• Title/Summary/Keyword: Meiji Period

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A Study on Giving Verbs 'kureru' and 'kudasaru': by Analyzing Dialogues of Female Speakers in Novels of the Edo Period, Meiji Period and the Taisho Period- (수수동사 'くれる·くださる'에 관한 고찰 - 에도기부터 다이쇼기의 작품속의 여성화자의 사용례를 중심으로-)

  • Yang, JungSoon
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.31
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    • pp.371-394
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to know word forms and usages according to personal relationships of 'Kureru Kudasaru' by analyzing dialogues of female speakers. Novels of the Meiji period when there were attempts of a language revolution were mainly used for this study as well as novels of the Edo Period and the Taisho Period. Firstly, the number of examples according to gender differences in the novels was as follows. In case of 'Kureru', female speakers showed a high usage rate in the novels of the Edo period. 'Kureru' was mostly connected with female languages such as 'Naharu', 'Namasu', 'Nansu'. These expressions were not used in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. Although 'Okureru' and 'Okurenasaru' were used in the novels of the Meiji Period, the number of examples of 'Kureru' by female speakers was decreased in the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. 'Kudasaru' was predominantly used by female speakers. Especially, female speakers used clearly to show vertical relationships in the novels of the Edo Period and"Doseishoseikatagi"of Meiji 10s. After"Ukigumo", the usage rate of female speakers was decreased but the usage rate of male speakers was increased. Gender differences became gradually smaller. Female speakers in the novels were increased from geisha and relatives such as wife, sister, mother and children to young women, teacher and student. Aspects of benefactive verbs' usages could be summarized as follows. Female speakers at licensed quarters used clearer and more typical expressions according to vertical relationships and gender differences in the novels of The Edo Period than the novels of The Meiji Period and the Taisho Period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers in a sophisticated social group used benefactive verbs to show strong respect and concern for the other person. In the novels of the Taisho Period, female speakers used benefactive verbs to show respect and concern for the other person according to their areas of outside activities. In the novels of the Meiji Period, female speakers used 'Okureru' when the other person was younger than them and was socially and psychologically close to them. Also, 'O~Nasaru' which was one of respect expressions was used by female speakers. Female speakers used it to older people in the Edo period but they also used it to younger people in the Meiji Period. Examples were not shown in the novels of the Taisho Period. Usages of 'Kureru' 'Kudasaru' according to vertical relationships were as follows. If 'a giver' was an older person, 'Kureru' with respect expressions 'Nasaru' 'Nansu' 'Namasu' was used more than 'Kudasaru' in the novels of the Edo Period. However, many examples of 'Kudasaru' were shown on the novels of the Meiji Period and the Taisho period. In the novels of the Meiji Period, 'Okureru' and 'Okurenasaru' which were expressions included in 'Kureru' were shown. Female speakers used them to older people who were socially and psychologically close to them like family. There were not many examples of 'a giver' and 'a receiver' around the same age. However, 'Kureru' and 'Okureru' were used in a younger group and 'Kudasaru' was used in an older group in the novels of the Meiji Period. If 'a giver' was an younger person, 'Kureru' was mainly used in the novels of the Edo period and "Doseishoseikatagi"in Meiji 10s. However, 'Kudasaru' was used many times in the novels of the latter Meiji Period and the Taisho Period.

Study on the Police Uniform in Japan's Early Meiji Period (일본 명치전기(明治前期) 경찰복 연구)

  • Nomura, Michiyo;Lee, Kyungmee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to examine introduction and establishment of the police uniform during Japan's early Meiji period, in order to get deeper understanding of the introduction of the modern uniform. The research method included a literature review of laws related to police uniform, which were collected and analyzed. The result shows that the uniform stipulated by Keisi-cho Uniform regulation in 1874 included characteristics of Western uniforms that show the rank of the officers using emblems, such as different cap badges and uniform stripes, while maintaining the same form. Later, the modern uniform system came into form with the addition of a national symbol, building system of formal wear, separating uniforms for different classes, and adding additional uniforms. This illustrates the process of introducing and establishing western-style uniform in the East and can serve as a reference for similar studies.

