• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Effects of Dietary Escherichia coli Phytase Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Quality and Excretion of Copper and Zinc Concentrations in Finishing Pigs (Escherichia coli phytase의 첨가가 비육돈의 생산성, 도체특성 및 분 내 구리와 아연 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Y.H.;Shin, S.O.;Park, J.C.;Jung, H.J.;Cho, J.H.;Chen, Y.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Moon, H.G.;Ji, S.Y.;Kim, I.C.;Lee, S.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary Escherichia coli phytase supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality and excretion of copper and zinc concentrations in finishing pigs. The total of seventy two [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs(65.43±0.72 kg in average initial body weight) were used in 56 days assay. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet) 2) P5(basal diet+phytase 0.05%) and 3) P10 (basal diet + phytase 0.1%). There were three dietary treatments with six replicate pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. During the overall periods, ADFI(Average daily feed intake) was increased (P<0.05) in phytase supplementation treatments compared to CON treatment. At the 5th week, dry matter, nitrogen and ash digestibilities were higher in P5 treatment than in CON and P10 treatments(P<0.05) and CON treatment showed the lowest effect on nutrition digestibility(P<0.05). However, phosphorus digestibility was higher in both phytase supplementation treatments than in CON treatment(P<0.05). The pH of M. logissimus dorsi was significantly higher in CON treatment than phytase supplementation treatments(P<0.05). L* value of M. logissimus dorsi muscle color was significantly increased(P<0.05) in P10 treatment compared to CON and P5 treatments. Also, a* value was increased (P<0.05) in CON treatment compared with phytase supplementation treatments. However, excretion of copper and zinc concentrations were no significant difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the effect of Escherichia coli phytase showed in ADFI, digestibilities, pH and color of meat in finishing pigs.

Effect of Feeding By-product of Pleurotus eryngii in Pigs on Pork Quality (새송이 버섯파치 발효액의 급이가 돈육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Soo-Jung;Kang, Min-Jung;Chung, Mi-Ja;Lee, Hyun-Uk;Seo, Jong-Kwon;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1521-1531
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    • 2008
  • After pigs was fed by commercial diets supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5%) of the fermented mushroom by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, the meat qualities and the serum lipid compositions of the individual pig groups were investigated. The levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the serum were significantly lower when the pigs were fed with the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product than those of the control pigs. HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL-cholesterol contents in the serum exhibited no significant difference between the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product and the control group. In comparison to the control group, the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product showed significantly lower level of AI, CRF, GOT, and LDH values in the serum, whereas the difference in the level of antioxidant activity of the serum was not significant. Sensory evaluation regarding color, off-flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability also showed that the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product ($0.5{\sim}1.5%$) was better than that from the control group. Although enhancement in the lghtness ($a^*$) value of the pork was significant in 20 days of storage at $4^{\circ}C$, the redness ($L^*$) value was not significantly differential during the storage periods regardless of the supplementation of the fermented mushroom by-product into the diet. The cooking loss of the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product (1% and 1.5%) decreased in the storage 10 days, but it increased in the storage 20 days. After storage for 20 days at $4^{\circ}C$, shear force of the pork obtained from the pigs fed by the diet supplemented with $1%{\sim}1.5%$ fermented mushroom by-product appeared to become significantly lower than that of the control. There were, however, no significant changes between two groups in the level of moisture content, crude lipid, and pH during the storage period. Although the TBARS content was enhanced in all groups during the storage period, the enhancement appeared to be more significant in the pork from the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product in comparison to the control. On the other hand, the ratio of UFA/SFA for the pork obtained from the individual pig groups showed no considerable diet-associated alterations during the storage period.

