• Title, Summary, Keyword: Memory and Learning Training

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A Representative Pattern Generation Algorithm Based on Evaluation And Selection (평가와 선택기법에 기반한 대표패턴 생성 알고리즘)

  • Yih, Hyeong-Il
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2009
  • The memory based reasoning just stores in the memory in the form of the training pattern of the representative pattern. And it classifies through the distance calculation with the test pattern. Because it uses the techniques which stores the training pattern whole in the memory or in which it replaces training patterns with the representative pattern. Due to this, the memory in which it is a lot for the other machine learning techniques is required. And as the moreover stored training pattern increases, the time required for a classification is very much required. In this paper, We propose the EAS(Evaluation And Selection) algorithm in order to minimize memory usage and to improve classification performance. After partitioning the training space, this evaluates each partitioned space as MDL and PM method. The partitioned space in which the evaluation result is most excellent makes into the representative pattern. Remainder partitioned spaces again partitions and repeat the evaluation. We verify the performance of Proposed algorithm using benchmark data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

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Effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on the Retention of Passive Avoidance Learning after Chronic Mild Stress in Rats (선택적 세로토닌 재흡수차단제들이 만성 경도 스트레스 후의 백서에서 수동적 회피학습에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Gi-Chul;Chang, Hwan-Il
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1997
  • The study was designed to evaluate the significant roles of SSRI in rat of depression model. Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress has been found to depress the consumption of sweet 1% sucrose solutions in the Sprague-Dawley rats. We applied the variety of 11 types of stress regimens and identified depressive behaviours(developed by Willner) in 70 Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats in experiments were stratified into 6 groups, ie ; 3 kinds of SSRI(paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline), clomipramine, choline and saline control. Memory function was evaluated by passive avoidance learning and retention test. The authors determined how long memory retention would remain improved with 24 hour, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks at training-testing interval in depressive states of the Sprague-Dawley rats. The results were as follows ; 1) There were no significant differences between the 6 groups at the 24 hour training-testing interval. 2) The paroxetine treated group showed significant differences from the control group at the 1 week and 2 weeks training-testing interval. 3) The paroxetine and the fluoxetine treated groups showed singificant differences from the control group at 3 week training-testing interval. 4) The paroxetine and the choline treated groups showed significant differences from the control group at 4 week training-testing interval. In summary, paroxetine had an effect on long term memory processing from 1st week to 4th week. Also, fluoxetine(at 3rd week) and choline(at 4th week) had effect on long term memory processing. Sertraline, clomipramine were ineffective on memory processing during 4 weeks observation. Possible explanations why paroxetine had early effect on memory processing than the other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are rapid bioavailability, which is the characteristics of pharmacokinetics of paroxetine. In clinical situation, author carefully suggest that SSRI would be beneficial to improve the memory function caused by depressive neurochemical changes.

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Devising a Training Method for Assembly Work by Employing Disassembly

  • Ichikizaki, Osamu;Kubota, Ryou;Komori, Toshikazu;Matsumoto, Toshiyuki;Erikawa, Akihiro
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.368-379
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    • 2013
  • Efficiency in work training is a perennial issue due to high-diversity low-volume production, particularly for manufacturers producing office machines which are manually assembled by workers. To reduce the training cost, parts used in training are usually reused; a trainer disassembles a product assembled by a worker in training. This paper proposes a training method that employs disassembly usually performed by a trainer. This method assigns both assembly and disassembly to a worker in training, in contrast to the conventional method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally discussed in terms of learning assembly motions and work procedure at each learning stage, namely, "undergoing learning," "immediately after learning," and "seven days after learning." The effectiveness of the training method is confirmed. The method improves the stability of work procedure recollection immediately after training. Furthermore, at seven days after training, it improves retention of the assembly motions and work procedure, and also promotes and maintains memory related to product structure.

