• Title, Summary, Keyword: Meat Quality Traits

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Poultry Meat Quality in Relation to Muscle Growth and Muscle Fiber Characteristics

  • Ismail, Ishamri;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.873-883
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    • 2017
  • Variations in the definition of poultry meat quality exist because the quality traits are not solely based on intrinsic and extrinsic factors but also consumers' preference. Appearance quality traits (AQT), eating quality traits (EQT), and reliance quality traits (RQT) are the major factors focused by the consumer before buying good quality of poultry meat. AQT and EQT of poultry meat are controlled by physical and biochemical characteristics of muscle fibers which can be categorized into a total number of fibers (TNF), cross-sectional area of fibers (CSAF), and fiber type composition (FTC). In poultry meat, it has been shown that muscle fiber properties play a key role in meat quality because numerous studies have reported the relationships between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research has been carried out to manipulate the muscle fiber to improve poultry meat quality, demand in a rapid growth of poultry muscle has correlated to the deterioration in the meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of poultry meat quality, meat quality traits, and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between poultry meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics.

Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed

  • Lee, Taeheon;Shin, Dong-Hyun;Cho, Seoae;Kang, Hyun Sung;Kim, Sung Hoon;Lee, Hak-Kyo;Kim, Heebal;Seo, Kang-Seok
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.303-309
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    • 2014
  • The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork.

Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

  • Cabling, M.M.;Kang, H.S.;Lopez, B.M.;Jang, M.;Kim, H.S.;Nam, K.C.;Choi, J.G.;Seo, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1061-1065
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    • 2015
  • Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness ($L^*$), redness ($a^*$), yellowness ($b^*$), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (-0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered.

Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs

  • Lee, Joon-Ho;Song, Ki-Duk;Lee, Hak-Kyo;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Hwa-Chun;Park, Kyung-Do
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1388-1393
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    • 2015
  • Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of -0.51 to -0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were -0.41 and -0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and -0.14 to -0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data.

Relationships between Myosin Light Chain Isoforms, Muscle Fiber Characteristics, and Meat Quality Traits in Porcine Longissimus Muscle

  • Choi, Young-Min;Ryu, Youn-Chul;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Byoung-Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.639-644
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the myosin light chain (MLC) isoforms on the muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits in porcine longissimus muscle. Pale, soft, exudative (PSE) samples had a lower content of essential light chain (ELC) 1S isoforms and a higher proportion of the fiber type IIB than the reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative (RFN) samples. These compositions suggest that the PSE pork has a higher glycolytic and a lower oxidative capacity than the RFN pork. Therefore, these characteristics of PSE pork might affect the metabolic rate and meat quality traits, including protein solubility. In addition, the indicator traits of the postmortem metabolic rate were related to the ELC 1F/3F ratio ($pH_{45\;min}$: r = -0.43, P < 0.001; R-value: r = 0.53, P < 0.001). These results suggest that the MLC isoform composition can affect the postmortem metabolic rate and meat quality traits.

Association of SNP Marker in the Leptin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Cattle

  • Shin, S.C.;Chung, E.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2007
  • Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene and is synthesized and secreted predominantly by white adipocytes and relates to the feedback system that regulates long-term body fat weight and composition. Therefore, the leptin gene could be an excellent candidate gene controlling fat deposition, carcass traits and meat quality in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of 3 SNPs (A1127T and C1180T in exon 2 and C3100T in exon 3) in the bovine leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. The C1180T SNP was associated with backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) (p<0.05). Animals with the genotype CC had higher BF than animals with TT genotype and higher MS compared with CT and TT genotypes. No significant associations were observed between the C3100T SNP and any carcass and meat quality traits analyzed. The effect of the A1127T SNP was not analyzed because the TT genotype was not detected and the AT genotype showed only 1.0% frequency. These results suggest that the C1180T SNP of the leptin gene may be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle.

