• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Analysis of the Domestic Consumer's Preference and Consumption Behaviors on Pork (국내 소비자의 돼지고기 선호도와 소비행태 분석)

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Seok-Eun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate consumer's preference and purchase behavior of pork including perception of brand-pork in Korea. A total of 504 respondents were surveyed and collected from December, 2007 to February, 2008. Among total respondents, 62.55% (n=314) responded that they liked the pork and respondents who were higher education level showed higher preference (p<0.05). Majority of consumers (61.16%) did not like imported pork. In addition, one who had lower education level and living in rural area disliked more the imported pork. Most consumers preferred to the belly (58.57%) and results indicated that the people who were higher education level preferred a discount mart but who were living in rural area preferred a butcher's shop. Among the purchasing area, a big discount mart was the most preferred (44.64%) and this was also different among the education level (p<0.001) and living areas (p<0.05). The consumers preferred to purchasing a 600 g pack for a single purchase. Among total respondents, 42.71% of consumers responded that their priority was reliability of meat quality on choosing the place for purchasing the pork, and the significant difference was highly found in living area groups (p<0.001). The perception of carcass grading system was common scores with the average of 2.79, and there was highly significant difference among education level groups (p<0.001). The average of 3.50 among 5 points for branded pork were evaluated by a total of consumers but the significant differences were not found in all three groups.

Effect of Pitamin as an Antibiotics Replacement for Organic livestock Feed Additives in Broiler Chickens (유기사료원료로서 소나무껍질 추출물 피타민의 브로일러에 대한 항생제 대체효과)

  • Kim, Byong-Wan;Oh, Jin-Seok;Han, Ohan-Taek;Park, Sang-Oh;Park, Byung-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.111-125
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    • 2009
  • Pitamin is a component of pine bark extract that exhibits antimicrobial activity and a variety of physiological effects. This study was earned out to investigate the effects of dietary pitamin as an organic livestock feed additive in broiler chickens. A 35 day trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary premix containing 5% pitamin; investigated parameters included blood lipids, growth performance, quality characteristics of carcasses, and changes of caecal microbials in broiler chickens. Chickens were randomly divided into groups that were untreated (control), treated conventionally with antibiotics in the absence of premix, received 0.1 % or 0.2% premix containing 5% pitamin. Plasma lipids were lower in groups fed diets with pitamin premix (p<0.05). The body weight gain from broiler chickens fed with the diet containing 0.1% pitamin premix and antibiotics was similar, and was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p<0.05). The weight of breast muscle and thigh meat of carcasses was similar, and was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Abdominal fat and thymus index from chickens receiving either pitamin-supplemented premix was significantly lower and increased, respectively, that of the antibiotic and control groups (both p<0.05). The chickens on the pitamin premix-supplemented diets evidenced significantly higher caecal levels of Bifidobacterium species as compared with the chickens on the control diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that feeding a diet supplemented with a 0.1% premix containing 5.0% pitamin for 35 days maintains the production of broiler chickens at a level comparable to that obtained from the use of antibiotics.

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Effects of Fermented Diet Using Probiotics from Pine Needle Microbes on Growth Performance, Blood Characteristics, Carcass Traits and Economy of Pigs (솔잎 토착미생물을 이용한 발효사료 급여가 돼지의 성장, 혈액성상, 도체형질 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Young-Min;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Ha, Ji-Hee;Lee, Hyun-Jong;Kim, Sam-Churl;Kim, Hoi-Yun
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of probiotic from pine needle microbes on growth performance, blood characteristics, carcass traits and economy of pigs. One hundred eighty pigs (L${\times}$Y${\times}$D, average body weight=75 kg) were grouped and housed with 15 animals per pen for 3 replications per each treatment. The ingredients and pine needle microbes mixed and fermented on anaerobic condition for 10 days to make the fermented diet. The basal diet was substituted with 0 (CON), 3 (T1), 5 (T2) and 10% (T3) of fermented diet, the pigs were fed for 42 days and slaughtered at the end of the trial to measure the carcass traits. Crude protein concentration of fermented diet on 10 day was higher (p<0.05) than that of on 0 day, while crude fiber concentration and pH were lower (p<0.05). The supplementation of fermented diet did not affect on growth performance and feed intake. Hemoglobin concentration of whole blood in T3 was higher (p<0.05) than that of CON, and hematocrit concentrations in CON and T1 were higher (p<0.05) than that of T2 and T3. The concentration of platelet was higher (p<0.05) in T1 than in T2 and T3. The CON had higher (p<0.05) total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations than the treatments, whereas lower (p<0.05) HDL-cholesterol concentration. Carcass weight and dressing in T1 and T3 were higher (p<0.05) than those of CON and T2. The backfat thickness was higher (p<0.05) in CON and T2 than in T3. The carcass grade and economy improved by supplementation of fermented diet compare to CON. In conclusion, the supplementation of fermented diet using probiotics from pine needle microbes could improve health and meat quality and reduce the feed cost of pigs.