MK-801-induced learning impairments reversed by physostigmine and nicotine in zebrafish

  • Choi, Yong-Seok;Lee, Chang-Joong;Kim, Yeon-Hwa
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2011
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and acetylcholine receptors are related to learning and memory in rat and mice. In this study, we examined the effects of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on learning and memory in zebrafish using a passive avoidance test. We further tested whether or not nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, and physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, reverse the effects of MK-801. Crossing time was increased significantly in the training and test sessions for the controls. When 20 ${\mu}M$ MK-801 was administered prior to the training session, the crossing time did not increase in either session. The MK-801-induced learning deficit was rescued by pretreatment with 20 ${\mu}M$ physostigmine, and crossing time was increased in the training and test sessions compared to the MK-801-treated zebrafish. Further, the MK-801-induced learning deficit was prevented by pretreatment with 20 ${\mu}M$ nicotine, and crossing time was increased in the training session but not in the test session. These results show that MK-801 induced a learning deficit in zebrafish that was prevented by pretreatment with nicotine and physostigmine.

Effects of Memory and Learning Training on Neurotropic Factor in the Hippocampus after Brain Injury in Rats (뇌손상 흰쥐에서 기억과 학습훈련이 해마의 신경 성장인자에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Myoung;Bang, Yoo-Soon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.309-317
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    • 2009
  • This study was to investigate the effects of restoring cognition function and neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus according to memory and learning training in rats affected by brain injury. Brain injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats(36 rats) through middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAo). And then experiment groups were randomly divided into three groups; Group I: Brain injury induction(n=12), Group II: the application for treadmill training after brain injury induction(n=12), Group III: the application for memory and learning training after brain injury induction(n=12). Morris water maze acquisition test and retention test were performed to test cognitive function. And the histological examination was also observed through the immunohistochemistric response of BDNF(brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the hippocampus. For Morris water maze acquisition test, there were significant interactions among the groups with the time(p<.001). The time to find the circular platform in Group III was more shortened than in Group I, II on the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th day. For Morris water maze retention test, there were significant differences among the groups(p<.001). The time to dwell on quadrant circular platform in Group III on the 13th day was the longest compared with other groups. And as the result of observing the immunohistochemistric response of BDNF in the hippocampus CA1, the response of immunoreactive positive in Group III on the 7th day increased more than that of Group I, II. These results suggested that the memory and learning training in rats with brain injury has a more significant impact on restoring cognitive function via the changes of neurotropic factor expression and synaptic neuroplasticity.

Development of Mobile-application based Cognitive Training Program for Cancer Survivors with Cognitive Complaints (암 환자를 위한 앱 기반의 인지건강훈련 프로그램의 개발)

  • Oh, Pok Ja;Youn, Jung-Hae;Kim, Ji Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.266-277
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design a mobile-application of a cognitive training program for people who have chemo-related cognitive complaints. Methods: The program was developed based on the network-based instructional system design proposed by Jung. The program consisted of several tasks centered on four cognitive domains: learning, memory, working memory, and attention. For memory learning, a target-image and all its elements (color, position, and number) were presented on the screen that had to be recognized among a number of distractor-figures. In working memory training, the previous learned target-figure according to the level of difficulty had to be remembered among many different figures. In attention training named "Find the same figure," two identical symbols in a grid-pattern filled with different images were presented on the screen, and these had to be simultaneously touched. In attention training named "Find the different figure," a different symbol in a grid pattern filled with same figures had to be selected. This program was developed to train for a minimum of 20 min/day, four days/week for six weeks. Results: This cognitive training revealed statistically significant improvement in subjective cognitive impairments (t=3.88, p=.006) at six weeks in eight cancer survivors. Conclusion: This cognitive training program is expected to offer individualized training opportunities for improving cognitive function and further research is needed to test the effect in various settings.

