• Title, Summary, Keyword: Medical Cost

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Hospital Cost Analysts' Perception on Prime Cost of Medical Services and Future Direction to Establish a Cost Accounting system (병원 원가관리자의 원가인식 및 원가체계 구축 방향)

  • Noh, Jin-Won;Lee, Hae-Jong;Park, Hyun-Chun
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.32-42
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    • 2014
  • It is necessary to calculate prime cost of medical services accurately in order to evaluate the adequacy of medical fee. This paper aims to identify cost analysts' perception on prime cost of medical services and needs in establishing a cost accounting system in hospitals, proposing future directions and guidelines for the calculation of medical fee. A self-administered questionnaire and telephone survey on operation of a hospital cost-accounting system was conducted in November, 2012, among cost analysts currently working in the hospitals and hospital administrators planning to implement the hospital cost-accounting system. Our study shows that most of the cost analysts were aware of the importance of calculating prime cost and responded that collection of the prime cost data from government is necessary although they are less likely to provide the data in the future concerning the risk of data misuse and data security. They also responded that lack of budget allocation and excessive workload were the main reasons for not estimating the prime cost and operating cost management information system. Results show that hospital cost analysts considered the data accuracy is the most critical factor in calculating prime costs of medical services. However, there was no investment budget allocated in some hospitals or limited to less than 100 million, indicating that hospitals are reluctant to invest on implementing the cost accounting system. Respondents stated the organization that collects the prime cost of medical services among hospitals should display strong analytical capabilities, ensure data security, and maintain independence, which is most demanded. There are 57 hospitals that calculated the prime cost of medical services for 2012 by each medical department and 20 hospitals that calculated the prime cost by fee-for-services, aiming to establish a cost accounting system. Our results indicate that hospitals should voluntarily provide the accurate prime cost for medical services in order to properly evaluate the adequacy of medical fee. Consequently, it is critical to establish an independent organization to collect and appraise the data. It is also recommended that government should implement various policies to encourage hospitals to participate in the data collection to achieve the data accuracy and representativeness.

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Cost Structure of Medical Services in Korean National Health Insurance (건강보험 의료행위의 비용구조)

  • Oh, Young-Sook;Kang, Gil-Won
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.40-52
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    • 2010
  • Health insurance fees are set by relative value scales and conversion factors. Since 2008 the conversion factor has been classified into 7 according to the provider type, and a separate contract has been made respectively. As such classification of the conversion factor reflects only the different characteristics of providers, however, further classification to reflect the different cost structures of providers is proposed. Cost varies according to the type of not only providers but also services each provider supply. In fact different cost structures of providers are the result of their different services. This study analyzed the cost structure of medical services to propose a new approach to the classification of the conversion factor. This study analyzed the cost structure of medical services using cost data constructed in the revision study of relative value scales. The cost data consist of doctor's fee, support staff's fee, cost of medical equipments, cost of medical supplies and indirect cost. The proportion of each cost component to the total cost was analyzed in terms of service department and service type. 72 service groups are defined in terms of the combination of service department and service type. Through cluster analysis, 72 service groups were reduced into 7 clusters each of which has a similar cost structure. Conversion factor is contracted annually to reflect the change in the cost of providing medical services. So the classification of conversion factor has to be based on the cost structures of medical services, not the characteristics of providers. Service clusters derived in this study can be used as a new classification for health insurance fee contract.

A Break-Even Analysis that Helps with Decision Making involving the Introduction of Ultrasonography (초음파기기 도입 시 의사결정 지원을 위한 손익 분석)

