• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Selection signature reveals genes associated with susceptibility loci affecting respiratory disease due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect in Chinese indigenous pigs

  • Xu, Zhong;Sun, Hao;Zhang, Zhe;Zhang, Cheng-Yue;Zhao, Qing-bo;Xiao, Qian;Olasege, Babatunde Shittu;Ma, Pei-Pei;Zhang, Xiang-Zhe;Wang, Qi-Shan;Pan, Yu-Chun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems causing significant economic losses. To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data. Methods: Genome comparison of susceptibility to swine EP in three pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian, and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and F-statistic (FST) statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes. Based on quantitative trait loci, gene ontology terms and literature search, we selected 14 candidate genes that have convincible biological functions associated with swine EP or human asthma. Results: Most of these genes were tested by several methods including transcription analysis and candidate genes association study. Among these genes: cytochrome P450 1A1 and catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1) are involved in fertility; transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 plays a role in meat quality traits; Wnt family member 2, CTNNB1 and transcription factor 7 take part in adipogenesis and fat deposition simultaneously; plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (completely linked to AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, r2 = 1) plays an essential role in the successful ovulation of matured oocytes in pigs; colipase like 2 (strongly linked to SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor, r2 = 0.848) is involved in male fertility. Conclusion: These adverse genes susceptible to swine EP may be selected while selecting for economic traits (especially reproduction traits) due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect of linked genes. Our study provided a completely new point of view to understand the genetic basis for susceptibility or resistance to swine EP in pigs thereby, provides insight for designing sustainable breed selection programs. Finally, the candidate genes are crucial due to their potential roles in respiratory diseases in a large number of species, including human.

Replacement value of cassava for maize in broiler chicken diets supplemented with enzymes

  • Chang'a, Edwin Peter;Abdallh, Medani Eldow;Ahiwe, Emmanuel Uchenna;Mbaga, Said;Zhu, Ze Yuan;Fru-Nji, Fidelis;Iji, Paul Ade
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1126-1137
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Pellet durability, particle size distribution, growth response, tibia bone characteristics and energy retention were measured to evaluate cassava as an alternative energy source to replace maize in broiler diets with or without Ronozyme (A+VP) enzyme composites. Methods: A total of 480 one-day broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 treatments in a 4×2 factorial arrangement. Four levels of cassava: (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%) and 2 levels of enzymes (0 and 500 g/tonne) were used. Each treatment was replicated six times, with ten birds per replicate. Results: The particle size distribution in the diets showed an increasing trend of small particles with increase in cassava level. Pellet durability decreased (p<0.05) with cassava inclusion. Feed intake was highest in birds fed diets with medium cassava level at 1 to 24 d and 1 to 35 d of age. The body weight gain of birds reduced (p<0.037) as cassava level increased, but it increased (p<0.017 when enzymes were added. The feed conversion ratio was high (p<0.05) when cassava level was increased, but it reduced (p<0.05) when enzymes were added. The dressing percentage (DP), and weight of drumsticks reduced (p<0.05) with increasing cassava level. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.05) DP, and weight of breast, thighs and drumsticks. Ash content, weight, length, width, and bone strength decreased (p<0.05) when cassava level was increased, however, they were increased with enzyme addition. The contents of Ca, K, and Zn were raised (p<0.001) with increasing cassava level. Enzyme inclusion increased (p<0.001) all mineral contents in tibia bones. Body fat and energy retained as fat decreased (p<0.001) as cassava level increased. Enzyme inclusion increased (p<0.05) body protein content and energy retained as protein. Conclusion: Although broiler performance was depressed by high levels of cassava inclusion, it was not affected by low levels, which further improved by enzyme supplementation.

