parietotemporal area. Twenty-three years ago, a right renal mass was incidentally discovered on ultrasound through a routine medical examination. She underwent right nephrectomy for RCC 4 years later. Five months after nephrectomy, new lung nodules were observed. Fifteen years after nephrectomy, metastatic lesions were found in the pelvic bone. She visited dermatology department for evaluation of the new scalp lesion, a year before she first visited our department. Despite chemotherapy, the mass was gradually enlarged. She consulted the plastic surgery department for management of the metastatic RCC was successfully treated with total excision including a 1-cm safety margin, local flap, and STSG coverage. Complete healing was observed, without evidence of recurrence during a 7-month followup. Metastases to the skin are rare, but must be kept in mind because of its high metastatic ability and poor prognosis.

Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Ameliorates the Accuracy of Differential Diagnosis in Non-Metastatic Infiltrative Renal Masses

  • Han, Jang Hee;Yoon, Young Eun;Kim, Sook Young;Cho, Young In;Rha, Koon Ho;Choi, Young Deuk;Han, Woong Kyu
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Distinguishing infiltrative renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a challenging issue due to their radiologic similarities. We evaluated systemic inflammatory biomarkers as parameters for distinguishing tumor types. Materials and Methods: A computerized search of medical records from November 2005 to October 2015 identified 116 patients with infiltrative renal masses who were difficult to diagnose confirmatively in radiological study. We investigated the diagnostic efficacy among these patients with their preoperative absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), absolute monocyte counts (AMC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR). Results: The infiltrative RCC group demonstrated significantly lower ALC {$1449/{\mu}L$ (1140-1896), median [interquartile range (IQR)]} than the TCC group [$1860/{\mu}L$ (1433-2342), p=0.016]. LMR [median (IQR)] also was lower in the infiltrative RCC group [2.98 (2.32-4.14) vs. TCC group 4.10 (2.86-6.09); p=0.011]. In subgroup analysis, non-metastatic infiltrative RCC showed lower ALC and LMR and higher NLR than non-metastatic TCC. Within non-metastatic infiltrative renal masses, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that younger patient age and lower LMR were associated with infiltrative RCC [odds ratios (OR) 0.874, p=0.024 and OR 0.461, p=0.048, respectively]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that younger age and lower LMR were highly predictive of non-metastatic RCC (area under the curve=0.919, p<0.001). Conclusion: Age and LMR were significantly different between patients with infiltrative renal mass. These are potential markers for distinguishing between infiltrative RCC and TCC without metastasis.

Utilization of Sunitinib for Renal Cell Cancer: an Egyptian University hospital experience

  • Ezz El Din, M
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3161-3166
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    • 2016
  • Background: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) status as poor prognosis improved with the introduction of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, especially sunitinib. There is sparse data reporting from our region on use of sunitinib in metastatic RCC. Thus the present study explores sunitinib usage at our institute. Materials and Methods: An unselected population of patients with metastatic RCC receiving sunitinib was analyzed with respect to patient characteristics, response, toxicity, and outcomes. Results: Fourty-nine patients with a median age of 50.5 years (range 21-71 years) were included. Most were male (61.2%). Twenty‑one (42.9%) had metastatic disease at presentation. Sunitinib was first line therapy in 45. Conventional clear cell carcinoma was the most common pathology present (39 patients; 79.59 %). The most common site of metastasis was the lung (75.5%). Most patients (30) were started at a dose of 50 mg once a day for 4 weeks and then 2 weeks rest. Clinical benefit rate was 73.5% (n= 36), and 22.5% (n= 11) demonstrated progressive disease at first imaging evaluation within the first 3-6 months. The following objective response performed for patients was 48.9% (n=24) and progression at 24.5 % (n=12). The median follow‑up was 16 months (range, 4-34 months), the overall estimated median PFS was 9 months and the estimated median OS was 15 months. Conclusions: This study demonstrated sunitinib is tolerable and effective in advanced/metastatic RCC Egyptian patients and indicates we should further seek second and third lines to increase survival equivalence as reported in the worldwide literature.