Influences of Feeding Seleniferous Whole Crop Barley on Growth Performance, Blood and Carcass Characteristics, and Tissue Selenium Deposition in Finishing Barrows (셀레늄함유 청보리 급여가 거세비육돈의 생산성, 혈액 및 도체특성, 조직 내 셀레늄 축적에 미치는 영향)

  • HwangBo, Soon;Jo, Ik Hwan;Kim, Guk Won;Choi, Chang Weon;Lee, Sung Hoon;Han, Ouk Kyu;Park, Tae Il;Choi, In Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.828-834
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    • 2012
  • The present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of feeding seleniferous whole crop barley (WCB) to finishing pigs on their growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics as well as on tissue selenium deposition. A total of 40 cross-bred barrows ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) were allotted to five replicates of four treatments. Each replicate was arranged to 2 pigs per pen; the experimental period lasted for 6 weeks. The finishing pigs were fed diets containing 0.1 (non-seleniferous WCB as a control), 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ppm of selenium (Se) by supplementing the diets with seleniferous WCB. The isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 5% non-seleniferous or seleniferous WCB were formulated. Feeding seleniferous WCB did not affect (p<0.05) the feed intake and BW gain. Total blood lipid concentration was significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing Se levels. Total blood cholesterol concentration for the control was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for 0.4 and 0.6 ppm of Se treatments. Increasing the Se levels in WCB significantly (p<0.05) decreased blood triglyceride concentration; however, the levels increased immunoglobulin G and selenium concentrations. Feeding seleniferous WCB did not affect the carcass rate, backfat thickness and meat quality as well as yield grades. The Se concentration in the kidney, liver and loin were significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing levels of seleniferous WCB. The results indicated that feeding seleniferous WCB may improve the blood characteristics related to lipid metabolism and thus, could produce selenium-fortified pork. Moreover, it is shown that the dietary optimal selenium level to depose selenium in porcine tissues by utilizing seleniferous WCB would be 0.4 mg of Se/kg of ration. Moreover, when 100 g of pork produced from pigs raised under such condition is served to consumers, it meets the minimum recommended daily requirements (40 ${\mu}g$) of dietary selenium proposed by the World Health Organization (1996).

Effects of Feeding Levels of Concentrate on the Growth, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Evaluation in Feeds Based on Rice-straw of Korean Black Goats (볏짚 위주 사양 시 비육 흑염소의 농후사료 급여 수준이 발육, 도체특성 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang Woo;Yoon, Sei Hyung;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu;Kim, Dong Hoon;Kang, Geun Ho;Kim, Young-Sin;Lee, Sang Moo;Suh, Sang Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.429-436
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding levels of concentrate feed on growth performance, meat quality and economic evaluation of Korean black goats. The 40 male Korean native goat were divided into four treatment groups T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5% feeding of concentrate feed body weight per day) and T4 (ab libitum) with ab libitum rice straw. Rice straw intake decrease as against feeding levels, however average daily gains were 22, 50, 69 and 94 g/day in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups respectively levels (p<0.05). Dressing percentage were 41.77, 42.78, 46.12 and 49.78% in each group (p<0.05), also fat percentage were a significant increase according to feeding levels. In economic efficacy, T4 was higher than other treatment groups. In conclusion, both rice straw and concentrate feed ab libitum are good for feeding and management system on Korean black goats.