On the Japanese Investigations for the Korean Sea during Meiji Period (명치시대(明治時代) 일본의 조선(朝鮮) 바다 조사)

  • Rhee, Kun-Woo
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2012
  • This study is to survey the Japanese investigations for Korean sea during Meiji period. Meiji government was eager to develop new fishing ground to provide the marine products to their people, to offer the job for their people and to accumulate the starting capital. They found that the Korean sea was abundant in shark, sea cucumber and ear shell. These products were valuable for Chinese foods. From 1870's, Japan Navy investigated Korean sea for military purpose and subsequently for fishery. The first investigation for Korean maritime products was The Circumstances for Catching Fish in Korean Sea by Sekizawa Akikiyo in 1893. He was the most famous specialist in fishery and insisted that Japanese fishermen must go to Korean sea and catch fishes. Meiji government accepted his opinion and pushed the policy sending fishermen to Korean sea. Meiji government enlarged the investigations and backed up the activities of fisherman and the organization for fishery in Korean sea. Especially, the investigations by The Association for Korean Sea Fishery were repeated and detailed(1897~1900). The Association intervened the conflicts between Korean and Japanese fishermen. At the same time, The Association investigated the attitudes of Korean people to Japanese. The Guidelines for Fishery in Korean Sea by Kuzuu Syuzo was also very detail, especially in the kinds of fishes in Korean sea. These investigations were supported by Meiji government or organizations helped by government.

Indefinite Problem in Wasan (和算家的累约术)

  • Qu, Anjing
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.5_6
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    • pp.329-343
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    • 2013
  • Japanese mathematics, namely Wasan, was well-developed before the Meiji period. Takebe Katahiro (1664-1739) and Nakane Genkei (1662-1733), among a great number of mathematicians in Wasan, maybe the most famous ones. Taking Takebe and Nakane's indefinite problems as examples, the similarities and differences are made between Wasan and Chinese mathematics. According to investigating the sources and attitudes to these problems which both Japanese and Chinese mathematicians dealt with, the paper tries to show how and why Japanese mathematicians accepted Chinese tradition and beyond. As a typical sample of the succession of Chinese tradition, Wasan will help people to understand the real meaning of Chinese tradition deeper.

The Succession and Innovation of Wasan to Chinese Mathematics -A case study on Seki's interpolation (和算对中算的继承与创新-以关孝和的內插法为例)

  • Qu, Anjing
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.219-232
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    • 2013
  • Japanese mathematics, namely Wasan, was well-developed before the Meiji period. Seki Takakazu (1642?-1708) is the most famous one. Taking Seki's interpolation as an example, the similarities and differences are made between Wasan and Chinese mathematics. According to investigating the sources and attitudes to this problem which both Japanese and Chinese mathematicians dealt with, the paper tries to show how and why Japanese mathematicians accepted Chinese tradition and beyond. Professor Wu Wentsun says that, in the whole history of mathematics, there exist two different major trends which occupy the main stream alternately. The axiomatic deductive system of logic is the one which we are familiar with. Another, he believes, goes to the mechanical algorithm system of program. The latter featured traditional Chinese mathematics, as well as Wasan. As a typical sample of the succession of Chinese tradition, Wasan will help people to understand the real meaning of the mechanical algorithm system of program deeper.

On Sekino Tadashi's Viewpoints of Korean Architecture in the 'Research Report on the Korean Architecture' ("한국건축조사보고(韓國建築調査報告)"에 보이는 관야(關野) 정(貞)의 한국건축관(韓國建築觀))

  • Nakanishi, Akira
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.13 no.1 s.37
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 2004
  • The 'Research report on the Korean architecture(韓國建築調査報告)' is the first investigation and research of the Korean architecture by Japanese researcher. This paper is about Sekino Tadashi's viewpoints of Korean architecture in the 'Research report on Korean architecture'. And the findings are as follows. The investigation of the Korean architecture by Sekino Tadashi was carried out in the concern about the relation between Japanese architecture and Asian architecture, shortly after the research of the history of Japanese architecture started. And following investigation and research about Korean architecture by Sekino Tadashi was mainly focusing on the ancient architecture which he estimated highly in the 'Research report on the Korean architecture'. When he observed each architecture himself, he estimated highly the ancient Korean architecture, of course. And also he estimated highly many architecture of the Koryo and the Chosun period. However, when he estimated Korean architecture as a whole, he had been strongly influenced in the prejudice about Korea in Japan of those days. But this is not originate in his individuality. History research reflects the historical situation that the researcher was placed. The viewpoints of Korean architecture in the 'Research report on the Korean architecture' was produced by the Korean recognition in Japan of those days.

