• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Effects of Hot Environment and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

  • Gu, X.H.;Li, S.S.;Lin, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1616-1623
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of hot environment and dietary crude protein level (CP) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat visual quality, muscle chemical composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of tissues in broilers. Two hundred and sixteen 21-d old Arbor Acre broilers were used in a $4\times3$ factorial arrangement and randomly reared in 4 environmental chambers and fed on 3 diets with different CP levels for 3 weeks. The results showed: (1) when air temperature (AT) rose to $33^{\circ}C$, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, carcass weight, right breast meat weight, left thigh and drumstick meat weight decreased (p<0.05) and feed conversion rate decreased (p<0.05), but the ratio of carcass to live weight and of left thigh and drumstick meat weight to carcass weight increased (p<0.05). (2) There were significant differences in pH and shear force in breast meat, and shear force, L* and a* in thigh meat (p<0.01 or 0.05) among hot environments. Dietary CP level tended to affect breast meat pH and pH and L* of thigh meat (p<0.06 or 0.09). Compared to the normal temperature ($22^{\circ}C$), low temperature ($15^{\circ}C$) and hot humid (AT $33^{\circ}C$, relative humidity (RH) 80%) treatments significantly (p<0.05) decreased the tenderness of thigh meat. L* and a* value in thigh meat under high temperature treatments, regardless of RH, were higher (p<0.05) than those under normal temperature. (3) Protein content in breast and thigh meat of broilers fed under high temperature ($33^{\circ}C$) was lower (p<0.05) than that under $22^{\circ}C$, but fat content had an adverse change. High temperature ($33^{\circ}C$) increased the moisture of breast meat significantly (p<0.05). Protein content in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.05), in which fat content had an adverse change (p<0.05), when the dietary protein rose. (4) MDA concentration in liver and breast meat under hot humid (AT $33^{\circ}C$, RH 80%) treatment increased markedly (p<0.05). (5) High humidity could sharpen the bad effect of high temperature on performance, carcass yield and choice cuts, crude protein and moisture content in breast meat. It was concluded that a hot environment could affect the performance and meat quality of broiler chicks more significantly than CP level and that high humidity would aggravate the bad influence of high temperature on the broiler.

Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality - A review

  • Njisane, Yonela Zifikile;Muchenje, Voster
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.755-764
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    • 2017
  • The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals' wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals

  • De Palo, P.;Maggiolino, A.;Centoducati, P.;Tateo, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1637-1643
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    • 2013
  • The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers' customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers.

Influence of Various Levels of Organic Zinc on the Live Performance, Meat Quality Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Broiler Chickens

  • Salim, Hossan Md.;Lee, Hak-Rim;Jo, Cheo-Run;Lee, Soo-Kee;Lee, Bong-Duk
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2011
  • The influence of supplementing diets with various levels of organic zinc (OZ) on the performance, meat quality attributes, and sensory properties of broiler chickens was investigated. A total of 3,200 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 16 floor pens (replicates) with 200 birds per pen. A corn-wheat-soybean meal basal diet (control) was formulated and 20 ppm OZ (20 OZ), 40 ppm OZ (40 OZ), or 80 ppm OZ (80 OZ) was added to the basal diet to form four dietary treatments with four replicates per treatment. Live performance of broiler chickens, meat quality, and sensory properties were evaluated. The results showed no significant difference among the treatments for live performance of broiler chickens. Significant increases (p<0.05) in thigh skin epidermis and dermis thickness were shown in the OZ supplementation groups; however, no effect of OZ on the thickness of back skin epidermis or dermis was found. Dietary OZ levels did not affect the pH of breast and thigh meat or the water holding capacity (WHC) of thigh meat, but the WHC of breast meat increased significantly (p<0.05) when birds were fed 40 OZ and 80 OZ. Results of a sensory analysis showed no differences among the dietary treatments. In conclusion, dietary OZ did not affect live performance or sensory properties of broiler chickens but did increase the WHC of breast meat and thickness of skin layers; thus, improving carcass quality in broiler chickens.

Meat Quality of Crossbred Porkers without the Gene RYR1T Depending on Slaughter Weight

  • Czyzak-Runowska, Grazyna;Wojtczak, Janusz;Lyczynski, Andrzej;Wojtowski, Jacek;Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria;Stanislawski, Daniel;Babicz, Marek
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.398-404
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    • 2015
  • The first aim of the study was to compare selected meat quality parameters in porkers without the gene $RYR1^T$ (ryanodine receptor gene). These were porkers slaughtered at 100 to 115 kg and 116 to 130 kg live weight. The second aim of the study was to determine the occurrence frequency of standard-quality meat (red, firm, nonexudative [RFN]) and the occurence frequency of defective meat (pale, soft, exudative [PSE] and acid, soft, exudative [ASE]). The analysis was conducted on the longissimus lumborum muscle in 114 crossbred porkers. The porkers were a cross of Camborough 22 sows and boars from lines 337PIC (Pig Improvement Company), Norsvin Landrace and Pietrain. All of the animals were provided with identical environmental and nutritional conditions. The average weight of the slaughtered animals in the light and heavy groups was 110 kg and 122 kg, respectively. Both groups had the same average post-slaughter meatiness (56.5%). A statistical analysis of selected meat-quality parameters did not show any significant differences between the weight groups. On the other hand, the classification based on carcass quality showed an occurence frequency of defective meat in heavier crossbred porkers (116 to 130 kg) that was three times higher than in those cross bred animals which weighed 100 to 115 kg when slaughtered. In porkers without the gene $RYR1^T$, the defective meat types PSE and ASE occurred with a frequency of 17.54%.