Effect of Marination with Mixed Salt and Kiwi Juice and Cooking Methods on the Quality of Pork Loin-Based Processed Meat Product (혼합염 및 키위주스 침지와 조리 방법에 따른 돈육등심 가공육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Il-Suk;Jang, Ae-Ra;Jin, Sang-Keun;Lee, Moo-Ha;Jo, Cheo-Run
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of marination with mixed salt (NaCl, $CaCl_2$, and phosphate) and kiwi juice and of different cooking methods for pork loin-based products in order to establish the basic database for increasing the consumption of pork loin in Korea. Diced chilled pork loin ($2{\times}2{\times}2\;cm$) was marinated in 4 different treatments: no additives (T1), salt mix only (T2), kiwi juice only (T3), and salt mix+kiwi juice (T4). The mixed salt was prepared by the addition of NaCl, $CaCl_2$, and phosphate dissolved in water (10% of pork loin weight) at concentrations of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.3% per pork loin weight, respectively. The amount of kiwi juice was 10% of pork loin weight. After marination for 24 hrs at $4^{\circ}C$, the samples were cooked with different methods including roasting with Kimchi, pan broiling, and simmering. After simmering, pH of pork loin of T1 and T2 was higher than that of T3 and T4 (p<0.05), while that of roasted with Kimchi and pan broiled did not show any difference. Water holding capacity of T4 after pan broiling was higher than that of T1, T2, and T3 (p<0.001) and shear force of T4 was lower than other treatments. Also flavor and acceptability of T4 after pan broiling were scored higher by 11 sensory panelists (p<0.05). From this result, the pork loin-based products marinated with mixed salt and kiwi juice with pan broiling would be preferred by consumers as one of the methods to promote the consumption of pork loin in Korea.

The Effect of Body Measurements Type on Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (한우의 체형형질이 도체형질에 미치는 영향)

  • Sun, Du-Won;Kim, Byeong-Woo;Park, Jong-Won;Moon, Won-Gon;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Lee, Jung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.763-774
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the correlation of body measurement type and carcass traits. This study used body measurement type and carcass traits on 1,312 heads of Hanwoo steers tested(24 months) which was from 1997 to 2002 at Hanwoo Improvement Main Center National Agricultural Cooperatives Federation. Body measurement type used the age of 18 months body measurement type, and carcass traits used the results of decision grade of Animal Products Grading Service. Observing the phenotypic correlation between carcass traits and body measurement type from the result, the weight, withers height, and chest width at age of 18 months and carcass weight showed readings of 0.690, 0.483, and 0.506, respectively. Also, eye muscle area and age of 18 months weight and chest width read 0.356 and 0.279, respectively. According to results, that improvements in weight, withers height, and chest width are likely to enlarge the eye muscle area and meat production level. Not only quality improvement but also quantity augmentation affect income and sales of the farmers. As can be seen in this study, improvements of weight, withers height and chest width should always be put to much effort while other body measurement type should be considered continuously too. In order to attain clearer results further studies should be done on body measurement type, which will contribute to the improvements of body measurement type in Hanwoo.

Effects of Organic TMR with Whole Barley Silage on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Characteristics in Korean Black Goats (총체 보리사일리지를 첨가한 유기 TMR 급여가 흑염소의 사료섭취량, 영양소 소화율 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwang-Kook;HwangBo, Soon;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.413-424
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    • 2007
  • This trial was carried out to determine effects of TMR(Total Mixed Ration) in comparison to conventional diet on feed intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention in Korean black goats. Twelve Korean black goats were allotted to treatments in four groups of three goats and the they were housed in separate metabolism cages for 21 days. Treatments included conventional diet(A: rice straw and commercial concentrates) as a control group and three TMR groups(B: rice straw and commercial TMR; C: 30% organic whole barley silage and rice straw with organic grain; D: 60% organic whole barley silage with organic grain). The results obtained are summarized as follows. Dry matter intake, fecal excreta, digestible dry matter, metabolic intake and feed intake of BW were significantly higher(p<0.05) compared with A, B, C treatment. The digestibility for most of nutrients except NFC was significantly higher(p<0.05) for D treatment than the others. On the other hand, the digestibility of NFC was higher for B treatment than for the others, even if it was not significantly different across treatments. Nitrogen intake was lower for D treatment, but the significant differences were not found across treatments. N retention rate was higher for B treatment with significant difference. For the blood composition, HDL cholesterol and Immunoglobulin G were significantly higher(p<0.05) for C, D treatment than the others. The results showed that, in comparison with A treatment(conventional diet) and B treatment(commercial TMR), dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility and N retention rate were not lower in C treatment(30% organic whole barley silage) and HDL cholesterol was increased after experiment. Therefore, it could be concluded that TMR with organic whole barley silage might contribute to the production of a high quality and safer meat in goat production.

