• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Genetic Traceability of Black Pig Meats Using Microsatellite Markers

  • Oh, Jae-Don;Song, Ki-Duk;Seo, Joo-Hee;Kim, Duk-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Seo, Kang-Seok;Lim, Hyun-Tae;Lee, Jae-Bong;Park, Hwa-Chun;Ryu, Youn-Chul;Kang, Min-Soo;Cho, Seoae;Kim, Eui-Soo;Choe, Ho-Sung;Kong, Hong-Sik;Lee, Hak-Kyo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.926-931
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    • 2014
  • Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The $F_{IS}$ values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was $9.87{\times}10^{-14}$ in population J, $3.17{\times}10^{-9}$ in population B, and $1.03{\times}10^{-12}$ in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers.

A Study on Diet Quality, Food Behavior and Energy Balance of College Student in Chungnam Area (충남 일부 지역 대학생의 식사의 질, 식행동 및 에너지 평형상태 조사 연구)

  • Kim, Myung-Hee;Kim, Moo-Kyung;Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Dong-Hee;Kim, Mi-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.599-611
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of food behavior on dietary food intake status and health condition based on research of food behavior and nutritional intake status of university students in the Chungnam area. The average age, height, and weight of the subject group were 22.1 years old, 174.2 cm, and 67.0 kg for the male students and 20.9 years old, 161.8 cm, and 53.4 kg for the female students, respectively. From the nutritional intake status data, the averaged daily energy intake of both groups, male and female, are lower than the dietary reference intake(KDRI), as 2,169.2 kcal and 1,846.2 kcal, males and females, respectively. The lipid intake ratio was higher than the dietary reference figure, and the carbohydrate intake ratio was determined to be in the proper range. Male students(54.6%) and female students(52.0%) of the entire subject group skipped a breakfast mainly due to insufficient time, and the time at which meals were consumed, was determined to be irregular generally. In a day, male and female students have a heavier dinner than lunch(p<0.05), respectively. Meat and fishes are preferred by the entire subject group, and the number of students, who do not eat carrot and mayonnaise(p<0.05), was determined to be the highest, of all foods surveyed. The averaged daily activity coefficient and the resting energy expenditure shows significant difference(p<0.001) between two groups; was 1.7 and 1.6 and the second was 1,404.3 kcal/day and 1,292.5 kcal/day for the male and female groups, respectively. As the number of attempting to reduce body weight(p<0.001), the amount smoking(p<0.001), or the frequency of drinking alcohol increases, BMI decreases. On the other hand, as body shape satisfaction increases, BMI increases also.

Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer in Rural Areas of Wuhan China: a Matched Case-control Study

  • Zhang, Bin;Zhou, Ai-Fen;Zhu, Chang-Cai;Zhang, Ling;Xiang, Bing;Chen, Zhong;Hu, Rong-Hua;Zhang, Ya-Qi;Qiu, Lin;Zhang, Yi-Ming;Xiong, Chao-Du;Du, Yu-Kai;Shi, Yu-Qin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7595-7600
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    • 2013
  • Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in developing countries. We investigated possible risk factors for cervical cancer in rural areas of Wuhan China using a matched case-control study with 33 women diagnosed with cervical cancer and 132 healthy women selected from the same area as matched controls. A questionnaire, which included questions about general demography conditions, environmental and genetic factors, the first sexual intercourse, first marriage age, age at first pregnancy, pregnancy first child's age, female personal health history, social psychological factors, dietary habits, smoking and alcohol status and other living habits was presented to all participants. At the same time, HPV infection of every participant was examined in laboratory testing. Results showed HPV infection (P<0.000, OR=23.4) and pregnancy first child's age (P<0.000, OR=13.1) to be risk factors for cervical cancer. Menopause (P=0.003, OR=0.073) was a protective factor against cervical cancer. However, there was no indication of associations of environmental (drinking water, insecticide, disinfectant) genetic (cancer family history), or life-style factors (smoking status, alcohol status, physical training, sleep quality), including dietary habits (intake of fruit and vegetable, meat, fried food, bean products and pickled food) or social psychological factors with cervical cancer. The results suggest that the risk of cervical cancer in Chinese rural women may be associated with HPV infection, menopause and the pregnancy first child's age.