  • Yeo, Seong-Hee;Lee, Hae-Jong;Seo, Young-Joon;Kim, Young-Hoon
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.23-48
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to provide criteria which help executives to make decisions through the analysis of profitability of ultrasonography conducted in each medical department. In order to achieve such purpose, the study conducted break-even analyses on three medical departments of a university hospital in which has used ultrasonography was largely conducted in diagnosing diseases and performing surgeries. The research was carried out from January to June 2008. The data necessary for calculating cost, were collected using by computerized data. The results of the study were summarized as follows. 1. The Cost structure of each medical department: The Cost of ultrasonography was divided into direct cost and indirect cost through the categorization by cost object. Labor cost accounted for the largest portion of the direct cost with 69.3% in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, 67.4% in the department of radiology and 58.2% in the cardiac ultrasonography center, which followed by the depreciation cost of ultrasonography equipment. The calculation of the average material cost of each ultrasonographic test by medical test found that the cardiac ultrasonography center took first place with 2,355 won, followed by the department of obstetrics and gynecology with 266 won and the department of radiology with 233 won. As for the power cost of ultrasonography equipment, the department of radiology took fist place with 442,000 won. The power cost, however, did not affect much the cost price, because it accounted for only a small portion of the cost. As for indirect cost, the cardiac ultrasonography center ranked first with 7,156,000 won. Building depreciation cost accounted for the largest portion of the indirect cost. 2. Break-even analysis: Under the supposition that cost price can be divided into fixed cost and variable cost, a break-even analysis was conducted using the cost price confirmed through the cost structure of each medical department. As for the average customary charge of ultrasonography test conducted in each medical department, the department of obstetrics and gynecology charged 24,627 won, the department of radiology 53,179 won and the cardiac ultrasonography center 65,174 won. According to these results, the charges of ultrasonography test imposed by the department of radiology and the cardiac ultrasonography center wre enough to surpass break-even levels, but the charge imposed by the department of obstetrics and gynecology was not enough to offset the cost price. In conclusion, labor cost accounted for the largest proportion of cost price of ultrasonography test conducted in diagnosing diseases and performing surgeries in medical departments, followed by the fixed cost of ultrasonographic equipment depreciation cost. In medical department where the current charge of ultrasonography test turned out not to offset cost price through the break-even analysis of ultrasonographic equipment, ways to reduce fixed cost which accounts for the largest proportion of the cost price should be sought. Even medical departments whose current charge of ultrasonography test is enough to surpass break-even level are required to work for efficient management and cost reduction to continuously generate profits.

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Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness of Medical Nutrition Therapy : Meta-Analysis (메타분석을 이용한 임상영양서비스의 비용-효과성 평가)

  • 김현아;양일선;이해영;이영은;박은철;남정모
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.515-527
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: A meta-analysis of the literatures was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy by dietitians. Methods : The 30 studies were identified from a computerized search of published research on MEDLINE, Science-Direct and the PQD database until May, 2002 and a review of reference lists. The main search terms were“dietitian”,“dietary intervention”,“nutrition intervention”, “cost”,“cost-effectiveness”and“cost-benefit analysis”. The subgroup analysis was performed by publication year, study design, intervention provider, type of patient (in/out-patient) and type of cost (total cost/direct cost). Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the quality and extracted the data. Results : The 30 studies were identified using the electric database search and bibliographies. The 17 trials were eligible for inclusion criteria, then the systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the quality assessment tool for observational studies. The quality score was 0.515 $\pm$ 0.121 (range : 0.279-0.711, median : 0.466). The meta-analysis of 17 studies based on the random effect model showed that medical nutrition therapy was highly effective in treating the diseases (effect size 0.3092 : 95% confidence interval 0.2282-0.3303). The vote-counting method, one of meta-analysis methods, was applied to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy conducted by dietitians. Two criteria (method 1, method 2) for voting were used. The calculated p-values for method 1 (more conservative method) and method 2 (less conservative method) were 0.1250 and 0.0106, respectively. Medical nutrition therapy by dietitians was significantly cost-effective in the method 2. Conclusion. This meta-analysis showed that the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy was statistically significant in treating disease (effect size 0.3092), and that the cost-effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy was statistically significant in the method 2 (less conservative method) of vote counting. (Korean J Nutrition 36(5): 515~527, 2003)

