• Title, Summary, Keyword: Markers

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Cancer stem cell surface markers on normal stem cells

  • Kim, Won-Tae;Ryu, Chun Jeih
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.285-298
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    • 2017
  • The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has captured the attention of many scientists. It is believed that elimination of CSCs could possibly eradicate the whole cancer. CSC surface markers provide molecular targeted therapies for various cancers, using therapeutic antibodies specific for the CSC surface markers. Various CSC surface markers have been identified and published. Interestingly, most of the markers used to identify CSCs are derived from surface markers present on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or adult stem cells. In this review, we classify the currently known 40 CSC surface markers into 3 different categories, in terms of their expression in hESCs, adult stem cells, and normal tissue cells. Approximately 73% of current CSC surface markers appear to be present on embryonic or adult stem cells, and they are rarely expressed on normal tissue cells. The remaining CSC surface markers are considerably expressed even in normal tissue cells, and some of them have been extensively validated as CSC surface markers by various research groups. We discuss the significance of the categorized CSC surface markers, and provide insight into why surface markers on hESCs are an attractive source to find novel surface markers on CSCs.

Race- and Isolate-specific Molecular Marker Development through Genome-Realignment Enables Detection of Korean Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates, Causal agents of Clubroot Disease

  • Jeong, Ji -Yun;Robin, Arif Hasan Khan;Natarajan, Sathishkumar;Laila, Rawnak;Kim, Hoy-Taek;Park, Jong-In;Nou, Ill-Sup
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.506-513
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    • 2018
  • Clubroot is one of the most economically important diseases of the Brassicaceae family. Clubroot disease is caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae, which is difficult to study because it is nonculturable in the laboratory and its races are genetically variable worldwide. In Korea, there are at least five races that belongs to four pathotype groups. A recent study conducted in Korea attempted to develop molecular markers based on ribosomal DNA polymorphism to detect P. brassicae isolates, but none of those markers was either race-specific or pathotype-specific. Our current study aimed to develop race- and isolate-specific markers by exploiting genomic sequence variations. A total of 119 markers were developed based on unique variation exists in genomic sequences of each of the races. Only 12 markers were able to detect P. brassicae strains of each isolate or race. Ycheon14 markers was specific to isolates of race 2, Yeoncheon and Hoengseong. Ycheon9 and Ycheon10 markers were specific to Yeoncheon isolate (race 2, pathotype 3), ZJ1-3, ZJ1-4 and ZJ1-5 markers were specific to Haenam2 (race 4) isolate, ZJ1-35, ZJ1-40, ZJ1-41 and ZJ1-49 markers were specific to Hoengseong isolate and ZJ1-56 and ZJ1-64 markers were specific to Pyeongchang isolate (race 4, pathotype 3). The PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers developed in this study are able to detect five Korean isolates of P. brassicae. These markers can be utilized in identifying four Korean P. brassicae isolates from different regions. Additional effort is required to develop race- and isolate-specific markers for the remaining Korean isolates.

A Corpus-based Analysis of EFL Learners' Use of Discourse Markers in Cross-cultural Communication

  • Min, Sujung
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.177-194
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    • 2011
  • This study examines the use of discourse markers in cross-cultural communication between EFL learners in an e-learning environment. The study analyzes the use of discourse markers in a corpus of an interactive web with a bulletin board system through which college students of English at Japanese and Korean universities interacted with each other discussing the topics of local and global issues. It compares the use of discourse markers in the learners' corpus to that of a native English speakers' corpus. The results indicate that discourse markers are useful interactional devices to structure and organize discourse. EFL learners are found to display more frequent use of referentially and cognitively functional discourse markers and a relatively rare use of other markers. Native speakers are found to use a wider variety of discourse markers for different functions. Suggestions are made for using computer corpora in understanding EFL learners' language difficulties and helping them become more interactionally competent speakers.