Effects of Dietary Pine Cone Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Characteristics, Carcass Quality and Fecal Noxious Gases Compounds in Finishing Pigs (잣 부산물의 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 혈액성상, 도체특성 및 분내 유해가스 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, J.H.;Park, K.W.;Shin, S.O.;Cho, J.H.;Chen, Y.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.761-772
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary pine cone meal on growth performance, blood characteristics, carcass quality and fecal noxious gases compounds in finishing pigs. The total of sixty [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs(86.01±0.25kg in average initial body weight) were used in 35 days assay. Dietary treatments included 1) T1(2% cottonwood sawdust), 2) T2(1% cottonwood sawdust+1% pine cone meal) and 3) T3(2% pine cone meal). There were three dietary treatments with five replicate pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. During the overall periods, there were no significant differences in ADG(Average daily gain), ADFI(Average daily feed intake) and gain/feed ratio among treatments (P>0.05). Also, Nutrient digestibilities and blood characteristics were not affected by dietary treatments. At the end of this experiment, a*-value of logissimus dorsi muscle color and sensory evaluation color were higher in T3 treatment than T1 treatment(P<0.05). In fatty acid contents of lean, C18:1 and total MUFA were significantly lower in T1 treatment than other treatments(P<0.05). However, total ω6 and total PUFA were higher in T1 treatment than T2 treatment(P<0.05). In fatty acid contents of fats, total SFA was significantly higher in T2 treatment than T3 treatment(P<0.05). C18:1 was higher in T2 treatment than T1 treatment(P<0.05). There were no significant differences in fecal noxious gas compounds among the treatments. In conclusion, the results of the experiment was affected by dietary supplementation of pine cone meal on meat color and fatty acid composition of pork in finishing pigs.

Effects of Dietary Barley on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers (보리의 사료가치평가와 한우 거세우 급여에 의한 발육 및 육질개선효과 구명)

  • Chang, S.S.;Oh, Y.K.;Kim, K.H.;Hong, S.K.;Kwon, E.G.;Cho, Y.M.;Cho, W.M.;Eun, J.S.;Lee, S.C.;Choi, S.H.;Song, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.801-818
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to determine the effects of processing methods of barley as a proper source of grain in diets of Hanwoo on fermentation pattern in the rumen fluid and digestibility of the diets, the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo. The degree of ruminal pH change in the cows fed diets of the Corn(corn basis) and GDRB(ground and dry-rolled barley) tended to be greater than those in the cows fed other two diets (ground barley, GB and dry-rolled barley, DRB). The diet of GDRB showed the lowest ruminal pH(5.5), indicating the rapid degradation of the diet in the rumen. Although ammonia concentration was not affected by diet, the GR and DBR diets maintained the low concentrations of ruminal ammonia compared with other two treatments. And the effects of feeding processed barley grain on body weight gain and meat quality of Hanwoo steers were as follows. Steers fed DRB diet had the highest body weight, 683.0kg at 28 months old, while those fed the GDRB showed the lowest body weight, 653.3kg. The average daily gain(ADG) was similar between the steers fed Corn and GR throughout the whole period, but the GDRB showed the lowest ADG. The steers fed the DRB showed the significant increase in ADG(0.89kg/d from 19 to 23 months old and 0.43kg/d from 24 to 28 months old) compared with those fed other diets. Feeding diets containing corn and/or barley did not influence live body weight, cold carcass weight, carcass yield, back-fat thickness and carcass grade of Hanwoo steers.

Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Triglyceride Additives on Quality Characteristics of Pressed Ham (Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Triglyceride 첨가가 프레스햄의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeong-Ill;Ha, Young-Joo;Lee, Jae-Ryung;Joo, Young-Kuk;Kwack, Suk-Joon;Do, Chang-Hee
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2007
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was chemically synthesized using the alkaline isomerization method of com oil. CLA-TG was synthesized by reaction with sodium methoxide. Five different treatments were devised based on differences in the amount of CLA-TG added into the pressed han. for controls, 10% of pork back fat among the total component was only added without any CLA-TG. For the first treatment, 5% of CLA-TG among the lard component added into the press ham was replaced. For the 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments, 10%, 15% and 20% of CLA-TG was respectively replaced. Pressed ham manufactured using CLA-TG was vacuum packaged and then stored for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at $4^{\circ}C$. Samples were analyzed for chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (pH, color), and texture characteristics. Typical chemical composition characteristics (moisture, crude protein, crude fat) were not significantly different between controls and CLA-TG treatment groups. Crude fat content of CLA-TG treatment groups was significantly lower than that of controls (p<0.05). pH values of controls was higher than that of CLA-TG treatment groups. The pH of control and CLA-TG treatment groups increased significantly as the storage period increased (p<0.05). Meat color (CIE $L^*,\;b^*$) of CLA-TG treatment groups was higher than that of controls. $a^*$ values were decreased by replacement of CLA-TG, but appeared to be unaffected by storage length. There was no significant difference in texture between controls and CLA-TG treatment groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that the physico-chemical properties and texture characteristics of manufactured pressed ham were not affected by CLA-TG addition. Also, our results indicate that high-quality pressed ham can be manufactured with CLA accumulation.

