• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mental disorder

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Considerations about Evolutionary Ecological Study of Psychiatry (정신의학의 진화생태학적 연구 시 고려사항)

  • Park, Hanson
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.199-217
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    • 2019
  • Evolutionary research on mental disorders is relatively difficult compared to other medical studies. It is because the cause of mental disorder is unclear relative to other medical diseases, various proximate causations are involved. And it is difficult to distinguish cause and effect and to carry out experimental research. Despite these methodological difficulties, it is possible to establish an evolutionary hypothesis on mental disorders based on constructive reductionism, and to demonstrate actual data on the model based on this hypothesis. In this paper, I will discuss some conceptual definitions needed for applying ecological approaches to evolutionary psychiatric research. We will first discuss the appropriate level of explanations and the scope of the study subjects, then discuss the conceptual definition of behaviour and function, dysfunction and the appropriate level of selection.

The Comparison of ICSD and DSM-Ⅳ Diagnoses in Patients Referred for Sleep Disorders (정신과에 의뢰된 환자 중 수면장애에 대한 ICSD와 DSM-Ⅳ 진단 비교)

  • Lee, Bun-Hee;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2001
  • Background: Sleep disorders are prevalent in the general population and in medical practice. Three diagnostic classifications for sleep disorders have been developed recently: The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). Few data have yet been published regarding how the diagnostic systems are related to each other. To address these issues, we evaluated the frequency of sleep disorder diagnoses by DSM-IV and ICSD and compared the DSM-IV with the ICSD diagnoses. Method: Two interviewers assessed 284 inpatients who had been referred for sleep problems in general units of Anam Hospital, holding an unstructured clinical interview with each patient and assigning clinical diagnoses using ICSD and DSM-IV classifications. Results: The most frequent DSM-IV primary diagnoses were "insomnia related to another mental disorder (61.1% of cases)" and "delirium due to general medical condition (26.8%)". "Sleep disorder associated with neurologic disorder (38.4% of cases)" was the most frequent ICSD primary diagnosis, followed by "sleep disorder associated with mental disorder (33.1%)". In comparing the DSM-IV diagnoses with the ICSD diagnoses, sleep disorder unrelated with general medical condition or another mental disorder in DSM-IV categories corresponded with these in ICSD categories. But DSM-IV "primary insomnia" fell into two major categories of ICSD, "psychophysiologic insomni" and "inadequate sleep hygiene". Of 269 subjects, 62 diagnosed with DSM-IV sleep disorder related to general medical condition or another mental disorder disagreed with ICSD diagnoses, which were sleep disorders not associated with general medical condition or mental disorder, i. e., "inadequate sleep hygiene", "environmental sleep disorder", "adjustment sleep disorder" and "insufficient sleep disorder". Conclusion: In this study, we found not only a similar pattern between DSM-IV and ICSD diagnoses but also disagreements, which should not be overlooked by clinicians and resulted from various degrees of understanding of the pathophysiology of the sleep disorders among clinicians. Non-diagnosis or mis-diagnosis leas to inappropriate treatment, therefore the clinicians' understanding of the classification and pathophysiology of sleep disorders is important.

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The Effect of Horticultural Program Using Vertical Garden on Helplessness, Depression, and Self-esteem in Patients with Chronic Mental Disorder (수직 정원을 이용한 원예작업프로그램이 만성 정신장애 환자의 무력감, 우울감과 자아존중감에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Mi young;Lim, Dong-ho
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2021
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gardening programs using vertical gardens on helplessness, depression, and self-esteem in patients with chronic mental disorders. This study was applied to 21 patients with chronic mental disorder who were admitted to the rehabilitation hospital of E Hospital in Seoul from June to October 2018. The group was treated as an experimental group (N = 21) 5 times a week. For 20 weeks, each session lasted 30 minutes. Patients in the experimental group programmed 4 sessions of general occupational therapy, which combined treatments to improve cognition and training, and 1 session of a horticultural program using a vertical garden. Helplessness, depression, and self-esteem were evaluated for pre and post evaluation of the horticultural program. After completing the program, the average score of helplessness in the experimental group decreased by 0.91 points from 47.38 to 46.47, and there was a statistically significant change (p=0.043). The mean score of depression in the experimental group was 9.23 before and after 9.08, which was statistically significant (p = 0.035). The average score of self-esteem in the experimental group increased by 3.14 points from 27.99 to 31.13 at a statistically significant level (p = 0.001). This result suggests that a gardening program using vertical gardens has an effect on helplessness, depression, and self-esteem in patients with chronic mental disorders. And this means that long-term plans and effective programs for recovery from chronic mental disorders to the community are needed. With a horticultural work program using a vertical garden, the helplessness of the mentally impaired in a closed treatment space is restored, and such treatment space needs to be increased.