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Correlation Analysis of Organic Acid Comprehensive Profile Markers with Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Cancer Patients (항암제 유발 말초신경병증환자와 유기산검사 마커와의 상관성 연구)

  • Park, Ji Hye;Sung, Simon SangYup;Lee, Jin Sun;Yoo, Hwa Seung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.72-80
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the urinary organic acid comprehensive profile for chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Methods: Participants are 66 patients with CIPN who had symptom (Visual analog scale ${\geq}30mm$, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ${\leq}2$). Participants were tested with organic acid comprehensive profile markers. Results: Positive Correlation was observed in the neurotransmitter metabolism markers, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) modulators markers, detoxification markers, energy production markers, amino acid metabolism markers, and intestinal dysbiosis markers. Especially, all the neurotransmitter metabolism markers were showed positive rate of 44%. In addition, neuro-endo-immune was associated with energy metabolism (mitochondrial dysfunction) in CIPN of cancer patient. especially detoxification, intestinal bacterial hyperplasia, vitamin deficiency (folate, complex B group, vitamin C). Conclusions: Significant urinary organic acid comprehensive profile results were obtained in cancer patients who induced peripheral neuropathy by chemotherapy.

Linkage Map Construction and Molecular Genetic Approach in Capsicum spp.

  • Kim, Byung-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.367-373
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    • 2000
  • We have constructed a molecular linkage map of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) in an interspecific (C. annuum cv. TF68 x C. chinense cv. Habanero) F$_2$ population of 107 plants with 150 RFLP and 430 AFLP markers. The resulting linkage map consists of 11 large (206-60.3 cM) and 5 small (32.6- 10.3 cM) linkage groups cover-ing 1,320 cM with an average map distance between framework markers of 7.5 cM. Most (80%) of the RFLP markers were pepper-derived clones and these markers were evenly distributed across the genome. By using 30 primer combinations, 444 AFLP markers were generated in the F$_2$population. The majority of the AFLP markers clustered in each linkage group, although PstI/MseI markers were more evenly distributed than Eco RI/MseI markers within the linkage groups. Genes for biosynthesis of carotenoids and capsaicinoids were mapped on our linkage map. This map will provide the basis of studying secondary metabolites in pepper.

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An Association between Liver Markers and Physiological Variables: Comparison between Normal and Fatty Liver Subjects

  • Hyun, Kyung-Yae
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2011
  • We evaluated whether liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin have a relationship with other physiological factors in the normal (n=115) and fatty liver subjects (n=122) and there are differences between the two populations. Body indices were higher in the fatty liver group than in the normal group. Liver markers and blood pressure (BP) were greater in the fatty liver group than in the normal group. AST and ALT levels were positively correlated with body indices in the fatty liver group, but not in the normal group. AST, ALT and GGT levels in the fatty liver group had positive relationship with cardiovascular indices (CI). ALP and bilirubin levels were negatively associated with some of CI. Liver markers were negatively or positively correlated with inflammatory markers, thyroid hormones, or several biochemical markers levels. These findings suggest that abnormal changes in liver markers may be useful tool for diagnosis or prognosis of development of cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases as well as metabolic syndrome.

Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Polymorphism and Its Application in Mulberry Genome Analysis

  • Vijayan Kunjupillai
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2005
  • Molecular markers have increasingly been used in plant genetic analysis, due to their obvious advantages over conventional phenotypic markers, as they are highly polymorphic, more in number, stable across different developmental stages, neutral to selection and least influenced by environmental factors. Among the PCR based marker techniques, ISSR is one of the simplest and widely used techniques, which involves amplification of DNA segment present at an amplifiable distance in between two identical microsatellite repeat regions oriented in opposite direction. Though ISSR markers are dominant like RAPD, they are more stable and reproducible. Because of these properties ISSR markers have recently been found using extensively for finger printing, pohylogenetic analysis, population structure analysis, varietal/line identification, genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, etc. In mulberry (Morus spp.), ISSR markers were used for analyzing phylogenetic relationship among cultivated varieties, between tropical and temperate mulberry, for solving the vexed problem of identifying taxonomic positions of genotypes, for identifying markers associated with leaf yield attributing characters. As ISSR markers are one of the cheapest and easiest marker systems with high efficiency in generating polymorphism among closely related varieties, they would play a major role in mulberry genome analysis in the future.