Effect of Garlic Stalk Silage on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (마늘대 사일리지 급여가 한우거세우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu, G.M.;Lee, H.J.;Park, J.S.;Cho, H.W.;Ahn, B.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1018
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding of garlic stalk silage on performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Feeding trial was conducted with 27 heads of Hanwoo steers and these animals were divided into two groups of control(rice straw) and garlic stalk silage. Animals consuming rice straw were fed concentrates and rice straw for 22 months from the 5 months of age and animals consuming garlic stalk silage were fed concentrates, rice straw and garlic stalk silage for 22 months from the 5 months of age. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage were fed 1.34 and 1.47, 1.69 and 1.74, 1.65 and 1.66% concentrates to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as roughage sources were fed 1.37 and 1.38, 0.65 and 0.63, 0.43 and 0.43% roughages to body weight for the growing period, fattening period and finishing period, respectively. Also, animals fed garlic stalk silage were offered 0.22 and 0.33% garlic stalk silage to body weight for the fattening and finishing period, respectively. Animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources did not differ in average daily gain during the whole feeding periods. Animals of control group consumed less concentrates and roughage than those fed garlic stalk silage during the whole feeding periods. However, feed efficiency was not significantly different between both treatments. Beef yield including backfat thickness, eye muscle area and carcass weight was slightly lower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw even though there were no differences between both treatments. However, beef quality including beef color, fat color, texture, maturity and marbling score was slightly higher in the garlic stalk silage-fed animals than in the animals fed rice straw although there were not statistically different between both treatments. Animals consuming garlic stalk silage was significantly(p<0.05) lower in shear value than those fed rice straw. Amino acid composition including essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid was not different between animals fed rice straw and garlic stalk silage. Eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained slightly higher oleic acid, less linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and more linolenic acid than that of animals fed rice straw only as a roughage sources. So eye muscle area of animals fed garlic stalk silage contained more mono-unsaturated fatty acid than that of animals fed rice straw and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio was narrower in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Economic income was higher by 20% in the animals fed garlic stalk silage than in the animals fed rice straw. Therefore, It may be concluded that feeding of garlic stalk silage as a roughage sources to steers during the fattening period seems to improve meat quality, fatty acid composition and economic income.

Processing of Intermediate Product(Krill Paste) Derived from Krill (크릴을 원료로 한 식품가공용 중간소재(크릴페이스트) 가공에 관한 연구)