Inpatient Cost Variation among Hospitals in Some Tracer Diseases (일부 다빈도 상병에서 입원진료비의 변이 정도와 요인에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Yoon;Kim, Yong-Ik;Shin, Young-Soo
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.25-52
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    • 1993
  • Variation in the utilization of medical services is a very important issue in cost containment and quality assurance of health care. Practice variation directly affects health care expenditure especially in fee-for-service system, which is the payment system of health insurance in Korea. In addition to cost issue it is generally accepted that variations in medical practice and the cost of inpatient care suggest the possibility of inappropriate quality of care. This study is to closely examine the patterne and degrees of variation in cost structure of inpatient care among types of hospital and individual hospitals in some tracer diseases, and also to inquire into the service items which contribute much to the variation of total medical care cost. Foru common diseases, i.e. Cesarean Section, appendectomy, cataract extraction and pediatric pneumonia, were selected as tracer diseases. In most tracer diseases there were statistically significant differences in total medical care cost among hospitals in same type of hospital as well as among types of hospital(p<0.01). When total medical care cost were subdivided into the types of service, cost of medication and diagnostic examination varied the most prominenly. When the cost of medication were subdivided again, cost of parenteral antibiotics showed the most prominent variation. Of total medical care cost, medication was most contributory to the variation of total medical care cost(58.1~82.3%), and cost of antibiotics was most contributory to the variation of medication cost(63.9~92.2%). The results of study implicated that reducing the variation of medication may plays a significant role in containing the cost of inpatient care. In order to sort out the factors affecting practice variations including drug prescription pattes further researches are required.

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Conflict of Interest Groups on the Health Insurance Policy Deliberation Committee Affect the Medical Insurance Cost of Physical Therapy (건강보험정책심의위원회의 이익집단 간 대립이 물리치료 수가에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yushin;Yoon, Bumchul
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that non-participation of physical therapists on the political decision-making committee results in invasion of their interests. Methods: To demonstrate the effects, we analyzed the change of medical insurance score decided by the Health Insurance Policy Deliberation Committee between 2001 and 2012 years, focusing on medical examination as the interest of the participation group and physical therapy cost as interest of the non-participation group. Results: Total medical insurance cost increased by 23.72%, on average. Medical examination cost increased by 23.90% and 37.66% in medical examination for new and established patients, respectively. However, physical therapy cost was reduced by 5.01%. The medical examination cost for physical therapy without medical checkup increased by 2.62%. Conclusion: This study shows that the physical therapy cost, related on the interest of the non-participative group in the Health Insurance Policy Deliberation Committee, rather decreased while the total medical insurance cost increased.These findings demonstrate the invasion of the non-participative group on the Health Insurance Policy Deliberation Committee. Thus, aggressive participation in political decision-making committee is necessary in order to protect and increase rights and interests of Korean physical therapists.

Trend and Characteristics of High Cost Patients in Health Insurance (건강보험 고액진료비 환자의 추이 및 특성 분석)

  • Jeong, Seo Hyun;Jang, Ho Yeon;Kang, Gil Won
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.352-359
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study is to propose an analysis of trends and characteristics of high-cost patients who take over 40% of total national health insurance medical expenses. Methods: It has been analyzed the tendency of high-cost patients by open data based on the medical history information of 1 million people among national health insurance subscriber from 2002 to 2015. To conduct detailed study of characteristics of high-cost patients, multiple regression has been performed by sex, age, residence, main provider, and admission status based on the top 5% group. Results: The amount of medical expenses and the number of high-cost patients have gradually increased in decades. The number of high-cost patients for Korean won (KRW) 5,000,000 category has increased by 7.6 times, KRW 10,000,000 category has increased by 14.1 times in comparing of year 2002 and 2015. Top 5% medical expenses have increased by 4.6 times. In consideration of the characteristics of patients, the incidence of high medical expenses has been higher in female patients than male ones, the older patients than in the younger. Patients residence in Gyeonsang or Jeonla province have had a high incidence of medical expenses than other area. The disease including dementia, cerebral infarction, and cerebrovascular disease for high-cost patients has been also increased. Conclusion: The major increase factor for high medical expenses is the aging of population. The elderly population receiving inpatient care residing in the province that increases high medical costs have to management. There is an urgent need to develop a mechanism for predicting and managing the cost of high-cost medical expenses for patients who have a heavy financial burden.