Effects of Sesame Meal on Growth Performances and Fatty acid Composition, Free Amino Acid Contents, and Panel Tests of Loin of Hanwoo Steers (참깻묵이 거세 한우의 비육성적과 등심의 지방산 조성, 유리 아미노산 함량 및 관능평가에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung Il;Cho, Bong Rae;Choi, Chang Bon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.451-460
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    • 2013
  • The feed value of sesame meal, a main agricultural by-product from the northern area of Gyeongsangbuk-do province, was assessed in Hanwoo steers. A total of twelve Hanwoo steers (average BW = 412.08 kg) were allocated into a Control (fed no sesame meal) or Treatment (fed sesame meal from 14.6 months of age) group, considering BW and ages, and the animals were fed for a total of 480 days. The final BW, total gain and ADG for the Control and Treatment groups were 741.17 kg and 762.67 kg, 331.84 kg and 347.84 kg, and 0.69 kg and 0.72 kg, respectively, showing better performances in sesame meal-fed animals. Feed requirements during the whole experimental period improved by feeding sesame meal (15.31 and 14.87 for Control and Treatment group, respectively). Hanwoo steers fed sesame meal also showed a 22.83 kg heavier cold carcass weight (424.17 kg and 447.00 kg in the Control and Treatment group, respectively), and 2.41% improved dressing percentages (58.60% and 57.22% for the Control and Treatment group, respectively). The area of the M. longissimus dorsi was $91.83cm^2$ and $88.33cm^2$ in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The final yield of A and B grade meat were 50 : 50% and 33.3 : 66.7% from the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The average marbling score was 4.83 and 5.50, and the numeric values for quality grade was 2.17 and 2.67 for the Control and Treatment group, respectively, showing better beef quality in sesame meal-fed Hanwoo steers. In fact, there were two animals with beef quality $1^{{+}{+}}$ in the sesame meal-fed group. The melting point of lipid extracted from the M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the Treatment group ($28.28^{\circ}C$) compared to the Control group ($30.65^{\circ}C$). The composition of saturated fatty acids, $C_{14:0}$ (myristic acid) and $C_{16:0}$ (palmitic acid), were significantly lower in sesame meal-fed animals, 4.70% and 2.20% for myristic acid, and 30.55% and 27.12% for palmitic acid, in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant differences in C18:0 (stearic acid) composition between the groups. The composition of a representative unsaturated fatty acid, $C_{18:1}$ (oleic acid), was significantly higher in Treatment animals (49.89%) than Control animals (44.29%) (p<0.05). The ratio of total monounsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids; M/S) was 1.10 and 1.36 for the Control and Treatment groups, respectively, showing remarkably higher ratios in sesame meal-fed group. The content of glutamic acid, related to beef flavor, was significantly higher in the Treatment group (3.35 mg/100 g) compared to the Control group (1.88 mg/100g) (p<0.05). The tenderness score, evaluated by an eight-point scale in the panel test, and overall palatability (based on juiciness, flavor, oiliness, and umami) were significantly higher in the Treatment group (5.67 and 5.23, respectively) than the Control group (3.83 and 4.60, respectively) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the current results imply that sesame meal could serve as a good supplement for Hanwoo steers for producing high quality beef.

Changes in Quality of Boiled Neverita didyma as a Function of Autoclaving Conditions (큰구슬 우렁이 (Neverita didyma) 보일드 통조림의 가열살균(加熱殺菌) 조건(條件)에 따른 품질변화(品質變化))

  • Lee, Keun-Woo;Ryu, Hong-Soo;Joo, Hyen-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 1984
  • Changes in available lysine and water soluble proteins were checked to obtain the desirable condition of processing for boiled Neverita didyma under the various autoclaving temperatures and times. It was also carried out to assess the affect of heat treatments upon the solubility of coagulable substances in boiled products. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of processed Neverita didyma under the highest available lysine retention and without bacteria, it was studied the value of pepsin-pancreatin digest residue index in comparison with unprocessed (raw) material. The crude protein content of raw material was higher than that of the other mollusks, while the content of crude fat was showing lower value. It was noticed that the higher contents of coagulable substances and water soluble proteins in processed Neverita didyma were obtained under the conditions, retort temperature at $120^{\circ}C$ above, and 40-60 min. sterilization. After the pannel test, the coagulable substances were not found below the level of $0.40{\pm}0.03$ gram nitrogen/ml of juice. The remarkable retention of available lysine (FDNB-reactive lysine) was resulted in the conditions of autoclaving at $115^{\circ}C$ for 40 minutes in boiled Neverita didyma products, and that processing condition was coincide with the condition of commercial sterilization for boiled top shell. It was revealed that the boiled meat of Neverita didyma showed the higher PPDRI(65.85) than that of raw material (63.16).