Assessment of Appropriateness of Criteria for Insurance Coverage on Systemic Therapy used in Renal Cell Carcinoma (신세포암에 사용되는 전신 항암요법의 요양급여기준에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jeong-Yeon;Park, Eun-Ji;Bae, Min-Kyung;Yoon, Jeong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.319-331
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate current criteria for insurance coverage by Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) on the systemic therapy used in the treatment of advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), by reviewing all available clinical evidences including a variety of clinical practice guidelines. Methods: We searched clinical databases and collected data from published phase 1 through 3 randomized clinical trials on all systemic therapies used in RCC, including novel targeted therapies. Additionally, current clinical practice guidelines on the management of kidney cancer or RCC were reviewed. Based on the collected data we evaluated the appropriateness of the HIRA criteria for insurance coverage on the systemic therapy of RCC whether they are evidence-based and up to date. Results: On the basis of the collected data we concluded that there was a need for a revision in HIRA criteria for systemic therapy of RCC. Despite recent emerging therapeutic advances and changes in therapeutic strategies of management of RCC, some of anticancer regimens were inappropriately listed even though they were not proven to provide efficacy or safety superior to those of other therapies. We thus proposed an updated recommendation based on current clinical evidences. Conclusion: Systemic therapy of RCC is being rapidly changed with the advancement of understanding of the molecular biology of cancer. Consequently newly developed targeted therapies are becoming the standard therapy in the management of medically or surgically unresectable advanced or metastatic RCC. To provide effective and safe therapy to patients with RCC, the criteria for insurance coverage should be made carefully taking into consideration of most up-to-date and high-quality clinical evidences, and should be continuously reviewed so as to reflect evidence-based clinical practice.

Preoperative Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Wen, Ru-Min;Zhang, Yi-Jing;Ma, Sha;Xu, Ying-Li;Chen, Yan-Su;Li, Hai-Long;Bai, Jin;Zheng, Jun-Nian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3703-3708
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    • 2015
  • Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with colorectal, lung, gastric cancer, pancreatic and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We here evaluated whether preoperative NLR is an independent prognostic factor for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: Data from 327 patients who underwent curative or palliative nephrectomy were evaluated retrospectively. In preoperative blood routine examination, neutrophils and lymphocytes were obtained. The predictive value of NLR for non-metastatic RCC was analyzed. Results: The NLR of 327 patients was $2.72{\pm}2.25$. NLR <1.7 and NLR ${\geq}1.7$ were classified as low and high NLR groups, respectively. Chi-square test showed that the preoperative NLR was significantly correlated with the tumor size (P=0.025), but not with the histological subtype (P=0.095)and the pT stage (P=0.283). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Effects of NLR on OS (P=0.007) and DFS (P=0.011) were significant. To evaluate the independent prognostic significance of NLR, multivariate COX regression models were applied and identified increased NLR as an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.015), and DFS (P=0.019). Conclusions: Regarding patient survival, an increased NLR represented an independent risk factor, which might reflect a higher risk for severe cardiovascular and other comorbidities. An elevated blood NLR may be a biomarker of poor OS and DFS in patients with non-metastatic RCC.

Adrenal Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma Regressed with Allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes;A Case Report (알러젠 제거 옻나무 추출물 투여로 소퇴된 신세포암 유래 부신전이암 1례)

  • Jeong, Ui-Min;Jeong, Jong-Soo;Jung, Hyun-Sik;Park, Jae-Woo;Yoon, Seong-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2008
  • Renal cell carcinoma(RCC) is one of the major malignant renal cell tumors. Although RCC can metastasize to almost every organ, the most common metastatic sites are the lung parenchyma, the bones, the liver, and the brain. Adrenal metastasis from RCC is extremely rare. Adrenal metastasis from RCC shows poor prognosis, with little benefit from chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or immunotherapy. In this report, we describe a case of an RCC patient who showed lung and adrenal metastasis. The patient underwent left nephrectomy and chemotherapy(sunitinib), which were not effective. He refused further conventional medical treatment, and instead started treatment with Traditional Korean Medicine using allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes. After about 3 months of this treatment, the size of the adrenal tumor had decreased significantly with good performance status. Further study will be needed to demonstrate the tumor regression effect of allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes on patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

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Prognostic Value of Hematologic Parameters in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Using Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

