• Title, Summary, Keyword: Melanocytes

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Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Efficacy of Melanocyte Transplantation in Animal Skin

  • Lim, Won-Suk;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Kim, Ji-Young;Do, Byung-Rok;Kim, Eo Jin;Lee, Ai-Young
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2014
  • Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder induced by a loss of melanocytes. In addition to replacement of pure melanocytes, cocultures of melanocytes with keratinocytes have been used to improve the repigmentation outcome in vitiligo treatment. We previously identified by in vitro studies, that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could be a potential substitute for keratinocytes in cocultures with melanocytes. In this study, the efficacy of pigmentation including durability of grafted melanocytes and short-term safety was examined in the nude mouse and Sprague-Dawley rat after grafting of primary cultured human melanocytes, with or without different ratios of primary cultured human ADSCs. Simultaneous grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs, which were separately cultured and mixed on grafting at the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3, showed better efficacy than that of pure melanocytes. Grafting of melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs resulted in a similar outcome as the grafting of cell mixtures. Skin pigmentation by melanocytes : ADSCs at the ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 was better than at 1:3. No significant difference was observed between the 1-week and 2-week durations in coculturing. Time-course microscopic examination showed that the grafted melanocytes remained a little longer than 6-week post-grafting. No inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the grafted skin and no melanocytes were detectable in other organs. Collectively, grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs was equally safe and more effective than grafting of melanocytes alone. Despite the absence of significant differences in efficacy between the group of 1:1 and that of 1:2 ratio, 1:2 ratio for 1-week coculturing may be better for clinical use from the cost-benefit viewpoint.

Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Coculturing Stimulates Integrin-Mediated Extracellular Matrix Adhesion of Melanocytes by Upregulating Growth Factors

  • Kim, Hyangmi;Yi, Nayoung;Do, Byung-Rok;Lee, Ai-Young
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2019
  • Coculture with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes. To enhance outcomes of skin disorders caused by melanocyte loss or death, mixed transplantation with ADSCs has been suggested. However, role of cocultured ADSCs in proliferation and migration of melanocytes remains unclear. This study determined the effect of ADSCs on production of growth factors and expression levels of intergrins in primary culture of adult human melanocytes with or without ADSCs and in nude mice grafted with such melanocytes. Higher amounts of growth factors for melanocytes, such as bFGF and SCF were produced and released from ADSCs by coculturing with melanocytes. Relative levels of integrins ${\beta}1$, ${\alpha}5$, and ${\alpha}6$ as well as adhesion to fibronectin and laminin were increased in melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs. Such increases were inhibited by neutralization of bFGF or SCF. Relative levels of bFGF, SCF and integrins were increased in nude mice skin after grafting with melanocyte+ADSC cocultures. Collectively, these results indicate that ADSCs can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes by increasing expression of integrins in melanocytes through upregulation of production/release of melanocyte growth factors such as bFGF and SCF.

Biology of melanocytes and melanogenesis (멜라닌세포의 특성과 멜라닌 형성)

  • 박경찬
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.45-57
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    • 1999
  • Melanocytes, derived from neural crest, make melanin and protect skin from the hazardous ultraviolet light. Melanocytes with dendritic process has similar morphology with neurogenic cells and share growth factor receptors such as neurotrophin receptors. Melanogenesis can be regulated by ultraviolet light and inflammation of the skin. In addition, several factors such as hormone, cytokines, arachidonic acid can affect the proliferation and melanogenesis of melanocytes. For melanogenesis, melanocytes need expression of various genes including tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2. In addition, melanin need to be transferred from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. The biology of melanocytes is complex and mechanism of melanocytes proliferation and melanogenesis is still under the investigation.

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Effect of Superoxide Dismutase on Oxidative Stress of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cultured Human Skin Melanocyte (Superoxide Dismutase가 배양인체피부멜라닌세포의 산화적 스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Young Mi;Kim, Nam Song
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.261-269
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    • 2009
  • To evaluate the effect of antioxidant on the cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured human skin melanocytes, colorimeric assay of XTT and tyrosinase activity assay were adopted after human skin melanocytes were preincubated for 2 hours in the media containing various concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) before the treatment of hydrogen peroxide. Light microscopic study was carried out in same cultures. The results of this study were as follows 1. Cell viability of human skin melanocytes was significantly decreased by 30 and $40{\mu}M$ of hydrogen peroxide($H_2O_2$), respectively. 2. XTT50 was determined at $30{\mu}M$ after human skin melanocytes were treated with $10{\sim}40{\mu}M$ of hydrogen peroxide for 6 hours. 3. The cell viability of cultured human skin melanocytes pretreated with SOD was increased than that of cultured human skin melanocytes treated with $H_2O_2$ dose-dependently. 4. In tyrosinase activity of human skin melanocytes, the cell treated with SOD showed brown stain compared with $H_2O_2$ treated cells, dark stain. 5. In light microscopy, cultured human skin melanocytes exposed to $H_2O_2$ showed morphological changes such as the decreased cell number and cytoplasmic processes, compared with control. 6. In light microscopy, cultured human skin melanocytes pretreated with SOD showed the increase of cell number and cytoplasmic processes compared with $H_2O_2-treated$ group. From these results, it is suggested that oxidative stress of ROS such as $H_2O_2$ has cytotoxicity by showing the decreased cell viability, the increased tyrosinase activity and mophological changes of the decreased cell number and cytoplasmic processes. While, antioxidant like SOD was effective in the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity by the increased cell viability, decreased tyrosinase activity and the protection of degenerative morphological changes in cultured human skin melanocytes.