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Precessing of Smoked Dried and Powdered, Sardine for Instant Soup (정어리 분말수우프의 가공)

  • Oh, Kwang-Soo;Chung, Bu-Kil;Kim, Myung-Chan;Sung, Nak-Ju;Lee, Eung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 1988
  • This study was carried out to prepare the flavoring substance using sardine for instant soup, and to examine the taste compounds and storage stability of the product. In preparation of product, raw sardine are gutted, boiled for 10 minutes and smoked 3 times to $9{\sim}10%$ moisture content at $80^{\circ}C$ for 8 hours. The smoked-dried sardine meat were followed to be 50 mesh of particle size. The powdered-dried sardine were mixed 4.0% sugar, 20.0% table salt, 3.0% monosodium glutamate, 0.2% black pepper, 0.2% garlic powder and 0.2% onion powder, Finally the powdered instant soup product were vacuum packed in a laminated film(PET/A1 foil/CPP) bag, and then stored at room temperature for 120 days. The effect of smoking on enhancing flavor and on preventing lipid oxidation of product during storage were observed. From the chemical analysis and omission test, the principal taste compounds of product were IMP, 478.2mg/l00g; free amino acids such as glutamic acid, histidine, arginine, phenylalaine 3292.5mg/l00g; non-volatile organic acids such as lactic acid, ${\alpha}-ketoglutaric$ acid, 712.2mg/l00g; total creatinine 409.0mg/100g, and small amount of betaine, TMAO. Fatty acid composition of product were mainly consisted of polyenoic acids such as 20:5, 22:6, followed by saturated acids, monoenoic acid. The major fatty acid were 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 20:5 and 22:6. From the results of sensory evaluation and chemical experiments during storage, the vacuum packed product were good condition for preserving the quality during storage for 120 days. We may conclude that the quality of present product was not inferior to that of seasoning powder of anchovy on the market, and it can be commercialized as a flavoring substance in preparing soup and broth.

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Effects of Supplemented PROSOL® as an Emulsifier on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers of Final Fattening Period (수용성 지방유화제 첨가가 비육후기 한우거세우의 발육과 도체성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Joon;Hwang, Jeong-Mi;Seong, Nak-Il;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Hwang, Il-Ki;Kim, Yong-Chul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.395-406
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    • 2009
  • Fifty four Hanwoo steers in final fattening period were assigned to 3 groups control, top dressed $PROSOL^{(R)}$ as an emulsifier (TP) and DSP group (experimental diet made to down spec of nutrients with $PROSOL^{(R)}$, which is sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate), based on the body weight (647.96${\pm}$41.31 kg) and months of age (27.3${\pm}$0.8 mo), and the experiment was conducted to establish the reasonable fattening method of Hanwoo steers for 91 days. Average daily body gains during trial were 0.94, 0.84 and 0.98 kg in control, TP and DSP, respectively (P=0.011). DDMI/ADG of TP group tend to lightly improving compared to control and DSP group (P=0.692). There was no effect of supplementation of the $PROSOL^{(R)}$ in concentrates on growth rate, feed efficiency and shrinkage in Hanwoo steers during the short final fattening period. MQI from TP and DSP was not different based on the rib-eye area and carcass weight in carcass than that from control. Back fat thickness tended to be thicker than control (P>0.05). Marbling score, texture and maturity for TP and DSP was abundantly to increase compared to control (P<0.003). There was significantly increment in supplemented $PROSOL^{(R)}$ (P<0.0001). The meat quality grade of control, TP and DSP were 2.94, 3.78 and 4.50, respectively. Related to this result, the auction price (carcass/kg) were gained significantly (P<0.003) from control (17,560), TP (18,586) and DSP (19,266 won) so which the monetary return was the highest in DSP and the differences was recognized between TP and DSP. Percentage over 1st grade appeared in control, TP and DSP were 55.4, 88.9 and 100.0%, respectively. These results supported the hypothesis that supplementation of emulsifier improve the marbling score and the carcass quality grade by increased digestibilities of the feed fat in Hanwoo steers in fattening period.