  • Gunduz, Seyda;Mutlu, Hasan;Uysal, Mukremin;Coskun, Hasan Senol;Bozcuk, Hakan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3801-3804
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    • 2014
  • Background: The prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for progression free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma is unclear. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients diagnosed with metastatic RCC previously treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors from two centers, Akdeniz University Hospital and Afyon Kocatepe University. The prognostic value of the pretreatment neutrophil-tolymphocyte ratio, and other clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Median progression free survival (PFS) was 13.9 months [95% CI for HR (6.88-20.91)] and overall survival figure of 16.6 months [95% CI for HR (7.23-26.03)] Univariate analysis revealed that PFS was significantly affected by hemoglobin level [p=0.013 (95% CI for HR (0.71-0.96))], eosinophil count [p=0.031 (95% CI for HR (0.20-0.92))], ratio of neutrophil lymphocytes (NLR) [p=0.007 (95% CI for HR (1.47-11.74))] and calcium level [p=0.006 (95% CI for HR (0.15-0.73))]. However, only NLR [p=0.031 (95% CI for HR (1.15-18.1))] and calcium levels [p=0.018 (95% CI for HR (0.20-18.1))] retained significance with multivariate analysis. Median PFS was 23.9 vs 8.6 months in patients with NLR ${\leq}2$ vs NLR >2 (Log rank; p= 0.040). Conclusions: This study showed that increased pretreatment NLR is an independent prognostic factor for patients with metastatic RCC using tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Generation of Renal Cell Carcinoma-specific CD4+/CD8+ T Cells Restricted by an HLA-39 from a RCC Patient Vaccinated with GM-CSF Gene-Transduced Tumor Cells

  • Jun, Do Youn;Moutner, Joseph;Jaffee, Elizabeth
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2003
  • Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines induce very potent systemic anti-tumor immunity in preclinical and clinical models. Our previous phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has demonstrated both immune cell infiltration at vaccine sites and T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to whole tumor cell vaccines. Methods: To investigate the immune responses to autologous genetically- modified tumor cell vaccines, tumor-specific $CD8^+$ T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a RCC patient 1.24 by repeated in vitro stimulation with either B7.1-transduced autologous RCC tumor cells or B7.1-transduced autologous tumor cells treated with interferon gamma ($IFN{\gamma}$), and cloned by limiting dilution. Results: Among several RCC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), a $CD4^+/CD8^+$ double positive T cell clone (17/A2) appeared to recognize $IFN{\gamma}$-treated autologous RCC restricted by HLA-B39. The 17/A2 also recognized other HLA-B39 positive RCC tumor cells after $IFN{\gamma}$ treatment. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that autologous RCC vaccination successfully generates the tumor-specific CTL 17/A2, and suggest that the presentation and recognition of the tumor antigen by the 17/A2 might be upregulated by $IFN{\gamma}$.

Hand-Foot syndrome induced by sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in a patient with advanced renal cell carcinoma (진행된 신세포암 환아에게 sorafenib 투여시 발생한 Hand-Foot syndrome 1예)

  • Lee, Seung Hyun;Noh, Sung Hun;Kim, Sun Young;Jang, Kyu Yun;Hwang, Pyoung Han
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2009
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arising from epithelial cells of the renal tubules is a highly aggressive and malignant tumor in all ages; however, it rarely occurs in children. the standard treatment for RCC is radical nephrectomy with lymph node dissection when the tumor is localized and can be completely resected. Adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy are used for pediatric patients with advanced RCC involving lymph nodes or metastatic lesions. Sorafenib is an oral, multikinase inhibitor that has recently been approved for use in metastatic RCC. Common toxicities that have been reported include dermatologic changes such as rash or desquamation and hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, fatigue, alopecia, and hypertension. In particular, hand-foot syndrome (HFS) an erythematous skin lesion of the palms and solesis most often caused by cytostatic chemotherapeutic agents. In this report, we have studied a 14-year-old female patient with hand-foot syndrome that occurred in association with sorafenib for the treatment of metastatic RCC. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that reversal of complications can be achieved by discontinuing the drug and intervention with topical steroids, vitamin E, and high-dose pyridoxine.

Aqueous Extract of Anticancer Drug CRUEL Herbomineral Formulation Capsules Exerts Anti-proliferative Effects in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

  • Verma, Shiv Prakash;Sisoudiya, Saumya;Das, Parimal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8419-8423
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Anti-cancer activity evaluation of aqueous extract of CRUEL (herbomineral formulation) capsules on renal cell carcinoma cell lines, and exploration of mechanisms of cell death. Materials and Methods: To detect the cytotoxic dose concentration in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, MTT assays were performed and morphological changes after treatment were observed by inverted microscopy. Drug effects against RCC cell lines were assessed with reference to cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry), anti-metastatic potential (wound healing assay) and autophagy(RT-PCR). Results: CRUEL showed anti-proliferative effects against RCC tumor cell lines with an IC50 value of ${\approx}4mg/mL$ in vitro., while inducing cell cycle arrest at S-phase of cell cycle and inhibiting wound healing. LC3 was found to be up-regulated after drug treatment in RT-PCR resulting in an autophagy mode of cell death. Conclusions: This study provides the experimental validation for antitumor activity of CRUEL.