• Title, Summary, Keyword: Melatonin

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Effects of melatonin on heart rate in rats (멜라토닌이 랫트에서 심박수에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim, So-yeon;Shin, Se-rin;Kim, Jin-shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.497-503
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    • 2001
  • Evidence from the last 10 years have been suggested that melatonin mainly produce a depressant effect on the cardiac system, but we found an activating effect of melatonin on heart rate in this research. To determine the hypothesis that melatonin has dual effects on physiological behaviour of cardiac system, we investigated the effects of melatonin on heart rate in isolated rat atria and anesthetized rats. Regardless of concentration, melatonin produced bradycardia in the 84 cases of 148 experiments (57 %) and tachycardia in the 64 cases of 148 experiments (43 %). And in atrium, melatonin produced a decrease automaticity in 52 cases of 86 experiments (60 %) and increase automaticity in 40 % (34/86 cases). Also, these effects are not significnat relationship with concetration of melatonin. The melatonin-induced bradycardia in vivo was inhibited by pretreatment of atropine or bilateral cervical vagotomy. Also, in isolated atrium the melatonin-induced decrease in automaticity was inhibited by pretreatment of atropine. These melatonin-induced responses were potenitated by pretreatment of propranolol. The melatonin-induced tachycardia in vivo was inhibited by pretreatment of propranolol, nifedipine or bilateral cervical vagotomy, but not by pretreatment of atropine. The melatonin-induced incease in automaticity in isolated atrium was converted to decrease in automaticity by pretreatment of propranolol. In addition, the change in heart rate caused by adrenoceptor agonists was inhibited by pretreatment of melatonin. These results indicate that melatonin-induced bradycardia may be related to a muscarinic receptor activation and melatonin-induced tachycardia may be related to a $\beta$-adrenoceptor stimulation.

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The Effects of Melatonin and Ge-132 on Acute Hematopoietic Syndrome following Radiation Exposure (방사선피폭 후 급성조혈계증후군에 대한 Melatonin과 Ge-132의 효과)

  • Jang, Seong-Soon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2004
  • The radioprotective effects of Melatonin and Ge-132 on acute hematopoietic injury was investigated in mice exposed to an acute whole-body radiation dose of 8 Gy. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before irradiation at a dose of 200 mg/kg, and Ge-132 was administered orally from days 5 to 20 after irradiation at a dose 130 - 150 mg/kg/d. The radioprotective effects were evaluated for spleen using TUNEL assay, and in peripheral blood by counting lymphocyte & WBC. The 4 experimental groups (irradiation-only, melatonin pretreatment, Ge-132 posttreatment, and melatonin pretreatment plus Ge-132 posttreatment) were observed for survival analysis up to 30 days following irradiation. The apoptotic index (47.8% vs 45.9%, p=0.385), and the number of lymphocytes ($97/{\mu}{\ell}\;vs\;101/{\mu}{\ell}$, p=0.898) were not significantly different between the irradiation-only and the melatonin pretreatment group, But the number of WBCs ($147/{\mu}{\ell}\;vs\;306/{\mu}{\ell}$, p=0.010) was higher in the melatonin pretreatment group. The irradiation-only, melatonin, Ge-132, and melatonin plus Ge-132 treatments resulted in survival rate at 30 days of 21.4%, 100%, 35.7%, and 85.7%, respectively. The melatonin pretreatment group in survival analysis between groups was showed significantly higher survival than the irradiation-only(p=0.000), or Ge-132 posttreatment group(p=0.0003). These results indicate that the melatonin may have a potential as an effective radioprotector on acute hematopoietic syndrome following radiation exposure.

Analysis of Melatonin Content from Domestic Edible Plants (국내산 식용식물체의 멜라토닌 함량 분석)

  • Kim, Seok-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1145-1148
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    • 2002
  • Melatonin, which is a hormone secreted from pineal gland of brain and known to prevent oxidative damages of various tissues, was analyzed in 26 domestic edible plants. For the preparation of melatonin fraction, 50% ethanol extract prepared from lyophilized plant powder was filtered and applied on TLC plate. Melatonin position on TLC developed with acetone was identified by fluorescence light and extracted with methanol. This methanolic fraction was injected into HPLC comprising ODS-A column, fluorescence detector, and mobile phase consisting of a mixture (30 : 70, v/v) of 70% ammonium acetate and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Melatonin was identified at the retention time of 17 min. Results revealed that celery, leek, broccoli, and cauliflower had higher melatonin contents than others.

