• Title, Summary, Keyword: Metabolizable Energy

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Factors Affecting True Metabolizable Energy Determination of Poultry Feedingstuffs V. The Effect of Levels of Metabolizable Energy of Basal Diets on the Apparent Metabolizable Energy and True Metabolizable Energy Values of Corn and Soybean Meal (양계사료의 True Metabolizable Energy측정에 영향하는 요인에 관한 시험 V. 기초사료의 에너지수준이 옥수수와 대두박의 Apparent Metabolizable Energy 및 True Metabolizable Energy가에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 1984
  • The experiment was made to study the effect of levels of metabolizable energy of basal diets on apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) values of corn and soybean meals. The test materials, corn and soybean meals, were substituted with basal diet at 50% and 30%, respectively. The excreta of fed md unfed birds were collected for 30 hours. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The AME values of corn were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05) except for 2400 Kcal/13% treatment, The AME values of soybean meals differed significantly between 2,400 Kcal/13% and 2,800 Kcal/15% or 3,000 Kcal/16%, but were not different between 2,400 Kcal/13% and 2,600 Kcal/14 % (probability at 5% level). 2. The energy levels of basal diets did not affect the AME values of corn and soybean meals (P>0.05) except 2,400 Kcal/13% treatment. This fact indicates that it is not necessary to change energy levels of basal diet according to test materials. 3. That the values of standard error of soybean meals were higher than those of corn was resulted from its low level of substitution with basal diet. 4. The TME values of corn showed significant differences (P<0.05) between 2,400Kcal/13% treatment and other treatments but those of soybean meals were not different among all treatments (P>0.05). 5. The reason that the AME values of corn and soybean meals and the TME values of corn reduced significantly in 2,400 Kcal/13% could be explained by the effect of interaction among ingredients in the diet.

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A COMPARISON OF SIMULATION MODELS BASED ON ARC METABOLIZABLE ENERGY SYSTEM AND NRC NET ENERGY SYSTEM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GROWING STEERS

  • Hirooka, H.;Yamada, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.599-605
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    • 1989
  • A comparison of the ARC metabolizable energy system and the NRC net energy system was made with special reference to growing steers. Two simulation models, one based on the ARC and other on the NRC system, were constructed to examine differences between the energy systems. The average daily live-weight gains predicted from both models for growing steers were compared under various conditions in which equal feeding levels and metabolizabilities were assumed. The two simulation models yielded similar results with very high energy intake with high quality feed. Difference between the two systems became larger as feeding conditions deviated from the above. The ARC system generally predicted higher daily live-weight gains than the NRC system. This appeared to be due to the higher efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy ($k_m$ and $k_f$) and basal metabolism (F), and lower energy value of growth (EVG) in the ARC system.

A Study on Estimation of Metabolizable Energy Content in Cereal (주요곡물의 에너지 함량 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 1996
  • This study was undertaken to determined the metabolizable energy of cereal by the different method. Raw or cooked cereal foods were freeze-dried and fed to Sprague Dawley rat with 200-300g body weight to measure apparent metabolizable energy(AME) values and nitrogen-corrected AME(AMEn) values for four days after three days of preliminary period for adaptation to the diets. The AME values of Karaeddok, raw rice, cooked rice, raw brown rice, raw glutinous rice, cooked glutinous rice, raw barley and cooked barley applerared 4516.1, 3380.6, 4072.2, 3457.0, 4448.0, 2929.4 and 3780.2kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. The AMEn values of karaeddok, raw rice, cooked rice, raw brown rice, cooked brown rice, raw glutinous rice, cooked glutinous rice, raw barley and cooked barley appeared 4421.5, 3349.6, 4160.0, 3918.7, 4039.3, 3572.0, 4552.5, 3009.9 and 3873.4kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. A slight difference was observed when the AME values of the cereals measured in present study were compared with the energy values calculated by various conversion parameters such as Atwater's, Rubner's, Sochun's adn FAO's, indicating that the latter energy values by all conversion factors are acceptabel for several cereals.