Comparison of Gene Expression Levels of Porcine Satellite Cells from Postnatal Muscle Tissue during Differentiation

  • Jeong, Jin Young;Kim, Jang Mi;Rajesh, Ramanna Valmiki;Suresh, Sekar;Jang, Gul Won;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Kim, Tae Hun;Park, Mina;Jeong, Hak Jae;Kim, Kyung Woon;Cho, Yong Min;Lee, Hyun-Jeong
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2013
  • Muscular satellite cell (SC), which is stem cell of postnatal pig, is an important for study of differentiation into adipogenesis, myogenesis, and osteoblastogenesis. In this study, we isolated and examined from pig muscle tissue to determine capacity in proliferate, differentiate, and expression of various genes. Porcine satellite cells (PSC) were isolated from semimembranosus (SM) muscles of 90~100 days old pigs according to standard conditions. The cell proliferation increased in multi-potent cell by Masson's, oil red O, and Alizarin red staining respectively. We performed the expression levels of differentiation related genes using real-time PCR. We found that the differentiation into adipocyte increased expression levels of both fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) genes (p<0.01). Myocyte increased the expression levels of the myosin heavy chain (MHC), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), myogenic regulatory factor (MyoD), and Myogenic factor 4 (myogenin) (p<0.01). Osteoblast increased the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p<0.01). Finally, porcine satellite cells were induced to differentiate towards adipogenic, myogenic, and osteoblastogenic lineages. Our results suggest that muscle satellite cell in porcine may influence cell fate. Understanding the progression of PSC may lead to improved strategies for augmenting meat quality.

Effects of Dietary Mugwort on Nutritional Composition and Physicochemical Characteristics of Thawed Hanwoo Beef (쑥의 급여가 동결 한우육의 성분조성 및 해동 후 물리화학적 특성변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Yoon-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.290-297
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    • 2012
  • The nutritional composition of thawed Hanwoo beef fed no mugwort (T0) and thawed Hanwoo beef fed mugwort (T1) were analyzed after freezing at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 12 months. Also the effect of feeding mugwort was investigated by comparing physicochemical and palatability changes by chilling the beef after thawing. There were no significant differences in general components of T0 and T1 Hanwoo beef. Among the minerals, there were no significant differences in the contents of Ca, P, K, Mg and Zn, however Na content in T0 and Fe content in T1 were significantly higher. The total amino acid did not show a significant difference but leucine was found to be higher in T0 than T1, and glycine, cysteine, histidine and arginine were higher in T1 than T0. Regarding fatty acids, stearic acid was higher in T0, while palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acid was significantly higher in T1. The hardness value became lower by chilling after thawing regardless mugwort consumption, and therefore the tenderness improved. The freshness, fat rancidity and antioxidant activity of thawed Hanwoo beef changed more slowly for T1 than T0, which indicates that feeding mugwort had a positive effect. There were no significant differences in taste, juiciness, tenderness or and palatability of the cooked beef between T0 and T1 for both 0 days and 3 days after thawing. However, the aroma of cooked T1 beef was significantly superior.

Development of Tteokgalbi Added with Red Pepper Seed Powder (고추씨 분말을 첨가한 떡갈비 개발)

  • Kim, Hack-Youn;Kim, Gye-Woong;Jeong, Han-Gyul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.255-260
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of red pepper seed powder addition on the chemical compositions, cooking characteristics, and sensory properties of tteokgalbi. Tteokgalbi was prepared by addition of 0% (control), 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% red pepper seed powder. The moisture and ash contents of samples increased with increased content of red pepper seed powder. In addition, the pH value, CIE $a^*$ value, and CIE $b^*$ value of uncooked and cooked samples increased with higher content of red pepper seed powder. However, cooking loss, diameter reduction, and thickness reduction of samples decreased with increasing content of red pepper seed powder. The hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of samples increased with higher content of red pepper seed powder, and the sensory evaluation of tteokgalbi containing 3% red pepper seed powder was the highest. Therefore, usages of red pepper seed powder can improve quality characteristics of tteokgalbi.

