Based on the Double ABCX model of family stress and adaptation this study was to investi-gate the intercorrelations among and the relative magnitutide of variables associated with diffe-rent levels of adaptation to conflict with mothers-in-law reported by daughter-in-law. Frequency of conflict was selected as a stressor(aA) Resource factor(bB) in this study was self-efficacy. Four types of blame(self-behavior self-character other people and impersonal world blame) were selected as perception factors(cC). The adaptation factors(xX) were the level of daughter-in-law's psychological well-being and marital adjustment. Data for this research were questionnaire responses from 151 daughters-in-law who lived in Seoul. The results of correlational analyses indicated that most variables were significantly correlated with each other. In addition results of the path analysis on daughter-in-law's psychological well-being indicated that higher scores on the psychological well-being were significantly associa-ted with(a) greater self-behavior blame for the conflict and (b) less ascription of blame to the impersonal world. Frequency of conflict influenced psychological well-being indirectly th-rough self-behavior blame and impersonal blame both of which were also found to mediate the effect of self-efficacy on the level of psychological well-being. However although all indepen-dent variables were significantly correlated with marital adjustment no variables had direct effects on marital adjustment.
This study examined relationships between children's aggression and the variables such as individual, family, and school adjustment. For this study, individual variables included age, self-esteem, and game-addiction tendency. Family variables included mother's controlling parenting, child-abuse, parents' marital conflict. As for school adjustment, teacher relations, peer relations, classroom and rule adjustment in school were examined. The sample consisted of 642 children of the fifth and sixth grade in Busan. Statistics and methods used for data analysis included frequency, percentage, Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, two-way Anova, Pearson's correlation, and Hierarchical Regression. Several major results were found from the analysis: First, boys' aggression was higher than girls'. But no age difference was found in children's aggression. Second, game-addiction tendency had a positive correlation with children's aggression. In addition, self-esteem had a negative correlation with boys' aggression. Third, mother's controlling parenting had a positive correlation with children's aggression. Child abuse had a positive correlation with boys' aggression, and parents' marital conflict with girls' aggression. Fourth, teacher relations, peer relations, classroom and rule adjustment in school had a negative correlation with boys' aggression. In addition, rule adjustment in school had a negative correlation with girls' aggression. Fifth, game-addiction tendency, rule adjustment in school, self-esteem, mother's controlling parenting and teacher relations in school were important variables predicting boys' aggression. On the other hand, game-addiction tendency and rule adjustment in school were important variables predicting girls' aggression.
Reserarch on marital satisfaction adjustment or quality has been one of the most frequently studies area of the investigation in the family field. Yet there has been many problems with the theory and empirical work in this area especially in the area of definitional ambiguity problems of dimensionality level of analysis and problems of measurement. This article is a critical review of this work including both theoretical and empirical problems that typically have occured with the previous research Also a section on suggested modifications for future research in this area and a section of suggestion of new marital satisfaction measurement are included.
A Study of the Emotionality of Child and Mother The purpose of this study is primarily to understand the emotional climate of child and mother, which is a significant factor in child study and the home life. A sample was collected from a total of 1,592 of whom 796 are elementary school children with their mothers. Of these 796 children 440 are fom private schools, 190 from public schools in Seoul. The rest are taken from a farming area, 100 kilometers from Seoul. The data was basically obtained through answers to a questionaire distributed in September 1973. In this study, the cross-sectional method, percentage calculation and chi-square test are adapted from factor analysis. With this limited amount of data special attention now, the following conclusions can be drawn from this analysis although special attention should be given in making any kind of generalization about the entire population. 1) Children's emotionality (a) There is a higher percentage of emotionally well-adjusted children as opposed to maladjusted children.(51%>11%) (b) There is no correlation between children's emotionality and the following factors: grade, sex, residential area, school records, and educational level of their mothers. 2) Mother's Emotionality (a) There are more mothers who consider themselves happy than unhappy.(49%>2%) On the other hand a higher percentage of mothers reported feelings of tension and insecurity as compared to those who had feelings of firm security(65%>5%) (b) There is a high correlationshionship between marital adjustment and marital happiness. In other words, the more adjusted, the happier. A high marital happiness has strong influence on the preference of sex, on children's adjustment to their friends, and their present living condition. (c) There is a close relationship between a high marital adjustment and the social development of a child: being fond of fathers, homelife, and the acquaintance with many friends. In the same way, the positive emotionality of a mother in raising her children and their school records are also important. 3) Emotional relationship between a mother and her chid There is a close bond of love and respect between a mother and her child. Moreover, a high frequence of close and open-minded communication exist between them in a family. It is evident that the emotional climate of the mother has a strong and powerful influence on her child.
The purpose of this study is to make a preliminary investigation about the diagnostic process for marital preparation against future divorce which will be necessary for developing tools for the process. Delphi tests have been twice held among 23 professionals regarding the concept of marital diagnosis and the areas of marital preparation to be estimated including definitions of the marital preparation for marriage and the status in which marriage has been prepared, and the categorization of the preparation The result of the study is as follows : Firstly, the concept of marital preparation is comprehensive, for it does include various kinds of preparation necessary for adjustment to marital life except the preparation for wedding ceremony. Secondly, the status in which marriage has been prepared can be divided into individual preparation, a couple's relational preparation, and preparation for marital life. Thirdly, premarital preparation education or counselling will be provided for young persons who are not in status of marital preparation. The areas of marital preparation to be estimated are maturity, independence from parents, and good health in terms of individual preparation, and the depth of love, understanding each other, similarity, harmonization, supplementation, capacity of communication, self-control, and all that sort of thing in terms of relational preparation, sex, views about marriage, information about marital life, role division, giving birth to child and rearing, financial management, and understanding both families of husband and wife.