Association of Three Polymorphisms in Porcine Ribosomal protein L27a (RPL27A) Gene with Meat-quality Traits

  • Cho, Eun-Seok;Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong;Lee, Si-Woo;Raveendar, Sebastian;Jang, Gul-Won;Kim, Tae-Hun;Lee, Kyung-Tai
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.509-513
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    • 2013
  • We identified molecular markers associated with meat-quality traits in the porcine RPL27A (ribosomal protein L27a) gene. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in the porcine RPL27A gene: g.920T>C, g.1013T>C, and g.1046T>C. The g.920 T>C SNP was significantly associated with pH24 (P < 0.05) and collagen (P < 0.05), while the g.1013T>C and g.1046T>C SNPs were significantly associated with moisture (P < 0.05). Either the TTT or CCC haplotype was significantly associated with moisture, pH24 and collagen (P < 0.05, respectively). The genotypes of RPL27A associated with meat-quality traits were all located in intron 2. The three SNPs of the RPL27A found in this study will provide useful information for genetic characterization or association studies of meat-quality traits in other populations. Additionally, these markers could potentially be applied in pig breeding programs to improve meat-quality traits after validation in other populations.

Prediction for Quality Traits of Porcine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Using Histochemical Parameters

  • Ryu, Youn-Chul;Choi, Young-Min;Kim, Byoung-Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.628-633
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    • 2005
  • Muscle fiber characteristics were evaluated for predictability of meat quality traits using 231 crossbred pigs. Muscle $pH_{45min}$, R-value, and $pH_{24hr}$ were selected to estimate regression equation model of drip loss and lightness, although variances of coefficient estimates could only account for small part of drip loss (about 16.3 to 25.3%) and lightness (about 16.9 to 31.7%). Muscle $pH_{24hr}$ was represented to drip loss and lightness, which explained corresponding 25.3 and 31.7% of estimation in drip loss and lightness, respectively. Area percentage of type IIb fiber significantly contributed to prediction of metabolic rate and meat quality. However, equations predicting meat quality traits based on area percentage of type IIb fiber alone are less useful than ones based on early postmortem parameters. These results suggest estimated model using both metabolic properties of muscle and postmortem metabolic rate could be used for prediction of pork quality traits.

Association of Polymorphisms in the Calpain I Gene with Meat Quality Traits in Yanbian Yellow Cattle of China

  • Xin, Jin;Zhang, Li-Chun;Li, Zhao-Zhi;Liu, Xiao-Hui;Jin, Hai-Guo;Yan, Chang-Guo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2011
  • The calpain I (CAPN1) gene is an important marker for meat tenderness and marbling score in the bovine, but there were no studies to determine whether the CAPN1 gene had an association with other meat quality traits. In this study, we examined the relation between genetic polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene and some meat quality traits in Yanbian Yellow Cattle of China. By PCRSSCP and gene sequencing in 321 unrelated Yanbian yellow cattle, twenty seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in CAPN1, two existed SNPs in exon 8 and exon 17 resulted in the change of AA at F311S and M599V, respectively, and the otherpolymorphisms were at intron 7, 8, 14, 16 and 17. There were different preponderant genotypes at the corresponding gene locus and all genotypes were not associated with tenderness but other meat traits. This is the first study of the relationship between CAPN1 and meat quality besides tenderness in Yanbian yellow cattle of China.

Overview of muscle metabolism, muscle fiber characteristics, and meat quality

  • Choe, Jeehwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.50-57
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    • 2018
  • Meat comes from the skeletal muscles of farm animals, such as pigs, chickens, and cows. Skeletal muscles are composed of many muscle fibers. Muscle fibers are categorized into three types, fiber type I, IIA, and IIB, based on their contractile speed and metabolic properties. Different muscle fiber types have different biochemical, physiological, and biophysical characteristics. Especially, the characteristics of muscle fiber type I and IIB are opposite to each other. Muscle fiber type I has a relatively strong oxidative metabolic trait and a higher content of lipids. In contrast to fiber type I, muscle fiber type IIB has a strong glycolytic metabolic trait and a relatively lower content of lipids and a higher content of glycogen. Muscle fiber type IIA has intermediate properties between fiber type I and IIB. Thus, muscles with different fiber type compositions exhibit different ante- and post-mortem muscle characteristics. In particular, the different metabolic traits of muscles due to the different compositions of the fiber types strongly affect the biochemical and physiological processes during the conversion of muscle to meat and subsequently influence the quality of the meat. Therefore, understating muscle metabolism and muscle fiber characteristics is very important when discussing the traits of meat quality. This review is an overview on basic muscle metabolism, muscle fiber characteristics, and their influence on meat quality and finally provides a comprehensive understanding about the fundamental traits of muscles and meat quality.