• Title, Summary, Keyword: Metal electrode

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Machining Characteristics of WEDM due to Electrical Conductivity of Dielectric (방전액의 전도율의 변화에 따른 와이어방전가공의 가공특성)

  • Kim, Chang-Ho;Kang, Jae-Won
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2006
  • This work deals with the electrical conductivity of dielectric on output parameters such as metal removal rate and surface roughness value of a carbon steel(SM25C) and sintered carbides cut by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). Dielectric has several functions like insulation, ionization, cooling, the removal of waste metal particles. The presence of minute metal particles(debris) in spark gap contaminates and lowers the breakdown strength of dielectric. And it is considered that too much debris in spark gap is generally believed to be the cause of arcing. Experimental results show that increases of cobalt amount in carbides affects the metal removal rate and worsens the surface quality as a greater quantity of solidified metal deposits on the eroded surface. Lower electrical conductivity of the dielectric results in a lower metal removal rate because the gap between wire electrode and workpiece reduced. Especially, the surface characteristics of rough-cut workpiece and wire electrode were analyzed too. Debris were analyzed also through scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and surface roughness tester. Micro cracks and some of electrode material are found on the workpiece surface by energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS).

Metal Grids Embedded Transparent Conductive Electrode with Flexibility and Its Applications

  • Jung, Sunghoon;Lee, Seunghun;Kim, Jong-Kuk;Kang, Jae-Wook;Kim, Do-Geun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.314-314
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    • 2013
  • Recently, flexibility is one of the hottest issues in the field of electronic devices. For flexible displays or solar cells, a development of transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) with flexibility, bendability and foldability is an essential element. Hundreds of nanometers indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films have been widely used and commercialized as a transparent electrode, but their brittleness make them difficulty to apply flexible electronics. Many researchers have been studying for flexible TCEs such as a few layers of graphene sheets, carbon nanotube networks, conductive polymer films and combinations among them. Although gained flexibility, their transmittance and resistivity have not reached those of commercialized ITO films. Metal grids electrode cannot act as TCEs only, but they can be used to lower the resistance of TCEs with few losses of transmittance. However, the possibility of device shortage will be rise at the devices with metal grids because a surface flatness of TCEs may be deteriorated when metal grids are introduced using conventional methods. In our research, we have developed hybrid TCEs, which combined tens of nanometers ITO film and metal grids which are embedded in flexible substrate. They show $13{\Omega}$/${\Box}f$ sheet resistance with 94% of transmittance. Moreover, the sheet resistance was maintained up to 1 mm of bending radius. Also, we have verified that flexible organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells with the TCEs showed similar performances compared to commercial ITO (on glass substrate) devices.

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A Study on the Preparation of the Dimensionally Stable Anode(DSA) with High Generation Rate of Oxidants(II) (산화제 생성율이 높은 촉매성 산화물 전극(DSA)의 개발에 관한 연구(II))

  • Park, Young-Seek;Kim, Dong-Seog
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2009
  • Fabrication and oxidants production of 3 or 4 components metal oxide electrode, which is known to be so effective to destruct non-biodegradable organics in wastewater, were studied. Five electrode materials (Ru as main component and Pt, Sn, Sb and Gd as minor components) were used for the 3 or 4 components electrode. The metal oxide electrode was prepared by coating the electrode material on the surface of the titanium mesh and then thermal oxidation at $500^{\circ}C$ for 1h. The removed RhB per 2 min and unit W of 3 components electrode was in the order: Ru:Sn:Sb=9:1:1 > Ru:Pt:Gd=5:5:1 > Ru:Sn=9:1 > Ru:Sn:Gd=9:1:1 > Ru:Sb:Gd=9:1:1. Although RhB decolorization of Ru:Sn:Sb:Gd electrode was the highest among the 4 components electrode, the RhB decolorization and oxidants formation of the Ru:Sn:Sb=9:1:1 electrode was higher than that of the 3 and 4 components electrode. Electrogenerated oxidants (free Cl and $ClO_2$) of chlorine type in 3 and 4 components electrode were higher than other oxidants such as $H_2O_2\;and\;O_3$. It was assumed that electrode with high RhB decolorization showed high oxidant generation and COD removal efficiency. OH radical which is electrogenerated by the direct electrolysis was not generated the entire 3 and 4 components electrode, therefore main mechanism of RhB degradation by metal oxide electrode based Ru was considered indirect electrolysis using electrogenerated oxidants.

