Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the mediating and moderating effects of safety-specific transformational leadership on the relationship between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Methods: Two hundred thirty seven nurses from seven different hospitals participated in the study. Safety-specific transformational leadership was measured by an instrument with 10 items, barrier to reporting medication errors with 16 items, and intention of reporting medication errors with 3 items. The data was collected from September to October 2012. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and a hierarchial regression analysis were used. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the subcategories of barrier to reporting medication errors and intention of reporting medication errors (r=-.16~-.27, p<.001), and a positive correlation between the intention and safety-specific transformational leadership (r=.25, p<001). Transformational leadership was a mediator between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Conclusion: Safety-specific transformational leadership mediated the relationships between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Enhancing safety-specific transformational leadership of nursing unit managers is necessary to increase the intention to reporting medication errors.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
Purpose: Human factor is one of the major causes of medication errors. The purpose of this study was to identify nurses' perception and experience of medication errors, examine the relationship of Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness (DISC) behavior patterns and medication errors by nurses. Methods: A descriptive survey design with a convenience sampling was used. Data collection was done using self-report questionnaires answered by 308 nurses from one university hospital and two general hospitals. Results: The most frequent DISC behavioral style of nurses was influence style (41.9%), followed by steadiness style (23.7%), conscientiousness style (20.4%), and dominance style (14.0%). Differences in the perception and experience level of medication errors by nurses' behavioral pattern were not statistically significant. However, nurses with conscientiousness style had the lowest scores for in experience of medication errors and the highest scores for perception of medication errors. Conclusion: The results of this study show that identification of the behavior pattern of nurses and application of this education program can prevent medication errors by nurses in hospitals.
Background: Medication errors are common but most often preventable events in any health care setup. Studies on medication errors involving chemotherapeutic drugs are limited. Objective: We studied three aspects of medication errors - prescription, transcription and administration errors in 500 cancer patients who received ambulatory cancer chemotherapy at a resource limited setting government hospital attached cancer centre in South India. The frequency of medication errors, their types and the possible reasons for their occurrence were analysed. Design and Methods: Cross-sectional study using direct observation and chart review in anmbulatory day care unit of a Regional Cancer Centre in South India. Prescription charts of 500 patients during a three month time period were studied and errors analysed. Transcription errors were estimated from the nurses records for these 500 patients who were prescribed anticancer medications or premedication to be administered in the day care centre, direct observations were made during drug administration and administration errors analysed. Medical oncologists prescribing anticancer medications and nurses administering medications also participated. Results: A total of 500 patient observations were made and 41.6% medication errors were detected. Among the total observed errors, 114 (54.8%) were prescription errors, 51(24.5%) were transcribing errors and 43 (20.7%) were administration errors. The majority of the prescription errors were due to missing information (45.5%) and administration errors were mainly due to errors in drug reconstitution (55.8%). There were no life threatening events during the observation period since most of the errors were either intercepted before reaching the patient or were trivial. Conclusions: A high rate of potentially harmful medication errors were intercepted at the ambulatory day care unit of our regional cancer centre. Suggestions have been made to reduce errors in the future by adoption of computerised prescriptions and periodic sensitisation of the responsible health personnel.
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate perception and experience of medication errors by nurses. Method: Data collection through a survey was performed using structured questionnaires over the period of September 1 to October 15, 2004. Questionnaire were delivered to 222 nurses from 15 hospitals; thereafter, 205 questionnaires were responded (i.e., 92% response rate). The subject in the study was a nurse who had been working in the hospital for less than one year. Results: The average perception rate was 87.5%. The perception rates of subjects in medication errors from four areas are 62% in wrong dosage form for drug administration, 61.5% in air into an IV set, 63% in crystals in an IV lines, and 83.5% in wrong time. The experience rates of subjects in medication errors from four areas are 85.5% in wrong time, 39.5% in wrong injection site, 34.5% in omission error, and 28% in wrong patient. Conclusion: The average perception rate and experience rates of medication errors were 87.5% and 23.5%, respectively. Education about the Five right in medication and knowledges about drugs would improve the perception of medication errors of nurses whose work experience is less than one year, and prevent them from medication errors.
Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting medication errors and the medication management educational needs of community-dwelling older adults. Methods: From February 20 to February 23, 2017, 150 elderly people aged 65 or older were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 85.7% of the older adults were taking medication, but their drug knowledge was found to be low. The medication error rate was 24.9%, and the score for medication management education requirement was 3.61 out of a possible 5points. Factors affecting medication errors were perceived health status and knowledge of medication, and their explanatory power was 43% in total. Conclusion: It was concluded that nursing intervention is needed to reduce older adults' medication errors and to increase their knowledge of medication. Additionally, groups of older adults with high medication errors should be intensively educated, and when developing a medication management education program, the contents of the sub-areas and items in which the participants' needs were high should be reinforced.
Background: Patient safety and accurate implementation of medication orders are among the essential requirements of par nursing profession. In this regard, it is necessary to determine and prevent factors influencing medications errors. Although many studies have investigated this issue, the effects of psychosocial factors have not been examined thoroughly. Methods: The present study aimed at investigating the impact of psychosocial factors on nurses' medication errors by evaluating the balance between effort and reward. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in public hospitals of Tehran in 2015. The population of this work consisted of 379 nurses. A multisection questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: In this research, 29% of participating nurses reported medication errors in 2015. Most frequent errors were related to wrong dosage, drug, and patient. There were significant relationships between medications errors and the stress of imbalance between effort and reward (p < 0.02) and job commitment and stress (p < 0.027). Conclusion: It seems that several factors play a role in the occurrence of medication errors, and psychosocial factors play a crucial and major role in this regard. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate these factors in more detail and take them into account in the hospital management.
Background: Colorectal cancer shows a significant increase in South Korea due to westernization of diet, lack of dietary fiber, drinking and smoking, irregular defecation. There are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy in treatment of colorectal cancer. There may be a medication errors in the process of chemotherapy because of its high toxicity, narrow therapeutic index and the health status of cancer patients. Consequently medication errors can cause increasing the risk of death, prolonging hospital stay and increasing the cost. Among medication errors on medication use process, prescribing errors are of particular concern due to higher risk of serious consequences. It is important for pharmacist to prevent the prescribing errors before reaching patient. Therefore we analyzed the prescriptions of colorectal cancer, classified prescribing errors, suggested guideline to reduce prescribing errors and verified the importance of pharmacist's role in prevention of medication errors activity. Methods: We collected the numbers of prescriptions of colorectal cancer(n=2,373) through anti cancer management program and EMR and analyzed the errors of prescriptions by categories from Oct 1st 2011 to Sep 30th 2012 at Chungbuk National University Hospital. We reviewed the prescriptions as follows - patients' characteristics, the result of test, previous prescriptions, characteristics of antineoplastic agents and patients' allergy, drug sensitivity, adverse events. Prescriptions are classified into inpatient and outpatient and analyzed the errors of prescriptions by categories (dosage form, dose, input, diluents, regimen, product). Results: Total prescription number of inpatient and outpatient of colorectal cancer was 1,193 and 1,180 and that of errors was 107(9%) and 22(1.9%), respectively. In case of errors of categories, the number of errors of dosage form is 69 and 8, errors of dose is 15 and 5, errors of input is 9 and 9 in inpatient and outpatient prescriptions, respectively. Errors of diluents is 8, errors of regimen is 3, errors of product is 3 in only inpatient prescriptions. In case of errors of categories by inpatient department, the number of errors of dosage form is 34 and 35, errors of dose is 7 and 8, errors of input is 6 and 3, errors of diluents is 4 and 4, errors of regimen is 2 and 1, errors of product is 2 and 1 in SG and HO, respectively. In case of outpatient department, the number of errors of dosage form is 8 in HO, errors of dose is 5 in HO, errors of input is 5 and 4 in SG and HO, respectively. Conclusions: The rate of errors of inpatient is higher than that of outpatient. Junior doctors are engaged in prescriptions of inpatient and pharmacist need to pay attention to review all prescriptions. If prescribing errors are discovered, pharmacist should contact the prescriber and correct the errors without delay. The guideline to reduce prescribing errors might be upgrading software of anti cancer management program, education for physicians as well as pharmacists and calling prescriber's attention to preventing recurrence of errors.
