• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat quality

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Detection of Novel Mutations in the FABP3 Promoter Region and Association Analysis with Intramuscular Fat Content in Pigs (돼지 FABP3 Promoter 부위 내 신규 돌연변이 탐색과 근내지방도와의 연관성 분석)

  • Kim, J.H.;Park, E.W.;Park, J.J.;Choi, B.W.;Kim, T.H.;Seo, B.Y.;Cheong, I.C.;Lim, H.T.;Oh, S.J.;Lee, J.G.;Jeon, J.T.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2005
  • Intramuscular fat content(lMF) is considered as one of major economic traits in the pig breeding and industry. In general, high IMF results in better meat quality. Several approaches to detect quantitative trait 10ci( QTL) for IMF indicated a strong possibility of the existence of a QTL related to IMF between the microsatellite marker SW71 and SW1881 on SSC6q. Porcine FABP3 has been considered as a candidate gene affecting IMF due to its physiological roles and position on the pig genome. Two novel mutations, g.-114T> C and g.-158T>G were detected by duplicate sequencing of the porcine FABP3 promoter region. These two mutations were identified as absolute linkage disequilibrium. The g.-158T> G mutation was used for investigating relationships with growth and fat deposition traits. The GG genotype of the g.-158T> G polymorphism showed highly negative effects(P< 0.01) on body weights at 3 and 12 weeks of age, and a positive effect(P< 0.05) on IMF. However, backfat thickness(BF) and carcass fat(CF) content were not significantly associated with the genotype. The result indicates that the novel mutations, identified in this study, could be utilized as possible genetic markers to improve IMF, independent with BF.

Effect of Slaughter Weight on the Blood Profile and Pork Qualities of Japan Berkshire (일본버크셔의 도살체중이 혈액성상과 돈육품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee Jae-Ryong;Hur Tae-Young;Seo Kook-Hyun;Nam Ki-Yun;Lee Jin-Woo;Lee Jeong-Ill;Kwack Suk-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.409-414
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    • 2005
  • The effects of slaughter weight on blood profile and pork qualities of japan berkshires were investigated A total 72 pigs were divided into 3 groups$(125\~130,\;105\~110\;or\;95\~104\;kg)$. At each slaughter weight pigs were conventionally slaughtered and then chilled overnight The carcass characteristics (carcass weight backfat thickness and grades) were determined on those carcass, the muscle longissimus dorsi was removed from each left side at 5th to 13th rib and meat qualities were evaluated. Blood profile including cortisol, creatine phos-phokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose and phosphorus was not significantly (p>0.05) different among all slaughter weight, However, the calcium contents of pigs at $95\~104\;kg$ were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other weights. The carcass weight and backfat thickness of pigs slaughtered at $125\~130\;kg$ were higher than those of $105\~110\;or\;95\~104\;kg$. The carcass grade of pigs slaughtered at $125\~130\;kg$ were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the other weight. The moisture contents of pigs slaughtered at $125\~130\;kg$ were significantly lower than the other weights, but crude protein contents were significantly (p<0.05) higher, Cooking loss and shear lone values of pigs slaughtered at $95\~104\;kg$ were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the other weight. CIE $a^*\;and\;b^*$ values of pigs slaughtered at $105\~110\;kg$ were significantly higher than the other weights. These results imply that the carcass characteristics (carcass weight and backfat thickness) could be affected by slaughter weight the cooking loss and shear force values of pigs slaughtered at $125\~130\;kg$ resulted in higher than those of $105\~110kg\;or\;95\~104\;kg$.

Changes in pH, Temperature, R-values and Calpain Activity of M. longissimus from Hanwoo Steer during Rigor Development (사후시간 경과가 한우 거세우 배최장근의 pH, 온도, R-value 및 단백질 분해효소 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Kim, Hak-Kyun;Park, Beom-Young;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Hwang, In-Ho;Kim, Dong-Hun;Lee, Jong-Moon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2005
  • The changes in pH, temperature, R-values and ${\mu}-calpain$ and its inhibitor activity of M. longissimus from Hanwoo steer were investigated at 1, 3, 9 and 24h postmortem. The pH and temperature of M. longissimus were significantly (p<0.05) decreased during 24h postmortem time, and were 6.50 and $31.99^{\circ}C$, respectively, at 3h postmortem. $R_{248}\;and\;R_{250}$ were increased, but $R_{258}$ was decreased after 9h postmortem time (p<0.05). Calpain I and calpastatin activity were decreased after 3h and 9h postmortem time, respectively (p<0.05). pH and temperature showed high positive correlations with $R_{258}$ (r=0.967 and r=0.970, respectively), calpain I (r =0.956 and r=0.954, respectively) and calpastatin (r=0.978 and r=0.986, respectively) but had high negative correlations with $R_{248}$ (r=-0.982 and r=-0.973, respectively) and $R_{248}$ (r=-0.983 and r=-0.976, respectively). from these results, the change of postmortem metabolism of M. longissimus from Hanwoo steer likely occurred after 9h postmortem time. However, the further study on the establishment of metabolism from Hanwoo between postmortem 3h and 9h are necessary to produce Hanwoo beef with high acceptance in meat quality.