The Signaling of UV-induced Apoptosis in Melanocytes

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Kim, Sook--Young;Park, Kyoung-Chan
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.217-220
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    • 2002
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may activate or deteriorate cultured human epidermal melanocytes, depending on the doses and culture conditions. In this study, we examined whether apoptosis of melanocytes can be induced by physiologic doses of UVB irradiation. PI staining for DNA condensation and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated the apoptotic cell death of melanocytes after UVB irradiation. The level of p53 and Bax revealed a dose-dependent increase with increasing dose of UVB, but the level of Bcl-2 remained unchanged. Confocal microscopic examination showed that Bax moved trom a diffuse to a punctate distribution after UVB irradiation. However, there were no changes in the pattern of Bcl-2. We next examined the downstream targets of apoptosis. Our results showed that a precursor form of caspase-3 disappeared with increasing doses of UVB. We also observed cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) after UVB irradiation. In addition, UVB irradiation resulted in a remarkable activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results indicate that UVB may induce apoptosis via JNK activation in human melanocytes.

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SM709, Ingredient of Antimelanogenic Bamboo Extract, Blocks Endothelin-1-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ Increase in Human Melanocytes

  • Kim, Shin-Hee;Lee, Ki-Mu;Kim, Hyo-Shin;Lee, Gyu-Seung;Jeon, Byeong-Hwa;Kim, Kwang-Jin;Park, Jin-Bong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2003
  • Endothelins secreted from keratinocytes are intrinsic mitogens and melanogens of human melanocytes in UVB-induced hyperpigmentation. To elucidate the cellular mechanism of antimelanogenic activity of bamboo extract, the effects of three ingredients of bamboo extract on endothelin 1 (ET-1)-induced $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization were investigated in cultured human melanocytes. ET-1 receptors in human melanocytes were characterized by using specific antagonist, and ET-1 was found to increase intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) by activating ET-B receptor. SM709 (1,2-O-diferulyl-glycerol), an ingredient of bamboo extract, inhibited ET-1-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, although another ingredients SM707 and SM708 had no effect on ET-1-induced $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase in human melanocytes. SM709 ($100{\mu}M$), however, did not affect $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase induced by thapsigargin and caffeine, suggesting that SM709 has no effect on the $Ca^{2+}$ store in melanocytes. Furthermore, SM709 did not affect $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increase induced by LPA or ATP, known as G protein-mediated PLC activators like ET-1. Taken together, it is suggested that SM709 antagonizes ET-1-induced transmembrane signaling through ET-B receptor, which maybe a possible underlying mechanism of antimelanogenic activity of bamboo extract in human melanocytes.

BQ-788 (ENDOTHELIN-B RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST) BLOCKS KERATINOCYTE-INDUCED DENDRICITY 01 CULTURED IHELANOCYTES

  • Cho, Joon-Hwan;Lee, Ki-Moo;Kim, Nam-Soo;Seonghyang Sohn;Kang, Won-Hyoung
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.134-145
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    • 1998
  • Facial hyperpigmentation in women, which is considered to be a serious cosmetic disability and a cause of mental distress, requires proper management. Melanocyte dendricity is a crucial factor affecting epidermal pigmentation. We found that BQ-788, the endothelin-B (ETB) receptor antagonist, blocks the formation of multi-dendricity which is induced by cocultured keratinocytes. Melanocytes in vivo show numerous dendrites which are in close contact with multiple keratinocytes, forming the epidermal-melanin unit. While melanocytes transfer their melanosomes into the neighboring keratinocytes via dendrites, keratinocytes secrete many growth factors and cytokines that influence viability, morphology, and melanin formation of melanocytes. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), prostaglandin E2(PGE2), and leukotriene-C4 (LT-C4) have been suggested as the candidates for increasing dendricity. Other reports suggested that ET-1 has stimulatory effects on proliferation and melanin formation of melanocytes in vitro. In the present study, using type-specific ET receptor antagonists, we observed how the morphology of melanocytes could be modulated in a coculture system. In addition, the roles of ET-1 for morphology and proliferation on melanocytes were evaluated in different culture media. We suggest that ET-1 increases dendricity and proliferation of melanocytes, and that its dendrite-inducing effect and mitogenic effect are regulated independently.

