• Title, Summary, Keyword: McGill pain questionnaire

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Pain measurement in oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • Sirintawat, Nattapong;Sawang, Kamonpun;Chaiyasamut, Teeranut;Wongsirichat, Natthamet
    • Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2017
  • Regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, the assessment of pain should be simple and practical. Since the intensity of pain is thought to be one of the primary factors that determine its effect on a human's overall function and sense, there are many scales to assess pain. The aim of the current article was to review pain intensity scales that are commonly used in dental and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Previous studies demonstrated that multidimensional scales, such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire were suitable for assessing chronic pain, while unidimensional scales, like the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Verbal descriptor scale, Verbal rating scale, Numerical rating Scale, Faces Pain Scale, Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBS), and Full Cup Test, were used to evaluate acute pain. The WBS is widely used to assess pain in children and elderly because other scales are often difficult to understand, which could consequently lead to an overestimation of the pain intensity. In dental or OMFS research, the use of the VAS is more common because it is more reliable, valid, sensitive, and appropriate. However, some researchers use NRS to evaluate OMFS pain in adults because this scale is easier to use than VAS and yields relatively similar pain scores. This review only assessed pain scales used for post-operative OMFS or dental pain.

A Clinical Study of Acute Low Back Pain treated by Chuna & General Oriental Therapy during Pregnancy (추나치료를 병행한 임신초기 급성요통 한의 치험 1례)

  • Lee, Eun-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.110-120
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The object of this study is to report a clinical effect of oriental medical treatments with Chuna for acute low back pain during the early stages of pregnancy.Methods: The patient in this case, 31 years-old female was admitted for 1days (20th/June/2016-30th/June/2016) due to the acute low back pain on the 7 weeks of pregnancy. We diagnosed as 挫閃腰痛, 傷筋 (Sprain and strain of lumbar spine) and treated with Chuna therapy and other conservative treatments including acupuncture herbal mixture. And we measured Visual Analog Score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), McGill pain questionnaire-short form (SF-MPQ).Results: After treatments, Visual Analog Score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), McGill pain questionnaire-short form (SF-MPQ) were significantly improved in case.Conclusion: Oriental medical treatments with Chuna manual therapy were associated with improvement of acute low back pain during the early stages of pregnancy.

Involvement of Selective Alpha-2 Adrenoreceptor in Sympathetically Maintained Pain

  • Park, Chan-Hong;Yong, An;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.420-423
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    • 2010
  • Objective : Peripheral nerve injury often leads to neuropathic pain, which is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in neuropathic pain is a complex and controversial issue. It is generally accepted that the alpha adrenoreceptor (AR) in sympathetic nerve system plays a significant role in the maintenance of pain. Among alpha adrenoreceptor, alpha-1 receptors play a major role in the sympathetic mediated pain. The primary goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that sympathetically maintained pain involves peripheral alpha-2 receptors in human. Methods : The study was a randomized, prospective, double-blinded, crossover study involving twenty patients. The treatments were : Yohimbine (30 mg mixed in 500 mL normal saline), and Phentolamine (1 mg/kg in 500 mL normal saline) in 500 mL normal saline at 70 mL/hr initially then titrated. The patients underwent infusions on three different appointments, at least one month apart. Thus, all patients received all 2 treatments. Pain measurement was by visual analogue scale, neuropathic pain questionnaire, and McGill pain questionnaire. Results : There were significant decreases in the visual analogue scale, neuropathic score, McGill pain score of yohimnine, and phentolamine. Conclusion : We conclude that alpha-2 adrenoreceptor, along with alpha-2 adrenoreceptor, may be play role in sympathetically maintained pain in human.

The Clinical Observation of Kinesio Taping at Left hip joint of hemiparesis (고관절부위 통증을 호소하는 뇌수막종 환자에 대한 Kinesio taping 치료 1례)

  • Yang, Dong-Hoon;Nam, Tong-Hyun;Park, Young-Jae;Park, Young-Bae
    • The Journal of the Society of Korean Medicine Diagnostics
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2010
  • Objective : The study was performed to evaluate the effect of Kinesio taping on pain of Left hip joint. Methods : A 35-year-old, female patient who suffers from pain of left hip joint by brain tumor was treated by Kinesio taping therapy. The improvement of the patient's pain of left hip joint was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale(VAS), Faces Pain Rating Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire(MPQ), and Pain Rating Score(PRS). Result : During the 9 days with Kinesio taping, VAS and Pain Rating Scale were decreased slightly. But Faces Pain Rating Scale and McGill Pain Questionnaire showed no change. Conclusions : The result suggests that Kinesio Taping was effective treatment to pain but not intensive. Further study is needed to evaluate the significancy of this report.

