• Title, Summary, Keyword: Maximum cover

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Evaluation of minimum depth of soil cover and reinforcement of soil cover above soil-steel bridge (지중강판 구조물의 최소토피고 평가 및 상부토피 보강 방안)

  • Jung, Hyun-Sik;Lee, Jong-Ku;Cho, Sung-Min;Kim, Myoung-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.425-432
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, the results of the numerical analysis for the minimum depth of soil cover have been compared with those of currently suggested codes. Based on this comparison, the minimum depth of soil cover for the structures with long spans was suggested. Results showed that the actual depth of the soil cover required against soil failure over a circular and low-profile arch structure does not vary significantly with the size of the span and for the circular structure, the minimum depth of the soil cover was about 1.5m, and for the low-profile arch structures, below about 1.6m. And the previously established code in which the minimum depth of soil cover is defined to linearly increase with the increase in the span (CHBDC, 2001) was very conservative. For the structure with the relieving slab, the maximum live load thrust was reduced by about 36 percent and the maximum moment about 81 percent. The numerical analysis gave more conservative estimation of the live-load thrusts than the other design methods.

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An Application of Canonical Correlation Analysis Technique to Land Cover Classification of LANDSAT Images

  • Lee, Jong-Hun;Park, Min-Ho;Kim, Yong-Il
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 1999
  • This research is an attempt to obtain more accurate land cover information from LANDSAT images. Canonical correlation analysis, which has not been widely used in the image classification community, was applied to the classification of a LANDSAT images. It was found that it is easy to select training areas on the classification using canonical correlation analysis in comparison with the maximum likelihood classifier of $ERDAS^{(R)}$ software. In other words, the selected positions of training areas hardly affect the classification results using canonical correlation analysis. when the same training areas are used, the mapping accuracy of the canonical correlation classification results compared with the ground truth data is not lower than that of the maximum likelihood classifier. The kappa analysis for the canonical correlation classifier and the maximum likelihood classifier showed that the two methods are alike in classification accuracy. However, the canonical correlation classifier has better points than the maximum likelihood classifier in classification characteristics. Therefore, the classification using canonical correlation analysis applied in this research is effective for the extraction of land cover information from LANDSAT images and will be able to be put to practical use.

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Integration of Multi-spectral Remote Sensing Images and GIS Thematic Data for Supervised Land Cover Classification

  • Jang Dong-Ho;Chung Chang-Jo F
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.315-327
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    • 2004
  • Nowadays, interests in land cover classification using not only multi-sensor images but also thematic GIS information are increasing. Often, although useful GIS information for the classification is available, the traditional MLE (maximum likelihood estimation techniques) does not allow us to use the information, due to the fact that it cannot handle the GIS data properly. This paper propose two extended MLE algorithms that can integrate both remote sensing images and GIS thematic data for land-cover classification. They include modified MLE and Bayesian predictive likelihood estimation technique (BPLE) techniques that can handle both categorical GIS thematic data and remote sensing images in an integrated manner. The proposed algorithms were evaluated through supervised land-cover classification with Landsat ETM+ images and an existing land-use map in the Gongju area, Korea. As a result, the proposed method showed considerable improvements in classification accuracy, when compared with other multi-spectral classification techniques. The integration of remote sensing images and the land-use map showed that overall accuracy indicated an improvement in classification accuracy of 10.8% when using MLE, and 9.6% for the BPLE. The case study also showed that the proposed algorithms enable the extraction of the area with land-cover change. In conclusion, land cover classification results produced through the integration of various GIS spatial data and multi-spectral images, will be useful to involve complementary data to make more accurate decisions.