Neuropsychiatric Evaluation of Head-Injured Patients(I) : Comparison of Structural and Functional Brain Studies in Post-Traumatic Organic Mental Disorder (두부외상 환자의 신경정신의학적 평가(I) : 외상후 기질성정신장애 환자에서 뇌의 구조적 및 기능적 검사소견의 비교)

  • Yi, Jang Ho;Chang, Hwan-Il
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 1996
  • The Evaluation of patients complaining of psychiatric symptoms following head injury is much affected by the results of various tests. The objecive of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of each lest by comparing the structual and fuctional brain studies. The subjects were 93 organic menial disorder in and out patients at the Dept. of Neuropsychiatry of the Kyung Hee University Hospital. After carrying out MRI, CT, SPECT, EEG, the results of each were analysed for the sesitivity and ability to detect focal lesion. The degree of inter-test correlations of lest results were also investigated. Furthermore, the characteristic features of psychological tests were studied and the relationship between each of above mentioned tests and psychological test was examined. As for the test sensitivity to diagnosis, the SPECT was the most superior followed by MRI, CT, EEG in thai order. In the case of abnormality, SPECT ranked 1st in detection of focal lesion, followed by MRI, CT in that order. In the inter-test result correlation, the correlation of SPECT-MRI was statistically significant. When mare than moderate abnormality EEG finding was reported, it correlated significantly with that of MRI findings. In the MMPI, the average scores on F, Hs, D, Hy, Pa, Pt, Sc subscales were above 60. Abnormal SPECT group scored significantly high on the F, Pd, Pa, Sc, Ma scales and therefore in comparison ot the SPECT normal group, displayed more psychotic features. In K-WAIS, the mean full scale IQ was down to 77. 23(Verbal IQ : 78.76, Performance IQ : 77.44) but there was no characterogic significant relationship between the lowered to and abnormal SPECT, MRI, CT and EEG results. In conclusion, 1) The SPECT was mast superior in sensitivity and detection of focal lesions. In comparision with other tests, the results of SPECT correlated well with MRI had thus is thought to be very usefull testing method in the evaluation of organic mental disorder patients. 2) The MRI had relatively high sensitivity, ability to detect focal lesion and superior correlation with other test. 3) Although EEG fared less an sensitivity in comparison to other tests, the results of above moderate abnormal grade group and that of MRI correlated significantly. 4) In the MMPI highly scored in F, Hs, D, Hy, Pa, Pt, Sc subscales and abnormal SPECT patients were shown to display more sever psychotic features. There was no significant character relationship between the lowered IQ(in K-WAIS) and abnormal findings on MRI, CT, SPECT, EEG.

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The Influence of Communication, Resilience, Mental health on Military Adjustment of Soldiers in the Rear Air Force (후방 공군 병사의 의사소통, 회복탄력성, 정신건강이 군 적응에 미치는 영향)