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Consumer Perceptions of Food-Related Hazards and Correlates of Degree of Concerns about Food (주부의 식품안전에 대한 인식과 안전성우려의 관련 요인)

  • Choe, Jeong-Sook;Chun, Hye-Kyung;Hwang, Dae-Yong;Nam, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.66-74
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    • 2005
  • This survey was conducted to assess the consumer perceptions of food-related hazard in 500 housewives from all over Korea. The subjects were selected by stratified random sampling method. The survey was performed using structured questionnaire through telephone interview by skilled interviewers. The results showed that 34.6% of the respondents felt secure and were not concerned about food safety, and 65.4% were concerned about food safety. Logistic regression analysis showed that the increasing concern on food brands, food additives (such as food preservatives and artificial color), and imported foodstuffs indicated the current increasing concern on food safety. Other related factors indicating the increasing concern on food safety were education level and care for children's health. The respondents who cared about food safety expressed a high degree of concern on processed foodstuffs such as commercial boxed lunch (93.3%), imported foods (92.7%), fastfoods (89.9%), processed meat products (88.7%), dining out (85.6%), cannery and frozen foods (83.5%), and instant foods (82.0%). The lowest degree of concern was on rice. All the respondents perceived that residues of chemical substances such as pesticides and food additives, and endocrine disrupters were the most potential food risk factors, followed by food-borne pathogens, and GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms). However, these results were not consistent with scientific judgment. Therefore, more education and information were needed for consumers' awareness of facts and myths about food safety. In addition, the results showed that consumers put lower trust in food products information such as food labels, cultivation methods (organic or not), quality labels, and the place of origin. Nevertheless, the respondents expressed their desire to overcome alienation, and recognized the importance of knowing of the origin or the producers of food. They identified that people who need to take extreme precautions on food contamination were the producers, government officials, food companies, consumers, the consumer's association, and marketers, arranged in the order of highest to lowest. They also believed that the production stage of agriculture was the most important step for improving the level of food safety Therefore, the results indicated that there is a need to introduce safety systems in the production of agricultural products, as follows: Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), and Traceability System (75).

The Optimal TDN Levels of Concentrates and Slaughter Age in Hanwoo Steers (거세한우에 있어서 배합사료의 적정 TDN 수준과 도축 월령)

  • Kim, K.H.;Lee, J.H.;Oh, Y.G.;Kang, S.W.;Lee, S.C.;Park, W.Y.;Ko, Y.D.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.731-744
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    • 2005
  • Ninety Hanwoo steers(initial BW=167.2$\pm$13.4kg) were used to determine the effect of energy concentrations in concentrates and slaughter age on performance, carcass characteristics. Steers were allotted by BW to one of eighteen pens. Eighteen pens were randomly allotted to a low(70-70-71-72% for the growing, the early, the middle or the late fattening periods), medium(70-71-72-73%) or high(70-72- 73-74%) TDN level of concentrates. Five steers for each treatment of energy level were slaughtered every one month from 26 month of age to 31 month of age. Concentrates was fed restrictedly to achieve a predicted gain of 0.7-0.9kg from growing stage to middle fattening stage. All steers were fed orchard grass(Dactylis glomerata L.) hay as roughage during the growing period, fed rice straw gradually substituted for orchard grass hay during the early fattening period, and fed rice straw only thereafter. Overall body weight and feed intake were not affected by TDN levels of concentrates. Average daily gain for all treatments was higher than 0.9kg/d during the 19-21 month of age and decrease thereafter, but sustained above 0.7kg/d. Mean concentrates intake for all treatments was 1.0-1.3% of live BW during the growing period and 1.5% during the early fattening. Thereafter, it decreased up to 1.4% during the middle fattening and 1.0% during late fattening period. Delay of slaughter end point resulted in a gradual increase of rib-eye area, back fat thickness and marbling score, especially after slaughter age of 29 month there was significant increases(P<0.05). The appearance rate of 1+ and 1 grade related to the slaughter ages was 100% at 29, 30 and 31 months of age, whereas those at 26, 27 and 28 months were 93, 86 and 80%, respectively. Dressing rate was significantly(P<0.05) increased and rate of retailed cut weight significantly(P<0.05) decreased when slaughter age increased. In economic analysis, there was pronounced increase in net income up to 32-46% after slaughter age of 29 months. Under the conditions of this study, high TDN intake is not necessarily required for high quality Hanwoo meat production and slaughter age of 29 month might be the optimum for Hanwoo steers.