The Clinical Study for the Effects of Flexion-Distraction Technique on Patients with Low Back Pain (요통 환자의 굴곡신연기법의 효과에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Jung, Won-Hee;Seo, Sang-Kyoung;Park, Kuk-Ji;Kang, Jun-Hyuk
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of flexion-distraction technique on low back pain. Methods : The 40 patients were divided into 2 groups: group a was treated except flexion-distraction technique and group B was treated with flexion-distraction technique. Both groups were treated with acupuncture treatment, physical therapy and manipulation. Patients were evaluated by McGill pain questionnaire-short form(SF-MPQ), visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI) and pain disability index(PDI). Results : 1. Both Groups were significantly decreased in VAS and ODI after 3 weeks of treatment. 2. Group B compared with Group A was significantly decreased in SF-MPQ, VAS, ODI and PDI after 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusions : We found out that flexion-distraction technique is considered to be effective and useful on low back pain.

A Clinical Case Report on Traditional Korean Medical Treatment Including Hwangryunhaedok-tang Pharmacopuncture for Low Back Pain with Sciatica during Pregnancy (황련해독탕 약침 치료를 병행한 임신 중 좌골신경통을 동반한 요통 환자의 증례보고)

  • Kim, Sun-Kyung;Kang, Su-Jin;Hong, Ka-Kyung;Choi, Chang-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.138-147
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study was to report clinical effect and safety of Traditional Korean Medical Treatment including Hwangryunhaedok-tang Pharmacopuncture for pregnant woman with low back pain with sciatica. Methods: The patient who suffered from sudden low back pain with sciatica was treated with Hwangryunhaedok-tang Pharmacopuncture, acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medication and cupping therapy during admission. Visual Analog Score (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), McGill pain questionnaire-short form (SF-MPQ) were checked to measure the outcome. Results: After treatment, Visual Analog Score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), McGill pain questionnaire-short form (SF-MPQ) were considerably improved in this case. Conclusions: The results indicate that Traditional Korean Medical Treatment including Hwangryunhaedok-tang Pharmacopuncture is the effective therapy for low back pain with sciatica during pregnancy.

Comparison between the Subjective Evaluation and the Objective Evaluation of the Effect of Pain Control in the Masticatory Muscle Pain

  • Kim, Dong-Keun;Ahn, Chi-Hyuk;Hwang, Mi-Jin;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Kang, Soo-Kyung;Auh, Q-Schick;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Chun, Yang-Hyun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison between the subjective and the objective evaluation of pain control effect in masticatory muscle pain depending on time and dose change. Methods: The patients were recruited to this study and diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Experimental group were divided into three groups; saline injection group (n=10), morphine 1.5 mg injection group (n=10), and morphine 3.0 mg injection group (n=10). Evaluation list was the subjective pain evaluation (visual analogue scale, McGill pain questionnaire) and the objective pain evaluation (pressure pain threshold [PPT], pressure pain tolerance [PTO]). The subjective and the objective pain evaluation were performed at the times of just before injection, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 24 hours, and 48 hours after injection. Then, data were statistically analyzed. Results: The results were as follows: 1) There is no statistically significant difference between the results of the subjective and the objective pain evaluation with regard to the short-term (within 1 hour) analgesic effect of morphine sulfate. 2) However, after 1 hour of injection, while the subjective pain evaluation score still decreased, the objective pain evaluation didn't show significant changes in PPT and PTO (1 hour, p<0.05; 24 hours, p<0.01; 48 hours, p<0.001). 3) In comparison to changes in the dose, the McGill pain questionnaire was the most statistically effective method among the subjective pain evaluations (1.5 mg, p<0.05; 3 mg, p<0.01). Conclusions: Therefore, it was revealed that the subjective pain evaluation was more effective to evaluate long-term pain control, and that the McGill pain questionnaire could be an effective way to evaluate pain control depending on dose changes. It requires further investigations with time and dose extension.