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Substantial Effect of Melanin Influencing Factors on In vitro Melanogenesis in Muzzle Melanocytes of Differently Colored Hanwoo

  • Amna, Touseef;Park, Kyoung-Mi;Cho, In-Kyung;Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lee, Seung-Soo;Seo, Kang-Seok;Hwang, In-Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.1029-1037
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    • 2012
  • The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ${\alpha}$-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (${\alpha}$-MSH), nitric oxide (NO) and L-cysteine on melanin production and expression of related genes MC1R, Tyr, Tyrp-1 and Tyrp-2 in muzzle melanocytes of differently colored three native Hanwoo cattle. Muzzle samples were taken from black, brindle and brown Hanwoo and purified melanocytes were cultured with ${\alpha}$-MSH, nitric oxide and L-cysteine at 100 nM, $50{\mu}M$ and 0.07 mg/ml of media respectively. The amounts of total melanin, eumelanin and mRNA expression at Tyr, Tyrp-1, Tyrp-2 and MC1R levels were quantified. ${\alpha}$-MSH and nitric oxide significantly increased (p<0.05) the amount of total melanin in black and brindle whereas eumelanin production in brown Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. On the contrary, L-cysteine greatly (p<0.05) depressed the eumelanin production in black color but increased in brown. Simultaneously, up regulation of Tyr by nitric oxide and ${\alpha}$-MSH and down regulation of Tyr, Tyrp-2 and MC1R genes by L-cysteine were observed in muzzle melanocytes of all three phenotypes. The results of this study revealed nitric oxide and ${\alpha}$-MSH contribute hyper-pigmentation by enhancing eumelanogenesis whereas L-cysteine contributes to pheomelanin production in different colored Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes.

Regulation of melanocyte apoptosis by Stathmin 1 expression

  • Zhang, Yan;Xiong, Jianjun;Wang, Jiali;Shi, Xianping;Bao, Guodong;Zhang, Yang;Zhu, Zhenyu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.11
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    • pp.765-770
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    • 2008
  • Undesirable hyperpigmentation that can arise from increased melanocyte activity may be alleviated by targeting active melanocytes for apoptosis. The role of Stathmin 1 as an important regulator of microtubule dynamics is well documented. The current study examined the potential of Stathmin 1-targeting strategies in eliminating active melanocytes. A vector to overexpress Stathmin 1 and vectors to express three distinct small hairpin RNAs to knockdown Stathmin 1 expression in normal melanocytes were produced and in cell cultures acted accordingly. Both overexpression and knockdown of Stathmin 1 led to a marked increase in melanocyte apoptosis, as indicated by the accumulation of apoptotic cells and increased levels of cleaved caspase-3. Both up- and down-regulation of Stathmin 1 expression inhibited the activity of differentiated melanocytes, as indicated by decreases in both melanin production and tyrosinase activity. Taken together, these results indicate that hyperactive melanocytes can be inhibited by altering Stathmin 1 expression.

Sphigosine-1-Phosphate-Induced ERK Activation Protects Human Melanocytes from UVB-Induced Apoptosis

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Kim, Sook-Young;Lee, Jai-Eun;Kwon, Sun-Bang;Joo, Young-Hyun;Youn, Sang-Woong;Park, Kyoung-Chan
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 2003
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) is known to induce apoptosis in human melanocytes. Here we show the cytoprotective effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) against UVB-induced apoptosis. We also show that UVB-induced apoptosis of melanocytes is mediated by caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and that S1P prevents apoptosis by inhibiting this apoptotic pathway. We further investigated three major mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases after UVB irradiation. UVB gradually activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, while extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was inactivated transiently. Blocking of the p38 MAP kinase pathway using SB203580 promoted cell survival and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase activation may play an important role in the UVB-induced apoptosis of human melanocytes. To explain this cytoprotective effect, we next examined whether S1P could inhibit UVB-induced JNK and p38 MAP kinase activation. However, S1P was not found to have any influence on UVB-induced JNK or p38 MAP kinase activation. In contrast, S1P clearly stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK, and the specific inhibition of the ERK pathway using PD98059 abolished the cytoprotective effect of S1P. Based on these results, we conclude that the activation of p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in UVB-induced apoptosis, and that S1P may show its cytoprotective effect through ERK activation in human melanocytes.