The purpose of this study was to survey the hospital staff's perception of hospice and death and thereby, suggest the ways to help them have a mature attitude towards and a better understanding of death through an effective education on hospice. For this purpose, this study was designed to provide some data useful for the hospital staff not experienced in facing the dying patients to handle the desperate situation skillfully and engage themselves more effectively in their hospice services. For this study, the researcher conducted a questionnaire survey for the staff of 'C' hospital in Seoul about their hospice philosophy, attitudes towards hospice and perception of death for the period from February, 2006 to March, 2006. A total of 751 subjects responded effectively to the survey. The data collected were analyzed using the SF55 11.0 for ANOVA and T-test in order to test the relationships among subjects' perception of death, their demographic variables, their health condition, their hospice philosophy formed from their experiences of patients' death and hospice services and their attitudes towards hospice. Besides, the correlations among their hospice philosophy, perception of death and attitudes towards hospice were tested. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; First, as a result of testing the relationships among subjects' experiences of health consulting. their experiences of patients' death and hospice and their hospice philosophy, it was confirmed that their experiences of health and death consulting and their experiences of having been educated were relevant. Second, it was found that such variables as health condition, death, experience of hospice and attitude towards hospice were not significantly correlated with each other. Third, as a consequence of testing the relationships among health condition, death, experience of hospice and perception of death, it was disclosed that only the physical health condition was significant. Fourth, it was confirmed that subjects' hospice philosophy, perception of death and attitudes towards hospice were at the usual level on average. Fifth, hospice philosophy, perception of death and attitudes towards hospice were found correlated significantly with each other. Sixth, as a result of the stepwise variable adjustment for such variables as hospice philosophy, perception of death, attitudes towards hospice, it was found that the adjusted r-square value was 0.347 when departments, experience of having been requested by dying patient for consulting, experience of having been educated on hospice, religion and marital status were set as independent variables. And the estimated value of each variable was found significant. Seventh, as a consequence of conducting the multiple regression analysis by setting 'religion' as significant independent variable, it was found that the estimated value of physical health condition was not significant statistically. This, as a result of the simple regression analysis for 'religion' only, its explanatory power was found .197, while its adjusted r-square value was 0.20. Eight, it was found that subjects' attitude towards hospice was significantly correlated with such variables of experience of patient's or relative's death, experience of having been requested for consulting about death, gender, marital status and departments. As a result of the multiple regression analysis and the subsequent stepwise adjustment for this variable, it was found that only 'experience of having been requested for consulting' had some explanatory power: its adjusted r-square value was 0.089. As discussed above, this study tested the correlations among various variables including hospital staff's attitude towards hospice and perception of death and thereby, provided for the data useful for their education on hospice. This study may be significant in that it proved that it would be essential to educate hospital staff on hospice for more effective care of hospice patients and their family members at hospital.
These days social and economical changes have influence on the structure of family and the role of family members. Working mothers and widowers with children are increasing because of economical difficulties. Support from relatives are decreasing because of the conspicuous trend toward nuclear families. According to these reasons androgynous fathers are required. Today's fathers in Korea socially and culturally have learned about traditional parenting, but they are changing their fathering styles to meet the demands of the times. However they don't have their own fathering models. Therefore nurses who hold an advantageous position to teach and support from clinic have to encourage them to care their infants. The purposes of this study were to define father's care giving in infancy, understand influencing factors on fathering, and the differences between fathering and mothering, then contribute to nursing implementation for supporting fathers. This study was designed to review references about father's care giving. The results were follows: Six aspects of parent participation were direct care. indirect care, play, decision-making concerning the child, amount of time of sole responsibility for the child and overall availability to the child. Direct care involved feeding, bathing, going to child if child awakens. dressing, putting child to bed, taking child to doctor, nurse, or dentist, transporting child to and from sitter, day care, or school, washing child's hair. Indirect care involved cleaning up after child, preparing child's food, fixing child's broken playthings, washing child's clothes, arranging baby-sitting, shopping for child's toys and clothes, transporting baby-sitter to and from your home. Young fathers were gradually participating in direct care like feeding, taking child to doctor. Father's care giving stimulated mothering and promoted parent-infant relationship. Influencing factors of fathering would be divided into father characteristics, surrounding factors, infant attributes. Father characteristics were age, role perception, relationship with parent. Surrounding factors were the opportunity of early contact, support system, spouse's expectation, marital adjustment, feeding type, past experience of care giving. Infant attributes were temperament, behavior, age, sex. The differences between fathering and mothering were reviewed. Fathers were poor at care giving. but their caring was similar to mother's. This subtle difference positively worked upon infant's growth and development. On the basis of these theoretical data, nurses can empower fathers to cooperate with mothers in caring infants.