Quality Improvement of Effective Microorganisms (EM) Pork Produced by Using EM (유용미생물(Effective Microorganisms; EM)로 사양한 EM Pork의 육질 개선 효과)

  • Han, Seung-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.734-737
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of effective microorganism (EM) treatment in feeding system of swine on carcass characteristics. EM pork, which reared with EM additives and EM activated liquids, and conventional pork (non-EM pork) were stored at $4^{\circ}C$. Chemical composition and storage stability of EM pork were compared with conventional pork. Cholesterol content at EM pork was 71 mg/100 g, which is lower than that of conventional pork (83 mg/100 g) when the meats were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ refrigerator. And EM pork (0.165 MDA mg/kg) showed higher antioxidant effect than control pork (0.184 MDA mg/kg). And also protein denaturalization at EM pork showed lower rate $(3.19\;mg\%)$ than that of conventional pork $(4.9\;mg\%)$ when the meats were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ refrigerator, showing that inhibitory effect of protein denaturalization was increased up to $35\%$ over the conventional pork. These results show that the EM pork had superior traits in terms of cholesterol level, lipid oxidation and protein denaturalization to the conventional pork.

Investigation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Porcine Candidate Genes for Economic Traits in the Commercial Pig Breed (돼지 품종의 경제형질 관련 후보유전자의 단일염기 다형성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Wook;Lee, Mi-Rang;Kang, Han-Seok;Kim, Seon-Ku;Shin, Teak-Soon;Lee, Hong-Gu;Jeon, Hae-Yeal;Kim, Kwan-Suk;Do, Chang-Hee;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Kim, Tae-Hun;Cho, Byung-Wook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.770-775
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    • 2008
  • Several studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for meat quality on porcine chromosome 2. For application of the chromosomal information to pig industry through using DNA technology, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are developed by comparative re-sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of 13 candidate genes. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in 11 PCR products, an average of one SNP in every 296 bp.PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were developed for 11 SNPs and used to genotype four commercial pig populations in Korea. The SNP markers were used to map candidate genes in QTL and to clarify the relevance of SNP and quantitative traits.

The Effects of Feeding Organic Feed on the Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (유기사료 급여가 거세한우의 성장 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, B.S.;Song, J.I.;Jeon, J.H.;Kwag, J.H.;Jang, S.S.;Kwon, E.G.;Cho, Y.M.;Cho, W.M.;Choi, H.C.;Park, K.H.;Yoo, Y.H.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the organic feed on weight gain, feed conversion rate, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Three feeding treatments(T1 : rice straw and commercial concentrates, T2 : organic hay and concentrates, T3 : organic corn silage and concentrates) for 22 months (from 6 to 28 months) were used. As a result, weight gain was not significantly different among treatments throughout this study. Also T1 tended to improve weight gain and daily weight gain without significance. The percentage of meat quality grade over the first grads ($1,\;1^+,\;1^{++}$) were 50% in the carcass of Hanwoo steers fed T1 and T2, and 70% fed T3, respectively. T2 and T3 tended to improve marbling score and oleic acid content.

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Differential Expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

  • Ji, Shuang;Yang, Runjun;Lu, Chunyan;Qiu, Zhengyan;Yan, Changguo;Zhao, Zhihui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.10-18
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM), which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR). The result showed that $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. $PPAR{\gamma}$ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05) in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

Cortisol and Fatty Acid Contents in Hanwoo Meat Produced by Antibiotics-free Rearing System (무항생제 사육방식으로 생산된 한우육내 코티졸과 지방산 함량)

  • Ha, Jae-Jung;Kim, Byung-Ki;Yi, Jun-Koo;Oh, Dong-Yep;Kim, Suk-Soo;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Chae, Hyung-Bok;Kim, Seung-Joon;Park, Young-Sik
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of antibiotic-free rearing system(ARS) on cortisol level, stress hormone, and fatty acid content in the edible muscle tissues, that were of M. longissimus in Hanwoo. These cattle were reared in two different systems including antibiotic-free (ARS) and conservative system (CRS). To increase the experimental reliability, the muscle samples were purchased 3 times from 3 Korean brands of beef produced with ARS or CRS. In the muscle tissue, cortisol level was significantly lower in ARS than CRS, (p=0.0176). But the levels of total saturated- and unsaturated-fatty acids were not significantly different between ARS and CRS (p>0.05). Of total fatty acids, the total saturated fatty acid tended to be greater in CRS and the total unsaturated fatty acid tended to be greater in ARS. However, of the total unsaturated fatty acids, the level of n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in ARS than CRS (p=0.0040). Especially, ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (ALA) and ${\gamma}$-linolenic acid (GLA) levels were significantly higher in ARS (p<0.01). The n-6 fatty acid content and cortisol level in muscle tissue were negatively correlated at p=0.0140. In conclusion, ARS may produce beef with higher quality which contains lower cortisol and greater n-6 fatty acids, such as ALA and GLA.

The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

  • Shariff, Zalilah Mohd;Lin, Khor Geok;Sariman, Sarina;Lee, Huang Soo;Siew, Chin Yit;Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd;Mun, Chan Yoke;Mohamad, Maznorila
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.278-287
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS: For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION: Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children.

Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

  • Seong, Pil Nam;Park, Kuyng Mi;Kang, Sun Moon;Kang, Geun Ho;Cho, Soo Hyun;Park, Beom Young;Ba, Hoa Van
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1164-1173
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    • 2014
  • The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace${\times}$YorkshireLandrace${\times}$Yorkshire)♀${\times}$Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm $NaNO_2$, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05). It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05). Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) $a^*$ value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher $L^*$, CIE $b^*$ and hue angle values (p<0.05). Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05). The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.