  • LEE Eung-Ho;CHA Yong-Jun;OH Kwang-Soo;Koo Jae-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 1985
  • As a part of investigation to use the Anatrctic krill, Euphausia superba, more effectively as a food source, processing conditions, utilizations and storage stability of krill paste (intermediate product of krill) were examined and also chemical compositions of krill paste were analyzed. Frozen raw krill was chopped, agitated with $25\%$ of water to the minced krill and then centrifuged to separate the liquid fraction from the residue. This liquid fraction was heated at $98^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. to coagulate the proteins of krill, and it was filtered to separate the protein fraction. Krill paste was prepared with grinding the protein fraction, adding $0.2\%$ of polyphosphate and $0.3\%$ of sodium erythorbate to the krill paste for enhancing of functional properties and quality stability. The krill paste was packed in a carton box, and then stored at $-30^{\circ}C$. Chemical compositions of krill paste were as follows : moisture $78\%$, crude protein $12.9\%$, crude lipid $5.9\%$, and the contents of hazardous elements of krill paste as Hg 0.001 ppm, Cd 1.15 ppm, Zn 9.1 ppm, Pb 0.63 ppm and Cu 11.38ppm were safe for food. The amino acid compositions of krill paste showed relatively high amount of taurine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, lysine and arginine, which occupied $55\%$ of total amino acid and also taurine, lysine, glycine, arginine and proline were occupied $65\%$ of total free amino acid. Fatty acid compositions of krill paste consist of $32.4\%$ of saturated fatty acid, $29.6\%$ of monoenoic acid and $38.0\%$ of polyenoic acid, and major fatty acids of product were eicosapentaenoic acid ($17.8\%$), oleic acid ($16.9\%$), palmitic acid ($15.3\%$), myristic acid ($8.7\%$) and docosahexaenoic acid ($8.4\%$). In case of procssing of fish sausage as one of experiment for krill paste use, Alaska pollack fish meat paste could be substituted with the krill paste up to $30\%$ without any significant defect in taste and texture of fish sausage, and the color of fish sausage could be maintained by the color of krill paste. Judging from the results of chemical and microbial experiments during frozen storage, the quality of krill paste could be preserved in good condition for 100 days at $-39^{\circ}C$.

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Practical Applications of DNA Marker-Assisted Selection and OPU-Derived IVF Embryo Transfer for the Production of High Quality Meat in Hanwoo II. Production of IVF Embryos Derived Transvaginal Ovum Pick-up from DNA Marker-Proved Hanwoo (유전자 분석을 통하여 선발된 한우로부터 초음파 유래 체외수정란 이식에 의한 고품질 한우 생산기술의 실용화 II. DNA 검정우로부터 초음파 유래 체외수정란의 생산에 관한 연구)

  • 박희성;이지삼;진동인;박준규;홍승표;이명열;정장용
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to examine the factors affecting in fertilization and development of embryos in vitro, and to examine whether zone drilling by laser irradiation can improve the hatching rate of IVF embryos from DNA marker-proved Hanwoo. DNA markers related to marbling score were identified using DNA fingerprinting with Ml3 probe and restriction enzyme Hae III. Oocytes were aspirated from immature ovarian follicles using a combined method of rectal ovarian-palpation and transvaginal ultrasound-guidance(6.5MHz) under local anesthesia. The aspirated oocytes were washed twice with fresh D-PBS containing 5% FBS and were rewashed 4 to 5 times with TCM-199 containing 5% FBS. A morphological grade of I to IV was assigned to each oocyte. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS. Sperm separation methods did not have any significant effect on cleavage or developmental abilities of IVF embryos. Significantly(P<0.05) higher cleavage rate was observed in embryos from GI(60.0%, 3/5), GII(69.2%, 18/26) and GIII(62.1%, 59/95) compared to embryos from GIV oocytes(36.2%, 25/69). And the developmental rate to blastocyst stage was higher(P<0.05) in embryos from GI(33.3%, 1/3) and GII oocytes(38.9%, 7/18) than those from GIII(16.9%,10/59) and GIV oocytes(4.0%, 1/25). There was no significant difference in development of IVF embryos to blastocyst by media for in vitro culture. Proportion of hatched blastocyst was significantly(P<0.05) higher in embryos received zona drilling by laser than those of non-drilled.

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Practical Applications of DNA Marker-Assisted Selection and OPU-Derived IVF Embryo Transfer for the Production of High Quality Meat in Hanwoo I. Collection of Follicular Oocytes with Ultrasound-Guided Transvaginal Ovum Pick-Up from DNA Marker-proved Hanwoo (유전자 분석을 통하여 선발된 한우로부터 초음파 유래 체외수정란 이식에 의한 고품질 한우 생산기술의 실용화 I. DNA 검정우에서 초음파기기를 이용한 난포란의 채란에 관한 연구)