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Effects of Lowering the Dietary Levels of Energy, Protein and Amino Acid (Methionine and Cysteine) on the Performance of Laying Hens

  • Serpunja, Subin;Balasubramanian, Balamuralikrishnan;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of varying levels of energy, protein, and amino acids on the performances of laying hens. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 36 weeks of age were used in this 4-week feeding trial. The hens were randomly allocated to five treatment diets, with eight replications of six hens in each replicate cage. The treatment diets were as follows: A- basal diet + 18% crude protein, metabolizable energy 2,800 kcal, total (methionine + cysteine) 0.65%; B- basal diet + 17% crude protein, metabolizable energy 2,700 kcal, total (methionine + cysteine) 0.59%; C- basal diet + 16.5% crude protein, metabolizable energy 2,700 kcal, total (methionine + cysteine) 0.59%; D- basal diet + 16.5% crude protein, metabolizable energy 2,700 kcal, total (methionine + cysteine) 0.54%; and E- basal diet + 16% crude protein, metabolizable energy 2,680 kcal, total (methionine + cysteine) 0.54%. The study results revealed that the hen-day egg production of hens that were fed with low-energy diets (B, C, and D) was comparable with that of hens fed with high-energy diet A, whereas average daily feed intake in hens fed treatment diet D and E was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in hens fed treatment diet A. Overall, the eggshell thickness was unaffected by any of the treatment diets. Egg weight was comparable among the treatment diets, except for treatment diet E. Haugh unit improved with decreasing levels of dietary energy, protein, and methionine + cysteine in the diet. We can summarize that laying hens fed with low dietary energy and low crude protein treatment diets B, C, and D had satisfactory performance compared with those fed with high-energy treatment diet A. This indicates that there is the potential to reduce feed costs by formulating diets with lower energy and low protein levels.

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF SUCKLING CALVES GIVEN MILK REPLACER

  • Sekine, J.;Oura, R.;Morita, Z.;Morooka, T.;Asahida, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.61-63
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    • 1988
  • A total of 38 energy balance trials were done for calves fed a liquid milk replacer, calf starter and second cut mixed hay. Milk replacer supplied 81% of the total dietary energy. Live weight of calves averaged 54.1 (S.D 6.2) kg and daily gain 0.37 (${\pm}0.23$)kg. The metabolizability of gross energy averaged 0.822. A regression was calculated relating energy retention (ER, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) to the intake of metabolizable energy (IME, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$): ER = 0.72 (${\pm}0.12$) IME - 330, r = 0.702, P < 0.01, $S.E.{\pm}18.0$. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was calculated to be $458kJ/kg^{0.75}$ when ER = 0. The amount of IME over MEm for an individual animal (Meg, $kJ/kg^{0.75}$) was regressed on averaged daily gain (ADG, kg): Meg = 413 (${\pm}91$) ADG + 0.2, r = 0.650, P < 0.01, $S.E.{\pm}21$. The amount of ME requirement for suckling calves was estimated using values obtained above.

A study on estimation of metabolizable energy content in starch-foods and seaweeds (주요 당류 및 해조류의 대사 에너지 함량 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 1996
  • The validity of the energy data of the starch-foods and seaweeds in Korean food composition tables has been suspected due to possible differences in their chemical compositions from those of western food ingredients. Energy conversion parameters being used currently in nutrition has been derived in countries where food items re quite different from ours. This study was undertaken to determine the metabolizable energy of starch-foods and seaweeds by the method selected in preexperiment20). Cooked starch foods and seaweeds were freeze-dried and fed to Sprague Dawley rat with 200∼300g body weight to measure apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values and nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEn) values for four days after three days of preliminary period for adaptation to the diets. The AME and AMEn values of the wheat noodle were 4554.6, 4584.7, the Starch Vermicelli, 3763.4, 3855.7, the Ra myon, 4916.9, 4876.0, the Buckwheat noodle, 4469.7, 4442.0kcal/kg dry matter, the Potato, 4514.6, 4520.0 and those of the Bread, 3256.9, 3582.6, 3260.5, kcal/kg dry matter, respectively. Those of Sea tangle were 1437.3, 1631.3 and of Laver, 3126.6, 3171.3kcal/kg dry matter, resectively. When the AME values of the starch-foods and seaweeds measureed in present study were compared with energy values calculated by various conversion parameters such as Atwater's Rubner's, Sochun's and FAO's, there appeared dramatic differences indicating that for many of the food items, the latter energy values by conversion factors are hardly acceptable. These data also suggest that the existing energy conversion factors are not applicable to seaweeds and a further study is needed to obtain specific factors for the conversion to biological energy from the chemical composition of seaweeds.