Studies on Variation of Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers by Pen and Group Size (한우 거세우의 군집크기에 따른 산육특성 연구)

  • Ha, J.J.;Rhee, Y.J.;Jang, W.J.;Kim, Y.W.;Shaogang, Li;Song, Y.H.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2009
  • This study, tasting 14 months, was conducted to investigate the effects of different pen size and group size on growing-fattening characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Forty-eight, 12-month-old Hanwoo steers($305.8{\pm}32.2\;kg$) were randomly assigned to three groups($35.28\;m^2$; n=4 heads, $70.56\;m^2$; n=8 heads, $105.84\;m^2$; n=12 heads) and reared in separate pens with a constant space allowance of $8.82m^2$ per head from 12 to 21 month of age and then regrouped to 4 heads per pen. A common diet including concentrate(limited) and forage(ad lib) was provided to all the animals. Images of live animal ultrasonic back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area and Marbling score were evaluated in three months interval from 12 months of age using an ultrasound equipment(HS-2000) at the 13th rib and lumber vertebra interface of left side. Significant differences of ADG was found mainly at $15{\sim}18$ month and $18{\sim}21$ month fattening stages(p<0.05). Marbling score(MS) was higher(p<0.05) in 12 heads group when compared with that of 4 and 8 heads groups after 18 months. Animals in 12 heads group had the lowest Average daily gain(ADG) but showed the highest longissimus muscle area(LMA) and marbling score(MS). In addition, Hanwoo steers in 12 heads group obtained a higher quality appearance(HQA) of 82.7% than that of other treatments. The results indicated that Hanwoo steers housed on large group size and pen size decreased their ADG but improved meat quality.

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Changes in Various Quality Characteristics of Short-ripened Salami During Storage at Chilled or Room Temperatures (단기숙성 살라미의 냉장 및 실온저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Lee, Keun-Taik;Lee, Youn-Kyu;Son, Se-Kwang;Choi, Suk-Ho;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2009
  • This study investigated the microbial contamination levels of raw meats used for short-ripened salami and changes in the microbial and physico-chemical properties of the product during storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$ for up to 120 days. The microbial counts of raw meats ranged between 2 and 4 Log CFU/g. Frozen-thawed sow meat showed higher total aerobe and Enterobacteriaceae counts than fresh chilled pork and pork back fat. Staphylococcus aureus was found in all raw materials except fresh chilled pork samples, and Clostridium perfringens was detected in a sample stored for 21 days at $25^{\circ}C$. The counts of total aerobes, lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. decreased more rapidly at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$ when the storage time was extended. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., yeast, and mold were restricted to levels below 2 Log CFU/g during storage. The contents of salt, water, crude protein, crude fat, and ash of salami samples were 3.4, 33.4, 30.8, 32.7, and 4.3%, respectively, which were not affected by storage time or temperature. The pH value of the salami was initially 4.79 and increased to 5.02 and 5.26 after 120 days of storage at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively, whereas the water activity values decreased from an initial value of 0.91 to 0.90 and 0.88 after 120 days at 10 and $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. The TBA and VBN values increased slowly during storage. The redness value of the salami samples stored at $25^{\circ}C$ decreased more significantly than the samples stored at $10^{\circ}C$. With increased storage time, the values for the rheological characteristics of the salami in terms of hardness, brittleness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, and adhesiveness tended to decrease more remarkably at $25^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$. Based on sensory evaluation scores, it appears that short-ripened salami is no longer acceptable after 90 days at $10^{\circ}C$ and 30 days at $25^{\circ}C$.