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A Study on the Modernization of Japanese costume

  • Jeon, Hyun-Sil;Kang, Soon-Che
    • International Journal of Costume and Fashion
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2008
  • This research analyzes the patterns in modernization of costume that reflects the attitude of accepting the Western culture and the differences in perception, during modernization period (1850-early 1910) in Japan. The Japanese attitude toward the Western costume can be roughly classified into three periods: impetuous acceptance in the early Restoration of Imperial Regime(1867-1883), aggressive acceptance in Rokumeikan period(1883-1887), and the coexistence of traditional and modern costumes after Meiji 20(1887-1910). A Western costume symbolizes wealth and power until Rokumeikan period, however, as it becomes more common, it is considered as an ordinary dress rather than a ceremonial dress. The exact opposite phenomenon occurs to traditional costume. Although Japanese modernization is initially forced by western ideology of power, positive reactions to western culture and changes in perception toward China leads to more active importation of western culture. This reflects the governmental effort such as the Foreigners Employment Policy in the early Meiji period, and the public also became receptive toward change. However, acceptance of the Western culture is only limited to academic and technological areas, while the traditional Japanese ethos(the Emperor system, Shintoism, patriarchism) is obstinately protected. Therefore, it can be inferred that such extreme polarization of modernization and traditional inheritance enabled both perspectives to retain their own characteristics.

On the Background and the Process of 'Japan Fisheries' Compilation ('일본수산지'의 편찬 배경과 과정에 대하여)

  • Seo, Kyung-Soon
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.25-50
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study is to overview what changes happened on the maritime field during the early Meiji period, how the compilation of 'Japan Fisheries' linked to the changes, and when the 'Japan Fisheries' was launched, completed and published. The trilogy of Japan Fishing Method, Japan Fishery Products, and Japan's Useful Marine Products are called "Japan's Fishery." These were completed in 1895 for almost ten years since the compilation project was launched in 1886 at the Agricultural and Commercial Ministry. Japan Fishing Method selected, improved and recorded excellent fishing and fishing methods in various Japanese regions at that time whereas Japan Fisheries Products chose excellent fish products from various methods of manufacturing and recorded the enactment and sale of fishery products. Japan's Useful Marine Products is not currently passed on, so it is not known what kind of useful marine products are recorded. However, it can be assumed that the classification method of the "Japanese Fishing Classification Table" published in 1889 was based on the Japan Fishing Index. The cited texts in Japan Fisheries Products are up to 55 documents, including Engisiki and Wakansanzaizukai's "Report of the Great Japan Fishery Association," "Ariticle of the Fisheries Fair," "The Western Fishery Manufacturing Technique" and "Trade Situation with China." Completed with extensive research from old books to the latest fishery information, "Japan's Fishery" is Japan's best "Marine Products Encyclopedia" at the time. It is also a valuable literature that can trace fishing and fishing techniques and methods of manufacturing marine products in each Japanese fishing village before the end of the nineteenth century.

Background to the Formation of the Term Hyangjang (香粧) and Change in Cosmetic (化粧) Culture -Focusing on Change from Visual Make-up to Olfactory Make-up- (향장(香粧) 용어의 성립배경과 화장(化粧)문화의 변화 -시각적 화장에서 후각적 화장으로의 변화를 중심으로-)

  • Baek, Ju Hyun;Chae, Keum Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.197-211
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    • 2017
  • Modernization drastically changed the cosmetic culture of Korea and Japan. A classic case that shows this is the appearance of the term 'Hyangjang (香粧)'. This paper investigated the background to the formation of the term Hyangjang (香粧), and reviewed the aspects of cosmetic culture that changed with the emergence of Hyangjangpum (香粧品), or cosmetics containing perfume. The investigation revealed that the term Hyangjang (香粧) appeared for the first time in Hirano (1899), a literature published in the Meiji period in Japan, and that the new term Hyangjang (香粧) had been formed against the background of advanced Western synthetic perfume and played an important role in contemporary techniques for the manufacture of cosmetics. The term Hyangjang (香粧) and cosmetics containing perfume, or Hyangjangpum (香粧品) were then introduced from Japan to Korea. In Korea, the term 'Hyangjang (香粧)' appeared for the first time in an advertising copy written by Hyeon Hui-un, a pioneer of the Korean modern theater movement during the period of Japanese colonial rule. At that time, cosmetic companies in Korea and Japan were releasing cosmetic products that contained perfume that stimulated a women's desire to purchase them by emphasizing 'fragrance' in their advertising. Existing public tendencies to regard a fragrant smell from a made-up face as vulgar were changing and the public perception of fragrance were also changing. The appearance of Hyangjangpum (香粧品) indicates that the existing cosmetic culture revolving around visual sense changed into a complex cosmetic culture involving olfaction. This change in culture is significant in that it heralded the direction of future development towards cosmetic culture that uses increase combinations of different senses including touch, taste, and hearing.