Effects of Subsidiary Materials on Texture of Steamed Alaska Pollack Jelly Products (부원료(副原料)의 첨가량(添加量)이 어묵의 Texture에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kweon, Chil-Seong
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.62-74
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    • 1992
  • The effect of additional amounts of subsidiary materials on texture of fish meat paste were examined using Instron Universal Testing Machine to obtain fundamental data for steamed Alaska pollack meat paste showing good quality. The hardness revealed the good correlation with jelly strength among the six kinds of parameters of Instron texturometer. Products with higher hardness showed a better quality, but those with hardness higher than 16kg showed decreasing quality with increasing hardness. Predicting the quality of steamed Alaska pollack meat paste with various additional amounts of subsidiary materials as a function of hardness, H, the equation could be deduced as follows: H=11.56+0.54Xcs, H=12.22-0.23Xsp and H=11.65-7.13Xpp. The reasonable equations for predicting the quality of steamed Alaska pollack meat paste with various additional amounts of mixed subsidiary materials could be summarized as follows: H=11.57+0.53Xcs+0.44Xsp, H=11.97-1.83Xpp-0.17Xcs, and H=11.58+0.08Xpp-0.23Xsp.

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Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

  • Sheng, Q.K.;Zhou, K.F.;Hu, H.M.;Zhao, H.B.;Zhang, Y.;Ying, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.716-721
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat $pH_{24}$, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, $NH_3$-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and $NH_3$-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens

  • Yin, H.D.;Gilbert, E.R.;Chen, S.Y.;Wang, Y.;Zhang, Z.C.;Zhao, X.L.;Zhang, Yao;Zhu, Q.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1504-1510
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    • 2013
  • Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the $F_1$ population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.

Fatty Acid Profile of Muscles from Crossbred Angus-Simmental, Wagyu-Simmental, and Chinese Simmental Cattles

  • Liu, Ting;Wu, Jian-Ping;Lei, Zhao-Min;Zhang, Ming;Gong, Xu-Yin;Cheng, Shu-Ru;Liang, Yu;Wang, Jian-Fu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.563-577
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    • 2020
  • This study assessed breed differences in fatty acid composition and meat quality of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and semitendinosus (SE) of Angus×Chinese Simmental (AS), Wagyu×Chinese Simmental (WS), and Chinese Simmental (CS). CS (n=9), AS (n=9) and WS (n=9) were randomly selected from a herd of 80 bulls which were fed and managed under similar conditions. Fatty acid profile and meat quality parameters were analyzed in duplicate. Significant breed difference was observed in fatty acid and meat quality profiles. AS exhibited significantly (p<0.05) lower C16:0 and higher C18:1n9c compared with CS. AS breed also had a tendency (p<0.10) to lower total saturated fatty acid (SFA), improve C18:3n3 and total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) compared with CS. Crossbreed of AS and WS had significantly (p<0.05) improved the lightness, redness, and yellowness of muscles, and lowered cooking loss, pressing loss, and shear force compared with CS. These results indicated that fatty acid composition and meat quality generally differed among breeds, although the differences were not always similar in different tissues. Fatty acid composition, meat color, water holding capacity, and tenderness favored AS over CS. Thus, Angus cattle might be used to improve fatty acid and meat quality profiles of CS, and AS might contain better nutritive value, organoleptic properties, and flavor, and could be potentially developed as an ideal commercial crossbreed.

Studies on Improving the Quality of Sardine Sausage -2. Processing Conditions of Frozen Sardine Meat Paste and Quality Stability during Frozen Storage- (정어리소시지의 품질 개선에 관한 연구 -2. 소시지원료로서의 정어리냉동고기풀의 가공 및 품질 안정성)

  • Cho, Soon-Yeong;Lee, Eung-Ho;Ha, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 1984
  • Frozen sardine meat paste for fish sausage was prepared to obtain the basic data on improving the quality of sardine sausage, and its gel formation ability was compared with meat paste from raw sardine. In addition, its quality stability was studied during frozen storage. For the preparation of frozen sardine meat paste, the addition of 4% of sorbitol and 0.3f of polyphosphate to the fish meat appeared effective to keep the processing suitability and storage stability. Also, the gel formation ability of the frozen sardine meat paste was not inferior to that of raw sardine paste.

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