  • 박희성;이지삼;진종인;박준규;홍승표;이명열;정장용
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2001
  • This study was designed to establish the superior method for IVF embryos from DNA marker-proved Hanwoo cattle. DNA markers related to marbling score were identified using DNA fingerprinting with Ml3 probe and restriction enzyme Hae III. Oocytes were aspirated from unstimulated. immature ovarian follicles using a combined method of rectal ovarian-palpation and transvaginal ultrasound-guidance(6.5MHz) under local abesthesia. The aspirated oocytes were washed twice with fresh D-PBS containing 5% FBS and were rewashed 4 to 5 times with TCM-199 containing 5% FBS. A morphological grade of I to IV was assigned to each oocyte. Data were analysed using the GLM procedure of SAS. Mean number of follicles identified on ultrasound was 5.5 $\pm$2.9 in right and 4.3 $\pm$2.8 in left ovaries, respectively. The highest follicles(16.6$\pm$2.6) were found in 5101 cow compared to others. Recovery rate of follicular oocytes in individual cow was highest in 5101 cow with 89.3% in > 2mm and 94.0% in $\leq$ 2mm follicles. Total recovery rate was significantly(P<0.01) higher in $\leq$ 2mm(85.7%, 130/154) than > 2mm follicles(74.2%, 201/271). Significantly more oocytcs of Grade IV were recovered from > 2mm follicles. Mean number follicles recovered was 4.8$\pm$3.7. 3.0$\pm$3.4 and 0.3$\pm$0.6 in $\leq$2mm, 2~6mm and $\geq$6mm follicles. respectively. Our results imply that the more fertilizablc oocytes can be recovered from invisible-immature follicles by the combination of simultaneous rectal ovarian-palpation and ultrasound-guided approach in Hanwoo cattle.

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Effects of Deletion of Ca Supplement (limestone) on Growth and Beef Quality in Hanwoo Finishing Steers (한우 비육후기 사료에 칼슘 첨가제(석회석) 제거가 성장 및 육질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, C.E.;Park, N.K.;Seong, P.N.;Jin, S.H.;Park, B.Y.;Kim, K.I.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.455-462
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    • 2003
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing no Ca supplement (limestone) during the late finishing period on growth, marbling and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ level in Korean native cattle. Twenty-four steers (20${\sim}$24 mo of age) were divided into two groups of 12 each: one group assigned to a control diet (concentrates containing 2.5% limestone) and the other to a diet containing no calcium supplement. They were allowed to have free access to diets (concentrates and orchard grass hay) and water during the entire feeding period (223 d). Serum $Ca^{2+}$, Ca and P concentrations were not influenced by diets, but serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ concentrations determined 2 or 6 mo after the beginning of feeding the experimental diets were higher (P<0.01) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet (78.3 vs 51.7 and 80.3 vs 51.1 pg/mL, respectively). Steers fed the diet without Ca supplement tended to have a higher intake of concentrates, but a lower intake of hay, compared to those fed the control diet. Average daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet. Feeding the diet without Ca supplement remarkably (P<0.01) increased the marbling score (5.1 vs 2.2) and the muscle (M. longissimus dorsi) fat content (10.2 vs 6.7%) with a concomitant decrease in moisture content (67.6 vs 70.4%), compared to feeding the control diet. Ribeye area was increased (77.2 vs 82.8 $cm^2$) with the diet without Ca supplement, compared to the control diet (P<0.05). Meat color, pH and water-holding capacity in longissimus muscle were not different between the two groups. The Warner-Brazler Shear (WBS) force of the longissimus muscle was slightly (P=0.08) lower in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in steers fed the control diet (2.9 vs 3.2 kg/1.27-cm diameter core). Sensory evaluation showed that feeding the diet without Ca supplement slightly (P<0.05) improved tenderness (4.9 vs 4.5) and flavor (4.9 vs 4.6), compared to feeding the control diet, but juiciness was not affected by diets. Results showed that deletion of Ca supplement from finishing diets is beneficial, increasing growth and marbling partly through an increased energy intake and induced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin $D_3$ synthesis that may increase intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration and in turn fat synthesis.