Effects of Different Additives on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Holstein Steers (첨가물질의 급여가 홀스타인 거세우의 발육, 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Won-Mo;Yang, Sung-Hak;Lee, Sang-Min;Jang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Hong, Seong-Koo;Park, Woon-Yeoul;Kim, Hyun-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate the feeding effects of different additives on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers. Twenty-four Holstein steers, five months of age and 176.6 kg, were randomly allocated to three experimental groups of eight animals each for an 18-month feeding trial. The groups were control (not additive), T1 (fed zinc, vitamin C, and sulfur), and T2 (fed choline and lysine). The average daily gain was no different between the treatment groups during the growing to early fattening period, but it was significantly higher in the T1 group than the T2 group in the late fattening period (p<0.05). The final BW of the T1 group was relatively high in relation to the other groups, but was not significantly different. The additives had no effects on DMI during the experimental period; however, the feed conversion ratio of the T1 group in the late fattening period was significantly lower than that of the T2 group (p<0.05). The results of yield traits, carcass weight, and yield index were similar between groups, but back fat thickness and rib eye area were relatively lower in the T2 group than in the other groups. In terms of quality traits, meat color, texture, and maturity were not significantly different between the three groups. However, marbling score and appearance rate of high quality grade ($1^{++}$, $1^+$, and 1) were higher in the T1 group compared with the T2 group. Thus, the present results suggest that vitamin C, zinc, and sulfur supplementation may improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.

Analysis of Relationship Between Dental Health Condition and Eating Habit (치아건강상태와 식습관과의 상관관계 분석)

  • kim, Jeong-Sook;Lee, Jong-Do;Jung, Hyo-Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Dental Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.103-119
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    • 2007
  • The survey on dental health condition and eating habit of local residents in Daegu and Kyungbuk had been conducted. Through the analysis of influence of dental health condition on eating habit I could get the following result. The number of subjects of survey is 630. The period of survey is from June 2006 to September 2006. 1. General quality of subjects is that forty-four point four percent of subjects are male and fiftyfive pointsix percent are female. The age of thirty point one percent of subjects is between 20 and 29. Fifty-six point two percent of subjects are married. Fifty-one point four percent of subjects have above bachelor degree. Monthly income of forty-four point eight percent of subjects is less than one million won. Twenty-four point four percent of subjects are students. Fifty-five point seven percent of subjects are living in big cities. 2. Forty-seven point seven percent of male and fifty-one point eight percent of female answered their subjective dental health condition is bad. Marital status, age and academic background have relationship with answer. Forty-three point nine percent of married subjects and forty-one point five percent of divorced or bereaved subjects said they have bad dental health condition. The older he is or the lower academic background he has subjects think they have bad dental health condition. Forty-seven point four percent of non-educated subjects answered their dental health condition is bad. Forty-six percent of self-employed subjects and subjects who live in the country have tendency to think their dental health condition is bad. 3. About eating habit knowledge, male's knowledge of 2.03$\pm$0.20 is lower than female's of 2.08$\pm$0.21. This shows there is statistically significant difference(p<0.01). 4. There is significant relationship between subjective dental health condition and health condition of subjective. This means subject who has better health condition has also better dental health condition(37.5%). About subjective dental health condition, subject who eats restoratives has worse dental health condition. This shows there is a relationship between dental health condition and eating restoratives(p=0.004) and subject who works out steadily has better dental condition. 5. About relation between dental health condition and eating habit, subject who eats vegetables has worse dental health condition by fifty point seven percent. As cross tabulation result, p-value is 0.002. In level of significance of 0.05, there is statistically significant difference in eating habit. 6. It seems that eating habit has an effect on marital status, age, academic background, income and also on dental prosthetic treatment situation. Many subjects think their dental health condition is bad. About eating habit, subjects who eat meat have better dental health condition. Subjects who drink green tea and fruit juice has better dental health condition than who drink coffee and Balanced diet is good for dental health condition. As eating habit is important for developing dental health, government should make a proper program. Dental health education program especially for elderly, low-eduacted, residents in the country and poor people should be developed. Government, dental health organization, dental health specialist, associated research institution and people work in the press should be concerned and devote to improve quality of life. Primary prevention education will help for dental health.

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