Effects of Takju intake and moderate exercise training on brain acetylcholinesterase activity and learning ability in rats

  • Kim, Bo-Ram;Yang, Hyun-Jung;Chang, Moon-Jeong;Kim, Sun-Hee
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.294-300
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    • 2011
  • Takju is a Korean alcoholic beverage made from rice, and is brewed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise training and moderate Takju consumption on learning ability in 6-week old Sprague-Dawley male rats. The rats were treated with exercise and alcohol for 4 weeks in six separate groups as follows: non-exercised control (CC), exercised control (EC), non-exercised consuming ethanol (CA), exercised consuming ethanol (EA), non-exercised consuming Takju (CT), and exercised consuming Takju (ET). An AIN-93M diet was provided ad libitum. Exercise training was performed at a speed of 10 m/min for 15 minutes per day. Ethanol and Takju were administered daily for 6-7 hours to achieve an intake of about 10 ml after 12 hours of deprivation, and, thereafter, the animals were allowed free access to deionized water. A Y-shaped water maze was used from the third week to understand the effects of exercise and alcohol consumption on learning and memory. After sacrifice, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight changes during the experiment were not significantly different among the groups. AChE activity was not significantly different among the groups. The number of errors for position reversal training in the maze was significantly smaller in the EA group than that in the CA and ET groups, and latency times were shorter in the EA group than those in the CC, EC, CT, and ET groups. The latency difference from the first to the fifth day was shortest in the ET group. The exercised groups showed more errors and latency than those of the non-exercised groups on the first day, but the data became equivalent from the second day. The results indicate that moderate exercise can increase memory and learning and that the combination of exercise and Takju ingestion may enhance learning ability.

ON LEARNING OF CNAC FOR MANIPULATOR CONTROL

  • Hwang, Heon;Choi, Dong-Y.
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.653-662
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    • 1989
  • Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Controller (CMAC) has been introduced as an adaptive control function generator. CMAC computes control functions referring to a distributed memory table storing functional values rather than by solving equations analytically or numerically. CMAC has a unique mapping structure as a coarse coding and supervisory delta-rule learning property. In this paper, learning aspects and a convergence of the CMAC were investigated. The efficient training algorithms were developed to overcome the limitations caused by the conventional maximum error correction training and to eliminate the accumulated learning error caused by a sequential node training. A nonlinear function generator and a motion generator for a two d.o.f. manipulator were simulated. The efficiency of the various learning algorithms was demonstrated through the cpu time used and the convergence of the rms and maximum errors accumulated during a learning process. A generalization property and a learning effect due to the various gains were simulated. A uniform quantizing method was applied to cope with various ranges of input variables efficiently.

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ON LEARNING OF CMAC FOR MANIPULATOR CONTROL

  • Choe, Dong-Yeop;Hwang, Hyeon
    • 한국기계연구소 소보
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    • pp.93-115
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    • 1989
  • Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Controller(CMAC) has been introduced as an adaptive control function generator. CMAC computes control functions referring to a distributed memory table storing functional values rather than by solving equations analytically or numerically. CMAC has a unique mapping structure as a coarse coding and supervisory delta-rule learning property. In this paper, learning aspects and a convergence of the CMAC were investigated. The efficient training algorithms were developed to overcome the limitations caused by the conventional maximum error correction training and to eliminate the accumulated learning error caused by a sequential node training. A nonlinear function generator and a motion generator for a two d. o. f. manipulator were simulated. The efficiency of the various learning algorithms was demonstrated through the cpu time used and the convergence of the rms and maximum errors accumulated during a learning process; A generalization property and a learning effect due to the various gains were simulated. A uniform quantizing method was applied to cope with various ranges of input variables efficiently.

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An Incremental Multi Partition Averaging Algorithm Based on Memory Based Reasoning (메모리 기반 추론 기법에 기반한 점진적 다분할평균 알고리즘)

  • Yih, Hyeong-Il
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2008
  • One of the popular methods used for pattern classification is the MBR (Memory-Based Reasoning) algorithm. Since it simply computes distances between a test pattern and training patterns or hyperplanes stored in memory, and then assigns the class of the nearest training pattern, it is notorious for memory usage and can't learn additional information from new data. In order to overcome this problem, we propose an incremental learning algorithm (iMPA). iMPA divides the entire pattern space into fixed number partitions, and generates representatives from each partition. Also, due to the fact that it can not learn additional information from new data, we present iMPA which can learn additional information from new data and not require access to the original data, used to train. Proposed methods have been successfully shown to exhibit comparable performance to k-NN with a lot less number of patterns and better result than EACH system which implements the NGE theory using benchmark data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

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