Land Cover Classification over East Asian Region Using Recent MODIS NDVI Data (2006-2008) (최근 MODIS 식생지수 자료(2006-2008)를 이용한 동아시아 지역 지면피복 분류)

  • Kang, Jeon-Ho;Suh, Myoung-Seok;Kwak, Chong-Heum
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.415-426
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    • 2010
  • A Land cover map over East Asian region (Kongju national university Land Cover map: KLC) is classified by using support vector machine (SVM) and evaluated with ground truth data. The basic input data are the recent three years (2006-2008) of MODIS (MODerate Imaging Spectriradiometer) NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data. The spatial resolution and temporal frequency of MODIS NDVI are 1km and 16 days, respectively. To minimize the number of cloud contaminated pixels in the MODIS NDVI data, the maximum value composite is applied to the 16 days data. And correction of cloud contaminated pixels based on the spatiotemporal continuity assumption are applied to the monthly NDVI data. To reduce the dataset and improve the classification quality, 9 phenological data, such as, NDVI maximum, amplitude, average, and others, derived from the corrected monthly NDVI data. The 3 types of land cover maps (International Geosphere Biosphere Programme: IGBP, University of Maryland: UMd, and MODIS) were used to build up a "quasi" ground truth data set, which were composed of pixels where the three land cover maps classified as the same land cover type. The classification results show that the fractions of broadleaf trees and grasslands are greater, but those of the croplands and needleleaf trees are smaller compared to those of the IGBP or UMd. The validation results using in-situ observation database show that the percentages of pixels in agreement with the observations are 80%, 77%, 63%, 57% in MODIS, KLC, IGBP, UMd land cover data, respectively. The significant differences in land cover types among the MODIS, IGBP, UMd and KLC are mainly occurred at the southern China and Manchuria, where most of pixels are contaminated by cloud and snow during summer and winter, respectively. It shows that the quality of raw data is one of the most important factors in land cover classification.

Shape optimal design of a dust cover for ball joint of automotive steering system (조향장치용 볼 조인트 더스트 커버의 형상최적설계)

  • Lee, Boo-Youn;Kim, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2013
  • Finite element analysis is performed to evaluate stress and deformation of a wrinkle-type dust cover for the ball joints of tie rods of automotive steering system. Results of the analysis for assembly and operation condition show that sealing capability is good and the maximum stress on the body is smaller than the tensile strength. An optimal shape of the dust cover is obtained using the Taguchi method to reduce the maximum stress. The maximum stress of the optimal design under the operation condition is reduced by 22 per cent of that of the initial design. Results of the research show that performance evaluation and design of the dust covers can be effectively done using the proposed method.

Analysis of Strengthening Structures of Steel Manhole Cover (강재 맨홀뚜껑의 보강구조 해석)

  • Kim, Heung-Kyu;Yang, Young-Soo;Bae, Kang-Yul
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2014
  • Manhole cover, which is usually made of grey cast iron and consists of frame and cover, should have enough strength to support the heavy traffic load. The manhole cover made of cast iron has heavy weight to handle manually and is vulnerable to impact force with its brittle characteristics. Moreover, its production process of casting has been regulated in terms of environmental pollution. In this study, steel manhole cover is proposed to substitute the cast cover with a series of structural analyses to confirm its strength to support the test load for manhole cover. The cover of the proposed steel manhole cover is made of thin circular pate and stiffeners below the plate. Rectangular columns and hollow circular plate were selected for the shape of the stiffener. In order to give enough strength for the cover to behave within elastic range in the loading, strengthening structures of the cover were varied with increasing the number and the size of the stiffeners. The results of the analyses revealed that when both the hollow circular stiffener and cross stiffeners were additionally applied at the same time to the steel cover with longitudinal stiffeners, the maximum stress level in the cover could be reduced to that level presented in the cast cover.

Optimal dimension design of a hatch cover for lightening a bulk carrier

  • Um, Tae-Sub;Roh, Myung-Il
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.270-287
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    • 2015
  • According to the increase of the operating cost and material cost of a ship due to the change of international oil price, a demand for the lightening of the ship weight is being made from various parties such as shipping companies, ship owners, and shipyards. To satisfy such demand, many studies for a light ship are being made. As one of them, an optimal design method of an existing hull structure, that is, a method for lightening the ship weight based on the optimization technique was proposed in this study. For this, we selected a hatch cover of a bulk carrier as an optimization target and formulated an optimization problem in order to determine optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover for lightening the bulk carrier. Some dimensions representing the shape of the hatch cover were selected as design variables and some design considerations related to the maximum stress, maximum deflection, and geometry of the hatch cover were selected as constraints. In addition, the minimization of the weight of the hatch cover was selected as an objective function. To solve this optimization problem, we developed an optimization program based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) using C++ programming language. To evaluate the applicability of the developed program, it was applied to a problem for finding optimal principal dimensions of the hatch cover of a deadweight 180,000 ton bulk carrier. The result shows that the developed program can decrease the hatch cover's weight by about 8.5%. Thus, this study will be able to contribute to make energy saving and environment-friendly ship in shipyard.