Comparison of myofibrillar protein degradation, antioxidant profile, fatty acids, metmyoglobin reducing activity, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of gluteus medius and infraspinatus muscles in goats

  • Adeyemi, Kazeem D.;Shittu, Rafiat M.;Sabow, Azad B.;Abubakar, Ahmed A.;Karim, Roselina;Karsani, Saiful A.;Sazili, Awis Q.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.23.1-23.17
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    • 2016
  • Background: The functionality of myofibrillar proteins is a major factor influencing the quality attributes of muscle foods. Nonetheless, the relationships between muscle type and oxidative changes in chevon during ageing are meagrely elucidated. Postmortem changes in antioxidant status and physicochemical properties of glycolytic gluteus medius (GM) and oxidative infraspinatus (IS) muscles in goats were compared. Methods: Twenty Boer bucks (9-10 months old, body weight of $36.9{\pm}0.725kg$) were slaughtered and the carcasses were subjected to chill storage ($4{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$). Analyses were conducted on GM and IS muscles sampled on 0, 1, 4 and 7 d postmortem. Results: Chill storage did not affect the antioxidant enzyme activities in both muscles. The IS had greater (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase and catalase activities than GM. Carotenoid and tocopherol contents did not differ between muscles but decreased (P < 0.05) over storage. The IS had higher (P < 0.05) glycogen and ultimate pH and lower (P < 0.05) shear force and cooking loss than GM. The carbonyl content, % metmyoglobin, drip loss and TBARS increased (P <0.05) while free thiol, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), shear force and myoglobin decreased (P < 0.05) over storage. Muscle type had no effect (P > 0.05) on free thiol, MRA and TBARS. The GM had lower (P < 0.05) redness on d 0 and 1 than IS while the IS had greater carbonyl, % metmyoglobin and drip loss than GM on d 7. The reflective density of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) was higher (P < 0.05) while the density of fast MHC and actin was lower (P < 0.05) in IS than GM. Regardless of muscle type, the density of MHC decreased (P < 0.05) while that of actin was stable over storage. Nonetheless, the degradation of fast and slow MHC was greater (P < 0.05) in IS than GM. Muscle type had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer preference for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. However, IS had higher (P < 0.05) tenderness score than GM on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Intramuscular fat was higher (P< 0.05) in IS compared with GM. Fatty acid composition did not differ between the muscles. However, GM had lower (P < 0.05) n-6/n-3 ratio than IS. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA declined (P < 0.05) while the SFA increased (P < 0.05) over storage. Conclusion: The changes in myofibrillar proteins and physicochemical properties of goat meat during postmortem chill storage are muscle-dependent.

Effects of Injection of Red Wine on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Pork Loin Ham (레드와인 주입량에 따른 등심햄의 품질 특성)

  • Ha, So-Ra;Choi, Jung-Seok;Jin, Sang-Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1139-1147
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of injection of red wine on physico-chemical characteristics of pork loin ham during cold storage. The pork loin hams were manufactured by injection of red wine as Control (0%), T1 (3%), T2 (6%), T3 (9%), and were analyzed, while stored at 10±1℃ for 4 weeks, respectively. As a result of the injection of red wine, the pH values of pork loin ham were reduced, whereas WHC values were increased compared to the control (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in cooking loss. In meat color, as injection of red wine increased, the lightness values were reduced, and redness values were increased during 4 weeks. In texture profile analysis, values in shear force, brittleness, gumminess and adhesiveness were increased as red wine injection increased (p<0.05). But, injection of red wine reduced the VBN values until 2 weeks. Treatment groups with more than 3% red wine showed lower TMC values than control until 3 weeks (p<0.05), whereas Lactobacillus counts were significantly increased by injection of red wine since 2 weeks. In conclusion, red wines showed the effect of increasing the quality characteristics related to physical and storage in pork loin ham during cold storage, and proper injection level was 3% when pork loin ham processed.