  • AN, Hyo-Ja;Bae, Yeong-Ju;Cho, Myeong-Suk;Kim, Eun-Ha;Kim, Young-Ok;Lee, Young-Lye;Kim, Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.694-703
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    • 2016
  • This study was designed to investigate the factors that influence soldiers' military adjustment in the rear air force. The data were collected through a survey of 160 soldiers in N city from Nov. 16th to Dec. 11th, 2015, using appropriate instruments to assess their military adjustment, type of communication, resilience and mental health, and analyzed using IBM SPSS WIN 21. The mean scores for military adjustment, resilience, mental well-being and disorder were $1.25{\pm}0.33$, $3.69{\pm}0.56$, $2.98{\pm}0.94$ and $1.24{\pm}0.36$, respectively. In the analysis of their general characteristics, there were significant differences in age, perceived health and future career. Significantly positive correlations were found between adjustment and placating, blaming and irrelevant communication and mental disorder and significantly negative correlations were found between adjustment and resilience and mental well-being. Mental disorder and blaming communication accounted for 41% of the variance in the military adjustment. The result of this study shows that soldiers' military adjustment is related to mental disorder and blaming communication.

A Research of School Refusal on Adolescent with Psychiatric Disorders (정신병리를 가진 청소년의 등교거부 사례보고)

  • Heo, Eun-Jung;Lee, Sang-Eon;Lyu, Heui-Yeong
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.219-231
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : School refusal is usually considered as individual's behavioral problem. These days. however. the adolescents' school refusal needs some kind of medical approaches because it is related to mental disorder of the adolescents. Due to too much pressure and stress from the competition between classmates and from good performance in school. the number of adolescents who refuse to go to school is increasing. Despite this circumstance. school refusal is neither regarded as a single independent disorder nor endorsed as an officially classified disease. which makes difficult to conduct research on this issue and to establish standardized treatment for it. In addition. there is a lack of research on this topic. especially in oriental medicine. so there is no a case report or study on school refusal. This study is trying to comment on school refusal from the perspective of oriental medicine. Methods : We tried to examine the effect of oriental medicine treatment for school refusal with four adolescent cases. The patients commonly have at least more than one mental disorder (including depression disorder. anxiety disorder. and anorexia nervosa). have some problem with the relationship with their family. in particular with mother. do not have father or not be loved by their father. and have irregular eating habits. Thus. we diagnosed them as qi transforming into fire (氣鬱化矢) spleen-stomach deficiency cold (脾胃虛寒) and heart blood deficiency (心血虛) due to stress from the family issues and unhealthy eating habits. The patients received supportive therapy. family therapy. etc among many oriental mental treatments and their progress had been observed through hospitalization and outpatient treatment. Results : All four cases were reported positive progress on their symptoms and started coming back to school. We also examined whether they were well fitting into the school while they received outpatient treatment. and the results show that all four patients continue to settle down in normal school life. Conclusions : This study closely reviewed the mental disorder of school refusal cases and showed that the Oriental medical treatment was effective in helping the patients come back to school. More future research is required to better treatment for school refusal cases in oriental medicine.

Evolutionary Genetic Models of Mental Disorders (정신장애의 진화유전학적 모델)

  • Park, Hanson
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2019
  • Psychiatric disorder as dysfunctional behavioural syndrome is a paradoxical phenomenon that is difficult to explain evolutionarily because moderate prevalence rate, high heritability and relatively low fitness are shown. Several evolutionary genetic models have been proposed to address this paradox. In this paper, I explain each model by dividing it into selective neutrality, mutation-selection balance, and balancing selection hypothesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of them. In addition, the feasibility of niche specialization and frequency dependent selection as the plausible explanation about the central paradox is briefly discussed.

Influence of Comorbid Mental Disorder on Time to Seeking Treatment in Anxiety Disorder : Comparison of Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder (불안장애의 치료추구시간에 대한 공존 정신질환의 영향 : 사회불안장애와 공황장애 간 비교)