Total fertility rate (TFR) increased from the lowest 1.08 in 2005 to 1.13 in 2006, and a debate is made whether the increase is temporary or continuous as a result of various pro-natal policies. This study intends to explore policy implications revealed in recent fertility change using vital statistics. For this purpose, tempo-adjusted fertility rate by birth order, fertility rate by age of mother and birth order, age-specific fertility for married, and age-specific divorce rate for married are analyzed. The increase of TFR and births for 2006 is largely due to increase of first births at early thirties with slowdown of delayed first marriage and first child birth. The increase of female population (the third wave effect of baby boom) and first marriages of late twenties in 2006 and 2007 would lead to increase of fertility during 2007-2008. But further increase is uncertain because of the decrease trend of marital fertility and increase trend of never-married for twenties. TFRs for first and second births reduced rapidly, while TFRs for third and above births showed no changes, and second births were largely affected by tempo adjustment of fertility. Thus, constructing social environment for first and second births is more effective and necessary than encouraging third births. In addition, social responsibility of child care, child-women health issues due to delayed births, and the need for multi-cultural family support system are discussed.
Park Seon-Joo;Abn Younjhin;Min Hae Sook;Oh Kyoung Soo;Park Chan;Cho Nam Han;Kim Kuchan
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
This study was conducted to investigate osteopenia and osteoporosis prevalence of radius and tibia using Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) and to identify affecting factors of osteoporosis. A total of 4,340 women aged 40 - 69 years, living in Ansung (rural) and Ansan (mid-sized) area, and free of illnesses affecting bone metabolism participated in the community-based cohort study. Among them 4,059 subjects measured radius bone density and 4,089 measured tibia. The T-score threshold, defined as < -1.0 and $\le$-2.5, was used to identify subjects with osteopenia and osteoporosis by WHO criteria. The crude prevalence of osteoporosis in radius and tibia was $8.4\%$ and $23.3\%$ respectively; after adjustment for age, it changed $6.3\%$ and $18.8\%$. In simple logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased by aging, non-marital status, low education, low income. Otherwise, high intakes of Ca/P, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and vitamin E were decreased osteoporosis prevalence. Compared to the normal BMI (body mass index) group 08.5 $\le$ BMI < 23), the odds ratio (ORs) of the low BMI group (BMI < 18.5), and high BMI groups (BMl25-30, BMI $\ge$ 30) were significantly increased. The OR of osteoporosis decreased across increasing quartiles of intakes of Ca, P and Ca/P. Therefore, maintaining normal BMI and increasing Ca intake and Ca/P ratio may have a beneficial effect on bone health of Korean women.