Selection signature reveals genes associated with susceptibility loci affecting respiratory disease due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect in Chinese indigenous pigs

  • Xu, Zhong;Sun, Hao;Zhang, Zhe;Zhang, Cheng-Yue;Zhao, Qing-bo;Xiao, Qian;Olasege, Babatunde Shittu;Ma, Pei-Pei;Zhang, Xiang-Zhe;Wang, Qi-Shan;Pan, Yu-Chun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.187-196
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems causing significant economic losses. To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data. Methods: Genome comparison of susceptibility to swine EP in three pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian, and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and F-statistic (FST) statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes. Based on quantitative trait loci, gene ontology terms and literature search, we selected 14 candidate genes that have convincible biological functions associated with swine EP or human asthma. Results: Most of these genes were tested by several methods including transcription analysis and candidate genes association study. Among these genes: cytochrome P450 1A1 and catenin beta 1 (CTNNB1) are involved in fertility; transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 plays a role in meat quality traits; Wnt family member 2, CTNNB1 and transcription factor 7 take part in adipogenesis and fat deposition simultaneously; plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (completely linked to AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, r2 = 1) plays an essential role in the successful ovulation of matured oocytes in pigs; colipase like 2 (strongly linked to SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor, r2 = 0.848) is involved in male fertility. Conclusion: These adverse genes susceptible to swine EP may be selected while selecting for economic traits (especially reproduction traits) due to pleiotropic and hitchhiking effect of linked genes. Our study provided a completely new point of view to understand the genetic basis for susceptibility or resistance to swine EP in pigs thereby, provides insight for designing sustainable breed selection programs. Finally, the candidate genes are crucial due to their potential roles in respiratory diseases in a large number of species, including human.

Replacement value of cassava for maize in broiler chicken diets supplemented with enzymes

  • Chang'a, Edwin Peter;Abdallh, Medani Eldow;Ahiwe, Emmanuel Uchenna;Mbaga, Said;Zhu, Ze Yuan;Fru-Nji, Fidelis;Iji, Paul Ade
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1126-1137
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Pellet durability, particle size distribution, growth response, tibia bone characteristics and energy retention were measured to evaluate cassava as an alternative energy source to replace maize in broiler diets with or without Ronozyme (A+VP) enzyme composites. Methods: A total of 480 one-day broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 treatments in a 4×2 factorial arrangement. Four levels of cassava: (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%) and 2 levels of enzymes (0 and 500 g/tonne) were used. Each treatment was replicated six times, with ten birds per replicate. Results: The particle size distribution in the diets showed an increasing trend of small particles with increase in cassava level. Pellet durability decreased (p<0.05) with cassava inclusion. Feed intake was highest in birds fed diets with medium cassava level at 1 to 24 d and 1 to 35 d of age. The body weight gain of birds reduced (p<0.037) as cassava level increased, but it increased (p<0.017 when enzymes were added. The feed conversion ratio was high (p<0.05) when cassava level was increased, but it reduced (p<0.05) when enzymes were added. The dressing percentage (DP), and weight of drumsticks reduced (p<0.05) with increasing cassava level. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.05) DP, and weight of breast, thighs and drumsticks. Ash content, weight, length, width, and bone strength decreased (p<0.05) when cassava level was increased, however, they were increased with enzyme addition. The contents of Ca, K, and Zn were raised (p<0.001) with increasing cassava level. Enzyme inclusion increased (p<0.001) all mineral contents in tibia bones. Body fat and energy retained as fat decreased (p<0.001) as cassava level increased. Enzyme inclusion increased (p<0.05) body protein content and energy retained as protein. Conclusion: Although broiler performance was depressed by high levels of cassava inclusion, it was not affected by low levels, which further improved by enzyme supplementation.