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Korean Language Versions on Neck Pain and Disability Questionnaires and Their Psychometric Testing (한글 경추 통증 및 기능장애 측정 도구의 개발과 타당도 및 신뢰도 검사)

  • Lee, Hae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.99-112
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : It was to translate three neck and spinal pain disability questionnaires - the Neck Disability Index (NDI), the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), and the Functional Rating Index (FRI) - into Korean language, and evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean versions of questionnaires to achieve a good cross-cultural adaptation. Methods : Forty (23 males, 17 females) subjects aged from 15 to 64 years old, participated to examine test-retest reliability. One hundred and eighty (76 males, 104 females) subjects with a primary diagnosis of non-specific neck pain and 81 healthy volunteers were undertaken to examine internal consistemcy, discriminative validity and longitudinal construct validity. Versions of each questionnaire in idiomatic modern Korean were developed using a procedure proposed by Beaton et al. (2000). To assess reliability, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC $_{(2,1)}$) was calculated. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Discriminative validity was examined with independent-group t-tests. Responsiveness was tested by calculating the effect size and standardized response mean for each questionnaire and using Pearson' s r and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results : Test-retest reliability ofthe translated versions of the three disability questionnaires was excellent (ICC $_{(2,1)$ = 0.86-0.90). High internal consistency was found in the three disability questionnaires (Cronbach's alpha ranged from ${\alpha}=0.88$ for the FRI to ${\alpha}=0.96$ for the NPDS and 0.82 for the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire(SFMPQ)). the VAS subscale of the SFMPQ was found to be the most responsive of the subscales (ES=1.44, SRM=1.37). The VAS was also the most responsive pain and disability index in internal responsiveness analysis, although disability indices showed marginally better responsiveness when compared with external standards. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Conclusions : It is concluded that the questionnaires were successfully translated and exhibit acceptable measurement properties, and may suggest that they are suitable for use in clinical and research application.

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Assessment of the Nature and Severity of Pain Using SF-MPQ for Cancer Patients at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat in 2015

  • Nabila, Rouahi;Zineb, OuazzaniTouhami;Hasna, Ahyayauch;Nisrin, El Mlili;A, Filali-Maltouf;Zakaria, Belkhadir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3997-4001
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer is a worldwide health problem and pain is among the most common and unpleasant effects affecting well-being of cancer patients. Accurate description of pain can help physicians to improve its management. Many English tools have been developed to assess pain. Onkly a limited number of these are applied in Arab countries. Our aim was to assess the quality, the nature and the severity of pain using the short McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) on cancer patients in the National Institute of Oncology (NIO) in Rabat, Morocco. Materials and Methods: The tool used is the SF-MPQ inspired from the Arabic version of the MPQ. The subjects were cancer patients (N=182) attending the NIO, from 24th October 2015 to 8th January 2016, aging ${\geq}18$ years old, experiencing pain and coming to have or to update their pain medication. Results: The rate of participation was 96.3%. Eight patients had difficulties to express their pain using descriptors, but could use the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the body diagram. The most frequent sensory descriptors were 'Throbbing', 'Shooting', 'Hot-Burning'. The most used affective descriptor was 'Tiring-Exhausting'. The mean VAS was 6.6 (2.4). The mean score of all items was 11.9 (7.8). The patients were suffering from severe pain. The internal consistency of the form was s acceptable. Conclusions: The findings indicate that most of the patients attending the pain center of the NIO could use the descriptors of the SF-MPQ to describe their pain. They indicate the usefulness of the SF-MPQ to assess the nature and the severity of pain in cancer patients. This tool should be tested in other Moroccan and Arabic contexts associated with other tools in clinical trials.

The Clinical Studies for the effects of MyoFascial Releasement on Patients with Nuchal Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents (교통사고로 유발된 경항통 환자의 근막이완술의 효과에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Jung, Won-Hee;Jung, Ji-Eun;Seo, Sang-Kyoung;Kang, Jun-Hyuk;Lee, Chang-Hee
    • The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine and Nerves
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of myofascial releasement on nuchal pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods : The 30 patients were divided into 2 groups : group A was treated except myofascial releasement and group B was treated with myofascial releasement. Both group were treated with acupuncture treatment, physical theraphy and herbal medication. Patients were evaluated by McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form(SF-MPQ), Visual Analogue Scale(VAS), Pain Disability Index(PDI) and Neck Disability Index(NDI). Results : 1. Both Group were significantly decreased in affective of SF-MPQ, VAS, after 10 times of treatment. 2. Group B compared with the Group A was significantly decreased in affective of SF-MPQ, NDI and PDI after 10 times of treatment. Conclusions : We found out that myofascial releasement is considered to be effective and useful on nuchal pain caused by traffic accidents.

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