This study sought to explore factors affecting the adjustment of children living in shelters for battered women. Specifically, the impact of domestic violence on children's internal and external adjustment was examined using data from two samples: children who were exposed to marital violence and those who did not have violent experience. Likewise, this study identified the variables that distinguished the "resilient" children from the maladjusted group. The pathways by which protective factors considerably affected children's adjustment were also investigated. A total of 72 children in a women's shelter and their mothers and 76 children in nonviolent homes and their mothers were considered. ANOVA, logistic regression models, and path analysis were employed to process the data. Results revealed that children of battered women demonstrated a high frequency of aggressive and delinquent behaviors and had poor academic achievement and depressive mood compared to children coming from nonviolent homes. Likewise, children who were exposed to marital violence and were physically abused themselves were more likely show aggressive or delinquent behaviors compared to those who only witnessed marital violence. In addition, social support was found to be a protective factor in academic achievement. Predictors of delinquent behavior included the mother's education and income as well as the children's age and social support. Factors related to children's self-esteem included the social support and the mother's self-esteem. Moreover, woman battering has a direct effect on children's adjustment as well as indirect effect through children's academic achievement and self-esteem. Finally, woman battering indirectly affected children's academic achievement through the mother's depression or the child's social support. Based on these findings, practical implications of enhancing children's adjustment were discussed.
The concrete purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of applying S.Minuchin's structural family therapy theory to each clinical families so that it can solve efficiently the clinical problems Korean family. The test results are as follows: 1)The Results of Question I : Types of Korean family problems can be divide into six. Then the most frequent type of problem was marital problem. 2) The Results of Question II: Korean normal family showed rater difussed boundary and higher rate of wife dominant type than that of husband dominant type in aspect of boundary and power, and had low tendency toward alignment and neutral adjustment. 3)The Results of Quesion III; Amidst the clinical families, family structural traits of the families which have marital problems showed a clear boundary, the tendency toward alignment, and higher tate of husband dominant type than that of wife dominant type. And family structural traits of children problem family had the tendency of alignment and showed little wife-dominanted families in power. Finally, mother-in -law and daughter-in-law problemed family had several characters such as diffused boundary, the tendency of alignment and high adjustment. 4)The Results of Question IV : As a result of camparing problemed families with normal families in family structure, there was high adaptability of S.Minuchin's structural theory to the two family groups; the groups of marital problems and those of children problem.
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in psychological adjustment among university students according to their parents' divorce status and their parents' conflict. Specifically, students who have not-divorced parents were subdivided into two groups: those who have with a high degree of conflict and with a low degree of conflict. The results were as follows. First, the degree of the marital conflict from the divorced parents is higher than the one of the marital conflict from the parents not divorced. Second, the group who has the parents with a high level of marital conflict went through the highest difficulties among 3 groups at all variables without the parent-child relationship. Therefore, this study suggests that marital conflict is more closely related to psychological adjustment of children than parental divorce itself.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
The purpose of this study is to investigate the parental marital relationships and the parent-child relationships of child psychiatric parents and its control group. This study was carried out two questionnaire instruments ; The marital satisfaction inventory(MSI) and the dyadic adjustment scale(DAS). The subjects are parents of the child psychiatric patients. A matched control group and parents of child psychiatric parents in Seoul area which were collected from July 1987 to September 1987, and classified into five subgroups : 1 Psychiatric disorder 2) Neurotic disorder 3) Tic disorder 4) Autistic disorder 5) Mental retardation. The results are as following ; 1) M.S.I scale scores of parents of patients group are lower than that of control group. 2) D.A.S scale score of parents of patients group is significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.01). 3) The global distress scale(GDS) of the M.S.I. was most positively correlated with affective communication(AFC) and problem-sloving communication(PSC). 4) Female shoed more modern concept of role identification than male but tend to have heavier role assignment especially in child rearing practices which could be characterized by maternal domination. 5) Affective communication and sexual relationship between married couple and child rearing practices are influenced by their own family history of distress. 6) The marital global distress scale(GDS) score was highest in the parents of psychosis, the next in the parents of neurosis, autism, mental retardation, and tic disorder in descending order of severity. 7) The dyadic maladjustment score was highest in the parents of psychosis, the next in the parents of neurosis, tic, autism and mental retardation in descending order of severity. 8) Conflict in child rearing and parenting problems were particularly prominent in parents of the tic patients, and their marital relationship was not significantly disturbed. The above finding suggested that couple adjustment and marital dissatisfaction were closely related with child rearing problems and the children's disorder. So marital dissatisfaction and marital maladjustment seem to play a significant role in the genesis of psychosis and neurosis not much in autism and mental retardation.
This study was designed and carried out to describe the stress of the infertile women and identify its predictors. The subjects of this study, 131 infertile women, were in primary or secondary infertility. the were conveniently sampled out from the infertility clinics of K University Medical Center and C Hospital in Seoul. The data were collected by using the Infertility Stress Scale which consisted of 35 items with four dimensions(cognitive, affective, marital and social stress) from August to November 1994. The data were analyzed by using the pc-SAS program. The information was obtained of Mean, Standard Deviation, Frequencies, Percentile, t-test, ANOVA, Duncan's multiple comparison test and Multiple Regression. The results are as follows; 1. The Mean of the stress of the infertile women is 2.78. The Means of the stress in 4 dimensions are 3.81 in the cognitive dimension, 3.05 in the affective dimension, 2.06 in the marital adjustment dimension and 2.41 in the social adjustment dimension. 2. The predictors of the stress of the infertile women are their educational levels and subjective economic status. They explain 14.08% of total variance.
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