Fabrication of Electrochemical Sensor with Tunable Electrode Distance

  • Yi, Yu-Heon;Park, Je-Kyun
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.30-37
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    • 2005
  • We present an air bridge type electrode system with tunable electrode distance for detecting electroactive biomolecules. It is known that the narrower gap between electrode fingers, the higher sensitivity in IDA (interdigitated array) electrode. In previous researches on IDA electrode, narrower patterning required much precise and expensive equipment as the gap goes down to nanometer scale. In this paper, an improved method is suggested to replace nano gap pattering with downsizing electrode distance and showed that the patterning can be replaced by thickness control using metal deposition methods, such as electroplating or metal sputtering. The air bridge type electrode was completed by the following procedures: gold patterning for lower electrode, copper electroplating, gold deposition for upper electrode, photoresist patterning for gold film support, and copper etching for space formation. The thickness of copper electroplating is the distance between upper and lower electrodes. Because the growth rate of electroplating is $0.5{\mu}m\;min^{-1}$, the distance is tunable up to hundreds of nanometers. Completed electrodes on the same wafer had $5{\mu}m$ electrode distance. The gaps between fingers are 10, 20, 30, and $40{\mu}m$ and the widths of fingers are 10, 20, 30, 40, and $50{\mu}m$. The air bridge type electrode system showed better sensitivity than planar electrode.

Research Progress on Surface Coating Layers on the Positive Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

  • Hao, Zhen Dong;Xu, Xiaolong;Wang, Hao;Liu, Jingbing;Yan, Hui
    • Nano
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1830007.1-1830007.15
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    • 2018
  • Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the most promising secondary batteries due to their advantages including long cycle life, high energy density, limited self-discharge, high operating voltage and environmental friendliness. The development of electrode materials is crucial for the further application of LIBs. There are many effective ways to enhance the performance of positive electrode materials of LIBs such as surface coating, ion doping, preparation of composite materials and nanosized materials and so forth. Among them, surface coating is considered to be a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of LIBs. Surface coating can normally form a physical barrier or a doped surface layer to play favorable roles for the electrode materials, such as hindering side reactions between positive electrode materials and the electrolyte. In this paper, different kinds of surface coating layers will be discussed according to previous research, including carbon materials, metal oxides, metal fluorides, metal phosphates, nonmetal oxides, electrode materials coating layer, hybrid coating layer, polymer and so forth. In addition, the mechanism of these coating materials will be summarized, and the future development will be discussed in this paper.

Influence of Electrical Conductivity of Dielectric on Machinability of W-EDM (방전액의 전도율이 와이어방전가공성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chang-Ho;Hur, Kwan-Do;Kwon, Taek-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.64-70
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    • 2001
  • This work deals with the electrical conductivity of dielectric and cobalt percentage on output parameters such as metal removal rate and surface roughness value of sintered carbides cut by wire-electrical discharge machining (W-EDM). To obtain a precise workpiece with good quality, some extra repetitive finish cuts along the rough cutting contour are necessary. Experimental results show that increases of cobalt amount in carbides affects the metal removal rate and worsens the surface quality as a greater quantity of solidified metal deposits on the eroded surface. Lower electrical conductivity of the dielectric results in a higher metal removal rate as the gap between wire electrode and workpiece reduced. Especially, the surface characteristics of rough-cut workpiece and wire electrode were analyzed too. To obtain a good surface equality without cracks, 4 finish-cuts were necessary by reducing the electrical energy and the offset value.