Melatonin Induces Akt Phosphorylation through Melatonin Receptor- and PI3K-Dependent Pathways in Primary Astrocytes

  • Kong, Pil-Jae;Byun, Jong-Seon;Lim, So-Young;Lee, Jae-Jun;Hong, Sung-Jun;Kwon, Kwang-Jun;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2008
  • Melatonin has been reported to protect neurons from a variety of neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism by which melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property has not yet been clearly understood. We previously demonstrated that melatonin protected kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, accompanied by sustained activation of Akt, a critical mediator of neuronal survival. To further elucidate the neuroprotective action of melatonin, we examined in the present study the causal mechanism how Akt signaling pathway is regulated by melatonin in a rat primary astrocyte culture model. Melatonin resulted in increased astrocytic Akt phosphorylation, which was significantly decreased with wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, suggesting that activation of Akt by melatonin is mediated through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, increased Akt activation was also significantly decreased with luzindole, a non-selective melatonin receptor antagonist. As downstream signaling pathway of Akt activation, increased levels of CREB phoshorylation and GDNF expression were observed, which were also attenuated with wortmannin and luzindole. These results strongly suggest that melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property in astrocytes through the activation of plasma membrane receptors and then PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

Melatonin Secretion Changes Upon Lightning and Feeding on the Bird Delichon urbica (광선 및 먹이유무에 따른 Delichon urbica의 Melatonin 농도 변화)

  • 한상진
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2000
  • Melatonin plasma in Swallows exhibited circadian rhythmical secretions in the LD (Light and dark, 12:12) period with and without feeding. But their average difference between at CT6 (Circadian Time) and CT18 was 3.53 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$ in LD period with feeding. on the other side 1.60 ng/$m\ell$ during without feeding. Melatonin concentration at CT6 without feeding incresed from 0.22 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$ to 0.93 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$. It is demonstrated that decresing melatonin secretion may reduce digestive function in order to ready for the migration. While the birds with feeding exhibited circadian rhythmical activity, their activity without feeding was durable. The concentrations of melatonin plasma by refeeding were 1.53 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$ at CT6 and 6.07 ng/$\textrm{m}{\ell}$ at CT18. Melatonin plasma concentration in the night increased by more than ca. quadruple at day. This results suggest that melatonin regulates metabolism for the return to the normal metabolism condition after migration. After 3 days refeeding melatonin was secreted circadian rhythmically same as the secretions with feeding at beginning.

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Continuous Melatonin Attenuates the Regressing Activities of Short Photoperiod in Male Golden Hamsters

  • Choi, Donchan
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2013
  • Golden hamsters reproduce in a limited time of a year. Their sexual activities are active in summer but inactive in winter during which day length does not exceed night time and environmental conditions are severe to them. The reproductive activities are determined by the length of light in a day (photoperiod). Melatonin is synthesized and secreted only at night time from the pineal gland. Duration of elevated melatonin is longer in winter than summer, resulting in gonadal regression. The present study aimed at the influences of continuous melatonin treatments impinging on the gonadal function in male golden hamsters. Animals received empty or melatonin-filled capsules for 10 weeks. They were divided into long photoperiod (LP) and short photoperiod (SP). All the animals maintained in LP (either empty or melatonin-filled capsules) showed large testes, implying that melatonin had no effects on testicular functions. Animals housed in SP displayed completely regressed testes. But animals kept in SP and implanted with melatonin capsules exhibited blockage of full regression by SP. These results suggest that constant release of melatonin prohibits the regressing influence of SP.

Behavioral and Physiological Effects Induced by the Acute Administration of Melatonin in Healthy Young Men (정상인에서의 멜라토닌 투여에 따른 행동 및 생리적 효과)

  • Joe, Sook-Haeng;Nam, Min
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 1997
  • Objectives : The behavioral and physiological effects following low doses and high doses of melatonin have not been fully explored. In this study the authors investigated the nature and extent of the hypnotic effects, oral temperature, blood pressure effects, performance effects and subjective feelings following the acute administration of low pharmacological oral doses of melatonin at mid-day. Methods : Thirty-five healthy young medical students were randomly assigned to receive 6mg of oral melatonin(N=11), 12mg of oral melatonin(N=12) or a placebo(N=12) in a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Measures of the behavioral and physiological effects used in the study were Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail test and visual analogue scale for subjective feelings. Oral temperature and blood pressure were measured. The subjects were studied between 10:00 and 16:00 hours. Data were analyzed by using repeated-measures analyses of variance(ANOVA). Results: Melatonin produced statistically significant effects on oral temperature, but there were no significant effects on time and the $dose{\times}time$ interaction. There was a significant difference on oral temperature between the 12mg oral melatonin group and the placebo group at 12:00 and 16:00 hours, but no significant difference between the 12mg and the 6mg oral melatonin groups. Melatonin produced a dose-related increase in subjective sleepiness and had significant effects on time, the $dose{\times}time$ interaction. There was a significant difference on subjective sleepiness among the placebo, 6mg, 12mg oral melatonin groups at 13:00-16:00 hours. Melatonin did not produce statistically significant dose-related effects on subjective fatigue but produced significant effects on time and the $dose{\times}time$ interaction. There was a significant difference on subjective fatigue between the 12mg, the 6mg oral melatonin groups and the placebo group at 13:00 hour. Conclusions : These data indicated that acute administration of melatonin at mid-day increased subjective sleepiness and fatigue but decreased oral temperatures. These effects were shown especially in 12mg oral melatonin group.