Genetic Analysis of Polymorphic DNA Markers in Cucumber (오이 다형성 마커를 이용한 유전분석)

  • Lee, Sun-Young;Chung, Sang-Min
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.468-472
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    • 2011
  • DNA marker is a powerful tool for plant genetics and breeding. In this study, 995 SSR markers were employed with chilling resistant cucumber, known as 'NC76', and chilling susceptible cucumber, known as 'GY14'. Using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, 145 SSR markers were identified as length variation markers between 'NC76' and 'GY14'. The SSR markers that showed no length polymorphism were then screened using high resolution melting analysis technique and additional 30 polymorphic SSR markers were identified. As a preliminary evaluation for mapping, 20 markers among these 175 markers were employed to a $F_2$ population of 'NC76' x 'GY14' cross. Linkage analysis revealed 13 markers that joined into six linkage groups and seven markers that remained unlinked. This result indicates that these 175 markers could be used for construction of a genetic map using a cross between 'NC76' and 'GY14' for further investigation in developing markers related to resistance to chilling in cucumbers.

Development of Sequence-Based DNA Markers for Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships in Korean Watermelon Varieties

  • Lee, Hee-Jeong;Cho, Hwa-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Ah;Lee, Min-Seon;Shin, Yoon-Seob;Harn, Chee-Hark;Yang, Seung-Gyun;Nahm, Seok-Hyeon
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2007
  • Phylogenetic relationships in Korean watermelons were evaluated by genetic similarity coefficients using 15 SSR(simple sequence repeat), 14 SCAR(sequence characterized amplified region) and 14 CAPS(sequence characterized amplified region) markers. The SSR markers were selected from previously reported melon and watermelon SSRs through testing polymorphisms within a set of commercial $F_1$ varieties. The SCAR and CAPS markers were developed from polymorphic AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers between inbred lines 'BN4001' and 'BN4002'. From the AFLP analysis, 105 polymorphic fragments were identified between the inbred lines using 1,440 primer combinations of EcoRI+CNNN and XbaI+ANNN. Based on the sequencing data of these polymorphic fragments, we synthesized sequence specific primer pairs and detected clear and reliable polymorphisms in 27 primer pairs by indels(insertion/deletion) or RFLP(restriction fragment length polymorphism). A total of 43 sequence-based PCR markers were obtained and polymorphic information content(PIC) was analyzed to measure the informativeness of each marker in watermelon varieties. The average PIC value of SCAR markers was 0.41, which was similar to that of SSR markers. Genetic diversity was also estimated by using these markers to assess the phylogenetic relationships among commercial varieties of watermelon. These markers differentiated 26 Korean watermelon varieties into two major phylogenetic groups, but this grouping was not significantly correlated with their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mean genetic similarity was 66% within the complete set of 26 commercial varieties. In addition, these sequence-based PCR markers were reliable and useful to identify cultivars and genotypes of watermelon.

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Construction of Molecular Genetic Linkage Map Using RAPD Markes in Cowpea

  • Chung, Jong-Il;Shim, Jung-Hyun;Go, Mi-Suk
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.341-343
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    • 2001
  • Molecular markers have become fundamental tools for crop genome study. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map for cowpea with PCR-based molecular markers. Five hundred and twenty random RAPD primers were screened for parental polymorphism. Ninety RAPD markers from sixty primers was segregated in 75 F2 mapping population derived from the cross of local cultivars GSC01 and GSC02. 70 RAPD markers were found to be genetically linked and formed 11 linkage groups. Linkage map spanned 474.1 cM across all 11 linkage groups. There are six linkage groups of 40 cM or more, and five smaller linkage groups range from 4.9 to 24.8 cM. The average linkage distance between pairs of markers among all linkage groups was 6.87 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 2 to 32. The longest group 1 spans 190.6 cM, while the length of shortest group 11 is 4.9 cM. This map is further needed to be saturated with the various markers such as RFLP, AFLP, SSR and more various populations and primers. In addition, morphological markers and biochemical markers should be united to construct a comprehensive linkage map.

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