Ulas, Arife;Silay, Kamile;Akinci, Sema;Dede, Didem Sener;Akinci, Muhammed Bulent;Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit;Cubukcu, Erdem;Coskun, Hasan Senol;Degirmenci, Mustafa;Utkan, Gungor;Ozdemir, Nuriye;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman;Buyukcelik, Abdullah;Inanc, Mevlude;Bilici, Ahmet;Odabasi, Hatice;Cihan, Sener;Avci, Nilufer;Yalcin, Bulent
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Medication errors in oncology may cause severe clinical problems due to low therapeutic indices and high toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. We aimed to investigate unintentional medication errors and underlying factors during chemotherapy preparation and administration based on a systematic survey conducted to reflect oncology nurses experience. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 18 adult chemotherapy units with volunteer participation of 206 nurses. A survey developed by primary investigators and medication errors (MAEs) defined preventable errors during prescription of medication, ordering, preparation or administration. The survey consisted of 4 parts: demographic features of nurses; workload of chemotherapy units; errors and their estimated monthly number during chemotherapy preparation and administration; and evaluation of the possible factors responsible from ME. The survey was conducted by face to face interview and data analyses were performed with descriptive statistics. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for a comparative analysis of categorical data. Results: Some 83.4% of the 210 nurses reported one or more than one error during chemotherapy preparation and administration. Prescribing or ordering wrong doses by physicians (65.7%) and noncompliance with administration sequences during chemotherapy administration (50.5%) were the most common errors. The most common estimated average monthly error was not following the administration sequence of the chemotherapeutic agents (4.1 times/month, range 1-20). The most important underlying reasons for medication errors were heavy workload (49.7%) and insufficient number of staff (36.5%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the probability of medication error is very high during chemotherapy preparation and administration, the most common involving prescribing and ordering errors. Further studies must address the strategies to minimize medication error in chemotherapy receiving patients, determine sufficient protective measures and establishing multistep control mechanisms.
Lee, In Hyang;Lee, Soonsil;Lee, Byung Koo;Choi, Won Ja;Hong, Sung Sun
Quality Improvement in Health Care
Background : A study comparing unit dose drug distribution system(UDS) versus traditional drug distribution system(TDS) was conducted in Seoul National University Hospital. The objectives of this study were to identify safer drug distribution system and to measure the efficiency of both systems in utilizing nursing and pharmacist's time. Methods : The study was designed to compare the data on medication errors, nursing time and pharmacists' time before and after implementation of the UDS in the internal medicine and otorhinolaryngology care units. The data on actual medications administered to patients were obtained by a disguised observer during the study period. The data collected were then compared with the physicians' orders to determine the rate of medication errors. In addition, using ten-minute interval work-sampling method nursing and pharmacists' time were measured. Results : About 6% of medications were administered incorrectly in the TDS, in comparison to 1.6% in the UDS. The rate of medication error decreased significantly in the UDS compared with the TDS. Mean times spent on medication-related activities by nurses were 34.1% in the TDS and 28.5% in the UDS. In the internal medicine care unit, nursing time associated with medications decreased significantly after the implementation of the UDS, but the reduction in medication-related nursing time in the otorhinolaryngology care unit was not significant. Pharmacist's medication-related work activities, increased from 2% in the TDS to 20% in the UDS. Pharmacist's time spent on therapy-related activities increased significantly. Conclusion : The rate of medication errors in the UDS decreased significantly compared with the TDS. Time spent on medication-related activities decreased for nurses while it increased for pharmacists. In summary, the UDS was estimated to be safer and to utilize of pharmacists' and nursing time more efficiently than the TDS.
Purpose: The objective of this study was to examine patient safety culture (PSC) and patient safety initiatives (PSI) according to IT-based medication errors prevention system which is constructed in this study, and to identify the relationships among system construction, perception to the usage, PSC and PSI. Methods: The subjects were 180 nurses who work at 12 different hospitals with over 300 beds. The questionnaire included the characteristics of participants, a system construction status, the perception to the usage using electric pharmacopoeia (EP), a drug dose calculation system (DDCS), a patient safety reporting system (PSRS) and a bar-code system (BS). The data were collected from July 2011 to August 2011. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and MANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: Systems were constructed in participating hospitals; For EP and PSRS, 83.9%, DDCS, 50%, and BS, 18.3%. The perceptions on the usage of the system were marked highest in BS as 4.54 followed by EP as 3.85. There were significant positive correlations between PSI and EP construction (r=.17, p=.028); PSRS (r=.17, p=.028) and DDCS (r=.23, p=.002). Conclusion: The developed system for improving the user experiences and reducing medication errors was found out well accepted. It is hoped that the system is helpful for PSC and PSI improvement in clinical settings.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.