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Electrical Conduction Characteristics of XLPE Film evaporated Different Metal Electrode (이종금속전극이 증착된 XLPE필름의 전기전도 특성)

  • Lee, Heung-Gyu;Lee, Un-Yeong;Im, Gi-Jo;Kim, Yong-Ju
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.557-562
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    • 1999
  • Electrical conduction characteristics of XLPE film evaporated with different metal electrode are discussed. The relation between electrical current(I) and Voltage(V) in the M(metal)-I(XLPE)-M(metal) structure are measured in the temperature range from 25$[^{\circ}C]$ to 90[$[^{\circ}C]$ . Several kinds of metals are used as electrode, such as, Al, Ag and Cu.From the experimental results, it is conclused that the conduction mechanism at highelectric field is SCLC. The dependences of temperature and kinds of metal on the trap filled electric field level can be well explained by this theory.

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Study on the High Efficiency of Anode Phosphor Electrode for Filed Emission Lamp (I) Metal Layer (전계방출광원용 고효율 에노드 형광막 특성 연구(I) - 금속막)

  • Lee, Sun-Hee;Kim, Kwang-Bok;Kim, Yong-Won;You, Yong-Chan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 2007
  • The electron charging and degradation of anode phosphor layers are showed major problems in high electric field with anode electrode of field emission devices. An Al metal layer on the phosphor layer may get rid of these problems. This Al metal layer are formed with the roughness of phosphor surface layer without interlayer and cannot be given rise to enhance the luminance efficiency. In order to enhance the brightness, an anode layer need to be flated between phosphor layer and Al metal layer in anode electrode. After optimizing the anode phosphor layer, an anode layer with Al metal and inter layer increased the brightness and luminescence efficiency 1.5 times more than only phosphor layer in anode.

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Reporting on the High Efficiency of Anode Phosphor Electrode for Filed Emission Lamp - Metal Layer (전계방출광원용 아노드 난반사 연구)

  • Yun, Han-Na;Kim, Yun-Il;Kim, Dae-Jun;Kim, Kwang-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2008
  • The electron charging and degradation of anode phosphor layers are showed major problems in high electric field with anode electrode of field emission devices. An AI metal layer on the phosphor layer may get rid of these problems. This Hetero-metal-oxide phosphor layer are formed with the roughness of phosphor surface layer without interlayer and cannot be given rise to enhance the luminance efficiency. In order to enhance the brightness, an anode layer need to be flated between phosphor layer and AI metal layer in anode electrode. After optimizing the anode phosphor layer, an anode layer with AI metal and inter layer increased the brightness and luminescence efficiency 1.2 times more than only phosphor laver in anode.

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Property Comparison of Ru-Zr Alloy Metal Gate Electrode on ZrO2 and SiO2 (ZrO2와 SiO2 절연막에 따른 Ru-Zr 금속 게이트 전극의 특성 비교)

  • Seo, Hyun-Sang;Lee, Jeong-Min;Son, Ki-Min;Hong, Shin-Nam;Lee, In-Gyu;Song, Yo-Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.808-812
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    • 2006
  • In this dissertation, Ru-Zr metal gate electrode deposited on two kinds of dielectric were formed for MOS capacitor. Sample co-sputtering method was used as a alloy deposition method. Various atomic composition was achieved when metal film was deposited by controlling sputtering power. To study the characteristics of metal gate electrode, C-V(capacitance-voltage) and I-V(current-voltage) measurements were performed. Work function and equivalent oxide thickness were extracted from C-V curves by using NCSU(North Carolina State University) quantum model. After the annealing at various temperature, thermal/chemical stability was verified by measuring the variation of effective oxide thickness and work function. This dissertation verified that Ru-Zr gate electrodes deposited on $SiO_{2}\;and\;ZrO_{2}$ have compatible work functions for NMOS at the specified atomic composition and this metal alloys are thermally stable. Ru-Zr metal gate electrode deposited on $SiO_{2}\;and\;ZrO_{2}$ exhibit low sheet resistance and this values were varied with temperature. Metal alloy deposited on two kinds of dielectric proposed in this dissertation will be used in company with high-k dielectric replacing polysilicon and will lead improvement of CMOS properties.