  • Kim, Hye-Min;Ha, Juwon;Lim, Se-Won;Oh, Kang-Seob
    • Anxiety and mood
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.146-152
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    • 2012
  • Objective : Individuals with anxiety disorders experience a wide range of time to seeking treatment (TST) as well as various comorbid mental disorders. The present study examined the TST in social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder. This study aimed to find out the influence of comorbid mental disorder on TST of anxiety disorder through the comparison of SAD and panic disorder. Methods : This study included 311 SAD and 378 panic disorder patients at the initial visit of psychiatric clinic. Contribution of clinical (number of comorbidity, comorbid type and onset age) and demographic (current age) factors to TST were investigated by multivariate analysis. Results : The median length of TST was 14.03 years in SAD and 2.26 years in panic disorder. In social anxiety disorder, fewer comorbidity, younger onset age, and older age were factors associated with delayed TST. In panic disorder, only younger onset age was associated with delayed TST. In both disorders, comorbid depressive disorder was associated with shorter TST. Conclusion : Our data provided the differences in illness behavior needing help based on comorbid mental disorders between SAD and panic disorder. In addition to comorbid disorder, factors affecting TST of anxiety disorder requires future investigation.

Antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and its influence on indoleamine and its metabolite of depression model rats (구기자의 항우울효과 및 indoleamine에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Duk-Ki;Gwak Dong-Gul;Park Sun-Dong
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.185-196
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    • 2003
  • Depression is very common mental disorder, so many people suffer from it, which makes the treatment of depression important. Many drugs to treat depression were developed and being prescripted. But they have a lot of side effects, so it needs to develop drugs without side effects or with less side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat not only physical disorder but also mental disorder and it has been reported that they have less side effects. Therefore, there is the need to discover and use herbal medicine with antidepressant effect. The purpose of this study was to reseach Antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and its influence on serotonin and its metabolite of depression model rats. We used 'forced swimming test(FST)' to know antidepressant effect of Licium chinense Mill. and HPLC to check the influence on serotonin and its metabolite(5-HIAA) of Licium chinense Mill. after rats' brains were divided into cerebral cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The results were obtained as follows : In the study of antidepressant effect by 'forced swimming test(FST)' method, Licium chinense Mill. had a significant antidepressant effect. In the study of influence on serotonin and 5-HIAA by HPLC, Licium chinense Mill. mainly increased serotonin and 5-HlAA of cerebral cortex and striatum signigficantly among 4 parts of rat's brain above-mentioned. These results suggest that Licium chinense Mill. has antidepressant effect that may be related with the increase of serotonin and its metabolite as its mechanism, but more precise experiments will be need to prove their relation.

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A Study on Foley Catheter Associated Bacteriuria (유치도뇨관 삽입으로 인한 요감염에 관한 연구)

  • 소희영
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 1978
  • Utilizing Foley catheter in therapy of inpatient cause bacteriuria and urinary tract infection that leads to first ranked factor's in hospital infection (nosocomial infection). To protect the patient from such infections, emphasis should be placed on catheterization technique and management of the closed drainage system, this reducing the chances of introducing organisms. This study has been done at Intensive Care Unit of A and B hospitals from May-Oct. 1978 on 20 male and 18 female adult patients. Each patient was screened and found to have nonbacteriuria in clean catch specimen before catheterization. Clean catch specimen via foley catheter were obtained after 48 hours and 96 hours from catheterization. The findings are as follows: A. The occurrence of bacteriuria in patients according to duration of indwelling catheter. 1 213.9% of the patient showed evidence of bacteriuria 48h post catheterization specimen, while 57.9% of the patient showed evidence of bacteriuria 96h post catheterization specimen. 2 25% of male patients had infection 48h post catheterization and 45% displayed bacteriuria post catheterization. 33% of female patients displayed infection 48h post catheterization and 72.2% having infection 96h post catheterization. Statistically there were significant differences between female patients and the duration of insertion. (P < 0.025) B. The occurrence of bacteriuria with the administration of bacteriuria with the ad-ministration of antibiotic in 24 patients was in 41,7%. The occurrence of bacteriuria without the administration of antibiotic in 14 patients was in 92.3%. Statistically there were very significant difference between the administration of the antibiotis and bacteriuria. (P < 0.005) C. Studies were done according to the consciousness level of the patients, 71.4% of those patient who displayed mental disorder developed bacteriuria, while 30.0% of those patient who displayed non mental disorder developed bacteriuria.

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