This research aims to integrate study results through a meta-analysis of previous studies on the variables related with social support for female marriage immigrants. Based on the results, this study established the foundation of an integrated social support system for female marriage immigrants which considers both the functional perspective and structural perspective of social support, and suggested plans for an efficient support system. All social support was positively associated with female marriage immigrants marriage life, child-rearing behavior and attitude, reduction of stress and depression and psychological stability. In relation to the effect size of each variable related with all social support, the marriage variable had the biggest relationship with it, followed by the parenting variable, the psychological variable and the stress variable in that order. With reference to the relationship with related variables according to the sub-domain of social support, from the structural perspective, spousale support showed a high relationship with the marriage variable and the stress variable. It was also especially, very highly related with the marriage variable. In addition, a married woman's family support and expert support had an intermediate relationship with the marriage variable, and the husband's family support and friend support had a low relationship with it. From the functional perspective, material support had a very high relationship with the marriage variable, whereas it had a low relationship with the stress variable and the psychological variable. Emotional support was also highly related with marriage variable, but showed an intermediate or low relationship with the psychological variable and the stress variable. On the other hand, informational support displayed an intermediate relationship with the stress variable and the psychological variable, and a high relationship with the marriage variable. Lastly, evaluative support had a high relationship with the marriage variable and the psychological variable. Based on these results, this study proposed plans for an integrated social support system as follows. First, education ought to be provided for the spouses, and support for marital adjustment should be offered. Second, there plans should be made for continuous bonding with the family of origin, and support should be given to address changes in awareness of the relationship with the husband's parents. Third, it is required to revitalize the local community and self-help groups, and provide the female marriage immigrants with opportunities to participate in social activities.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Results: Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Conclusions: Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast cancer.
Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
Korean youth spend tremendous time in school for preparing for college admissions. Their academic achievement and overall satisfaction with their lives are affected by how well they adapt to life in school. Successful adaptation to school is important enough to affect a student's future social life. One of the factors that affect adaptation to school is the psychological condition of adolescent anxiety. Anxiety is one of the common mental disorders that appear in people who are not familiar with new environments. Anxiety is known to be related to behavioral problems, and problems with psychological and emotional adaptation. This condition is dramatically increased in adolescents.Parental conflict in particular is known to be a major factor in affecting youth anxiety. As parental conflict became more severe, children felt more negative emotions such as anger, sadness and worry. Moreover, when a child's issue caused the parental conflict, there were more side effects in the emotional condition of the child. This study shows how parental conflict affects a child's anxiety and a child's school life.This problem is analyzed through structural equation modeling.
The purpose of this study was to develop a program for couples in early stage of marriage for enhancing family resilience based on the concept of 'Family Resilience' by Walsh. Based on the literature review of couples in early stage of marriage, marital enrichment, and Family Resilience, a program focused on belief system, organizational pattern, and communication process was designed and implemented. The program was applied to seven couples in early stage of marriage for four (3hours/session/week) sessions. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to compare the pre and post effects of the program. By operating a focus group composed of the program participants, a qualitative analysis of the participant's evaluation was performed. The pre and post comparative analysis showed a significant enhancement in belief system, organizational pattern, communication process, and dyadic adjustment. The results of the qualitative study in the focus group also reinforced the effectiveness of the program. The evaluation showed that the 3 hour/ 4 session program was appropriate in terms program format. The significances of this study are the concretion of the concept of Family Resilience and providing practice tools for the daily practitioner.
Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
Face-to-face interviews were carried out to investigate the relationship between social networks and hypertension in 958 rural residents(males=440, females=518) aged 60-64 of a community-dwelling sample of Dalsung County from April to September in 1996. Eight elements of social network were measured : marital status, regular religious attendance, membership in groups, number of friends, relatives, siblings, children, grandchildren. Hypertensives were defined as meeting at least one of following criteria : hypertension history, systolic blood pressure more than 160 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure more than 95 mmHg. In univariate logistic regression for males, having 1-4 friends vs. none showed odds ratio 0.43 (95% Confidence interval CI 0.19-0.96) and having 2-3, 4 and more than 5 children had reduced prevalence of hypertension with odds ratios 0.21 (95% CI 0.06-0.72), 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.49), 0.24 (95% CI 0.07-0.82), respectively when compared with persons without children. In females, there was no elements of social network statistically significant. Having 5-9 grandchildren vs. none showed a marginally significant odds ratio 0.42. In multivariate logistic regression models for males with adjustment for age, education, body mass index, smoking and drinking, number of friends and children showed increased odds ratios and number of close relatives gained a statistically significant odds ratios (0.44-0.50). In females, the adjustment yielded little changes of odds ratios except number of grandchildren which gained a statistically significance. These results suggest that only a certain elements of social network may be associated with reduced risk of hypertension and they may be different between genders in rural resident aged 60-64.
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