Comparative Analysis on the Characteristics of High Cost Medical Users between the Health Insurance and Medical Assistance Program (고액진료비 환자의 특성 비교분석 - 의료보험과 의료보호환자를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Sunny;Moon, Ok-Ryun
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.112-129
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    • 1996
  • Background : A small number of high cost patients usually spend a larger proportion of scarce health resources. Aged, long-term care and readmitted patients usually belong to these high cost patient group. Among others, long length of stay and readmission can be reduced by checking its cause, and these are the areas needed most of quality improvement activity. Characteristics of high cost medical users between health insurance program and medical assistance program were reviewed. Methods : The inpatient claims of health insurance and medical assistance program were analyzed. Patients were divided by 6 groups; long-term, mid-term, short-term, readmitted, cancer and aged. We defined high cost patients as those who had spent one and half million won and over per 6 months. Characteristics of high cost patients for each group were reviewed. Results : medical assistance patients used much more resources than the insured members in the average hospital cost per case but less in daily hospital cost. The former had a longer length of stay and had much heavier diseases. Major diseases of both group were cancer, diseases of circulatory system and chronic degenerative diseases. Gallstone and schizophrenia were more in the insured program. However, pulmonary tuberculosis, asthma were more common among the medical assistance patients. Early readmission before 2 weeks were 28-30% of the total readmission. Readmission rate in the malignat neoplasm and renal failure were 80% and more. Q.A program should be installed to prevent unnecessary readmissions. Conclusion : Almost 30% of early readmissions and admissions due to complications and long length of stay should be reviewed carefully to keep cost down and to enhance the quality of hospital care.

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Reexamination of Patient's Cost-sharing System for Oriental Medical Services in the Korean National Health Insurance (한방의료의 건강보험 적정 본인부담률 추계)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyun;Yoo, Wang-Keun;Seo, Dong-Min
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2007
  • This study is designed to estimate an appropriate level of patient's cost-sharing for oriental medical services in the Korean National Health Insurance. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) The current co-payment system for oriental medical services does not reflect its cost structure in clinical practice due to inconsistency of cost-sharing plan in the NHI. 2) Both oriental medical institutions and their patients, as a result, are at a relative disadvantage in financial burden, compared with other services. 3) The substantial proportion of patients' cost-sharing depends on the amount of co-payment and the range of medical cost that a flat rate is applied to. 4) The extension of the range doesn't make any substantial decrease in patient's cost-sharing. 5) The fixed amount of co-payment is more sensitive than a range to total variations of patient's cost-sharing. Based on the above, the budget impacts of a new co-payment system were estimated for each co-insurance rate, according to given scenarios. The results range from -59 billion Won (-8.5%) to 16 billion Won(2.3%).

The Association between Health Examination and Personal Medical Cost through Panel Survey (건강검진이 개인 의료비지출에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hwan Hyung;Park, Jae Yong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2014
  • Background: This paper describes the relationship and effect of health examination on personal medical cost by identifying the difference of the cost for medical care in physician visit between the population without and with health examination. Methods: After classifying into three cohorts in which, independent variables were designed according to the Andersen's behavioral model, the association of personal medical cost for medical care and prescription drugs which is dependent variable was analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney test for description and gamma regression model for inference. Results: In personal average medical cost, the population with health examination paid significantly more than without health examination, 11.6% more in cohort 2008, 26.6% more in cohort 2009, and 48.0% more in combined cohort. The odds ratio on medical expenditure of outpatients with health examination was 1.067, 1.126, 1.398 significantly in cohort 2008, 2009, and combined cohort respectively, comparing to the group without health examination. In independent variables, that is female, the elderly, never married, non-working, non-metropolitan, the higher family income, the smaller family size, people with disability, the people with chronic disease, and people with health examination have significantly being paid more tendency showing positive association with medical cost. Conclusion: This result showed that medical expenditure in physician visit has been increased after taking a health examination. Therefore reasonable limitation of getting preventive medical service is suggested to avoid medical shopping around and reduce being repeated health examination by unifying control to find out easily the clinical results from various medical facilities.