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Melatonin Induces Apoptotic Cell Death via p53 in LNCaP Cells

  • Kim, Chi-Hyun;Yoo, Yeong-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.365-369
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    • 2010
  • In this study, we examined whether melatonin promotes apoptotic cell death via p53 in prostate LNCaP cells. Melatonin treatment significantly curtailed the growth of LNCaP cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Melatonin treatment (0 to 3 mM) induced the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. Moreover, melatonin markedly activated Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression in dose increments. To investigate p53 and p21 expression, LNCaP cells were treated with 0 to 3 mM melatonin. Melatonin increased the expressions of p53, p21, and p27. Treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB202190 (p38 inhibitor), confirmed that the melatonin-induced apoptosis was p21-dependent, but ERK-independent. With the co-treatment of PD98059 and melatonin, the expression of p-p53, p21, and MDM2 did not decrease. These effects were opposite to the expression of p-p53, p21, and MDM2 observed with SP600125 and SB202190 treatments. Together, these results suggest that p53-dependent induction of JNK/p38 MAPK directly participates in apoptosis induced by melatonin.

The Effect of Melatonin on Biochemical Changes after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Rat Skeletal Muscle (흰쥐 골격근의 허혈-재관류 손상후 생화학적 변화에 미치는 Melatonin의 효과)

  • Park, Hye June;Burm, Jin Sik
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.683-688
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    • 2005
  • The ischemia-reperfusion injury of the skeletal muscles is caused by generation of reactive oxygen during ischemia and reperfusion. Melatonin or N-Acetyl-5-methoxy- tryptamine is suggested to have antioxidant effects in several tissues. In present study, we examined the protective effect of melatonin in a rat hind limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dimethyl-sulfoxide(DMSO) was also tested for comparison. Ischemia was induced for 4 hours by vascular clamping and followed by 1 hour or 24 hours of reperfusion. Muscle injury was evaluated in 4 groups such as single laparotomy group(control), ischemia-reperfusion group, DMSO group, melatonin group. Eedema ratio and malondialdehyde(MDA) of muscle tissue and serum level of creatine kinase(CK), were measeured at the end of reperfusion. DMSO and melatonin group showed significant amelioration of edema and serum CK compared with ischemia-reperfusion group. The decreasing effect was more prominent in melatonin group. The muscle tissue MDA concentration is significantly lower in melatonin group than in ischemia-reperfusion group. The results show that melatonin prevents and improves ischemia-reperfusion injury more effectively in a rat hind limb than DMSO dose. Thus, clinically the melatonin may be used for a beneficial treatment of such injuries

Melatonin-Induced PGC-1α Improves Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Hindlimb Ischemia

  • Lee, Jun Hee;Han, Yong-Seok;Lee, Sang Hun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.240-249
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    • 2020
  • Despite the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in ischemic diseases, pathophysiological conditions, including hypoxia, limited nutrient availability, and oxidative stress restrict their potential. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of melatonin on the bioactivities of MSCs. Treatment of MSCs with melatonin increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α). Melatonin treatment enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in MSCs in a PGC-1α-dependent manner. Melatonin-mediated PGC-1α expression enhanced the proliferative potential of MSCs through regulation of cell cycle-associated protein activity. In addition, melatonin promoted the angiogenic ability of MSCs, including migration and invasion abilities and secretion of angiogenic cytokines by increasing PGC-1α expression. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, the survival of transplanted melatonin-treated MSCs was significantly increased in the ischemic tissues, resulting in improvement of functional recovery, such as blood perfusion, limb salvage, neovascularization, and protection against necrosis and fibrosis. These findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of melatonin-treated MSCs in ischemic diseases is mediated via regulation of PGC-1α level. This study suggests that melatonin-induced PGC-1α might serve as a novel target for MSC-based therapy of ischemic diseases, and melatonin-treated MSCs could be used as an effective cell-based therapeutic option for patients with ischemic diseases.