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Nutrient Digestibility of Palm Kernel Cake for Muscovy Ducks

  • Mustafa, M.F.;Alimon, A.R.;Zahari, M.W.;Idris, I.;Bejo, M. Hair
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.514-517
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    • 2004
  • Expeller pressed and solvent extracted palm kernel cake (PKC) were force-fed to male and female Muscovy ducks at 7 weeks of age. The nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), true metabolizable energy (TME) and true available amino acid (TAAA) digestibilities were determined. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the type of PKC used on crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibilities. However, digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was found to be higher in solvent extracted compared to expeller pressed PKC. The average digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and EE were 43, 58, 39 and 89%, espectively. It was found that the ducks utilized about 47% of the gross energy of PKC. The respective average AMEn and TMEn values of PKC for Muscovy ducks was 1,743 and 1,874 kcal/kg. The overall TAAA of PKC for Muscovy ducks was 65%. The data on the TMEn and digestible AA for PKC obtained from this study provide new information with regard to diet formulation for Muscovy ducks.

The Effects of Feed Supplementation Method, Sex and Weight of Experimental Animal on Metabolizable Energy Value (흰쥐의 성별, 체중 및 실험사료의 첨가 방법이 대사 에너지 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김은미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.717-726
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    • 1995
  • This study was to investigate the validity of energy measurement system by using different body size and sex of rats and feed supplementation methods. There appeared no statistical differences in energy(AME, AMEn) utilization between male and female rats with average 200g body weight, and between male rat of 200g and 300g body weight. Glucose replacing corn in the basal diet or replacing diet itself at a level of 30% by weight appeared to have the same metabolizable energy value, suggesting that either methods to supplement test ingredient brought about the same results. Consequently, following suggestions could be made from results of present study : first, Sprague-Dawley rate of either sex weighing 200-300g may be used as an animal model to obtain in vivo metabolizable energy from dietary carbo-hydrates or sea foods. Second, the testing ingredients may be added at the expence of corn in the basal diet at 30% level.

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Recent Development for the Determination of Metabolizable Energy Values (대사에너지 측정방법에 대한 최근 연구동향)

  • 한인규;오상집;송만강
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.4-17
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    • 1980
  • This is to review from the existing literatures the various methods of determination, problems involved in the determination of metabolizable energy(ME) values of poultry feedstuffs that is the most widely used energy term in poultry nutrition. An attempt will also be made to introduce the newly developed determination method of ME by Sibbald and his associates. It was found that conventional methods of ME measurements such as total collection method and indicator method require a great deal of labor and time. It should also be pointed out that these methods have some technical problems as well. Experimental evidences indicate that the ME content of feedstuffs may be affected by breed, age, substitution level of basal diet, kind of basal diet, methods of chemical analysis and chemical composition of experimental diet. Standard procedures and technical advantages of newly developed method of "True Metabolizable Energy" system are fully described.

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THE TRUE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY VALUES OF SOME SELECTED FEEDSTUFFS OF BANGLADESH

  • Huque, Q.M.E.;Kosaka, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.571-575
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    • 1996
  • An experiment was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME) values of seven major poultry feed ingredients, two feed concentrates and one randomly collected layer mixed feed prepared from the available feed ingredients. The results of this study were the most thorough evaluation of the TME content of some selected common feed ingredients of Bangladesh. The observed TME values of some feed ingredients were very close to the values of different origins of feed ingredients. But the TME values measured in mixed layer feed were very low which could not support the standard requirement of laying birds. There values will be of assistance in describing the energy content of the most common available feed ingredients of Bangladesh.