Study on Deformation and Strength of Fillet Welds (Fillet Welding Joint의 파괴기구(破壞機構)와 강도(强度)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Dong-Suk,Um
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.27-40
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    • 1970
  • The distribution of stress and strain in elastic stages is investigated by the experiments of two dimensional photoelastic coating and Moire fringe method. Center block type and cover plate type of fillet welds are used as specimens in the test. The results are as follows. 1) Center block type gets less uniform stress distribution than cover plate type. And its stress concentration factor, especially at root, is larger than that at toe. 2) When main plate and cover plate closely contact and it cause friction, stress concentration decreases more than that in case of slit. That is because stress can be transmitted on the contact surface. 3) When slit is made, the outside of fillet gets more stress than the inside of it. 4) While the plastic strain distribution of center block type reaches the maximum at root and differs very slightly from that under lower loading, the plastic strain distribution of cover plate type is inclined to get the maximum at the outside of fillet rather than at root. 5) When the plastic strain value of cover plate type is compared with that of center block type at toe and root, the relations between the former and the latter shows root<toe and root>toe. 6) Because stress distribution becomes changed according to loading, fracture angle cannot be estimated by the peaks of elastic stress distribution. 7) The strain distribution just before fracture can be found by Moire fringe method.

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Land Cover Clustering of NDVI-drived Phenological Features

  • Kim, Dong-Keun;Suh, Myoung-Seok;Park, Kyoung-Yoon
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.201-206
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, we have considered the method for clustering land cover types over the East Asia from AVHRR data. The feature vectors such that maximum NDVI, amplitude of NDVI, mean NDVI, and NDVI threshold are extracted from the 10-day composite by maximum value composite(MVC) for reducing the effect of cloud contaninations. To find the land cover clusters given by the feature vectors, we are adapted the self-organizing feature map(SOFM) clustering which is the mapping of an input vector space of n-dimensions into a one - or two-dimensional grid of output layer. The approach is to find first the clusters by the first layer SOFM and then merge several clusters of the first layer to a large cluster by the second layer SOFM. In experiments, we were used the 8-km AVHRR data for two years(1992-1993) over the East Asia.

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Land cover classification based on the phonology of Korea using NOAA-AVHRR

  • Kim, Won-Joo;Nam, Ki-Deock;Park, Chong-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.439-442
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    • 1999
  • It is important to analyze the seasonal change profiles of land cover type in large scale for establishing preservation strategy and environmental monitoring. Because the NOAA-AVHRR data sets provide global data with high temporal resolution, it is suitable for the land cover classification of the large area. The objectives of this study were to classify land cover of Korea, to investigate the phenological profiles of land cover. The NOAA-AVHRR data from Jan. 1998 to Dec. 1998 were received by Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute(KORDI) and were used for this study. The NDVI data were produced from this data. And monthly maximum value composite data were made for reducing cloud effect and temporal classification. And the data were classified using the method of supervised classification. To label the land cover classes, they were classified again using generalized vegetation map and Landsat-TM classified image. And the profiles of each class was analyzed according to each month. Results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, it was verified that the use of vegetation map and TM classified map was available to obtain the temporal class labeling with NOAA-AVHRR. Second, phenological characteristics of plant communities of Korea using NOAA-AVHRR was identified. Third, NDVI of North Korea is lower on Summer than that of South Korea. And finally, Forest cover is higher than another cover types. Broadleaf forest is highest on may. Outline of covertype profiles was investigated.

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