• Title, Summary, Keyword: Marine sediment

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Long-term Changes of Bathymetry and Surface Sediments in the dammed Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea, and Their Depositional Implication (영산강 하구의 수심 및 표층 퇴적물 특성의 변화와 퇴적환경)

  • KIM, YOUNG-GIL;CHANG, JIN HO
    • The Sea
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.88-102
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    • 2017
  • Long-term changes in bathymetry and grain size of surface sediments were investigated for understanding depositional sedimentary environments in the channelized Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. The results revealed that an average depth of the estuary had decreased up to 2.1 m from 1982 to 2006, while it had increased to 0.3 m from 2006 to 2012. The rapid decrease of the water depth from 1982 to 2006 was due to the vast deposition of mud caused by the change of water course and flow velocity after the estuary was dammed. Meanwhile the increase of the water depth from 2006 to 2012 may be associated with multiple erosional processes, including a dredging at the southern part of the estuary and other erosions from the dike sluice expansion work. Considering the water-depth change and tidal-level variation in the study area, an depositional rate in the estuary is estimated to be 8~9 cm/yr for the last 2 decades (1982~2006). The sediments of Yeongsan River Estuary are largely composed of silt-clay mixtures: overall, silt is distributed mainly in the shallow area of the estuary edge, while clay is confined to the deep area of the estuary center. Mean grain size of the sediments is 6.0 Ø on average in 1997, 7.8 Ø on average in 2005 and 7.7 Ø on average in 2012, respectively, suggesting that the sediments became finer due to the increase of silt and clay contents in 1997~2005. Furthermore, several lines of evidences, including the comparison between the amounts of the sediment influx discharged from the Yeongsan River and the sediments in the estuary, and the changes in distribution pattern of silt and clay contents implying that they moved from offshore to estuary dike, indicate that the mud sediments are originated mainly from the offshore, not from the river.

Characterization of a Psychrophilic Metagenome Esterase EM2L8 and Production of a Chiral Intermediate for Hyperlipemia Drug (메타게놈유래의 저온성 에스터라제 EM2L8의 효소적 특성과 이를 활용한 고지혈증 치료제 키랄소재의 생산)

  • Jung, Ji-Hye;Choi, Yun-Hee;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Kwoun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2009
  • Esterase EM2L8 gene isolated from deep sea sediment was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the esterase activity of the cell-free extract was assayed using p-nitrophenyl butyrate-spectrophotometric method. Its optimum temperature was $40-45^{\circ}C$ and 45% activity of the maximum activity was retained at $15^{\circ}C$. The activation energy at $15-45^{\circ}C$ was calculated to be 4.9 kcal/mol showing that esterase EM2L8 was a typical cold-adapted enzyme. Enzyme activity was maintained for 6 h and 4 weeks at $30^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively. When each ethanol, methanol, and acetone was added to the reaction mixture to 15% concentration, enzyme activity was maintained. In the case of DMSO, enzyme activity was kept up to 40% concentration. (S)-4-Chloro-3-hydroxy butyric acid is a chiral intermediate for the synthesis of Atorvastatin, a hyperlipemia drug. When esterase EM2L8 (40 U) was added to buffer solution (1.2 mL, pH 9.0) containing ethyl-(R,S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (38 mM), it was hydrolyzed into 4-chloro-3-hydroxy butyric acid with a rate of $6.8\;{\mu}mole/h$. The enzyme hydrolyzed (S)-substrate more rapidly than (R)-substrate. When conversion yield was 80%, e.e.s value was 40%. When DMSO was added, hydrolysis rate increased to $10.4\;{\mu}mole/h$. The plots of conversion yield vs e.e.s in the presence or absence of DMSO were almost same, implying that the reaction enantioselectivity was not changed by the addition of DMSO. Taken together, esterase EM2L8 had high activity and stability at low temperatures as well as in various organic solvents/aqueous solutions. These properties suggested that it could be used as a biocatalyst in the synthesis of useful pharmaceuticals.

Tectonic Structures and Hydrocarbon Potential in the Central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica (남극 브랜스필드 해협 중앙분지의 지체구조 및 석유부존 가능성)

  • Huh Sik;Kim Yeadong;Cheong Dae-Kyo;Jin Young Keun;Nam Sang Heon
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.5 no.1_2
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1997
  • The study area is located in the Central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica. To analyze the morphology of seafloor, structure of basement, and seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary layers, we have acquired, processed, and interpreted the multi-channel seismic data. The northwest-southeastern back-arc extension dramatically changes seafloor morphology, volcanic and fault distribution, and basin structure along the spreading ridges. The northern continental shelf shows a narrow, steep topography. In contrast, the continental shelf or slope in the south, which is connected to the Antarctic Peninsula, has a gentle gradient. Volcanic activities resulted in the formation of large volcanos and basement highs near the spreading center, and small-scale volcanic diapirs on the shelf. A very long, continuous normal fault characterizes the northern shelf, whereas several basinward synthetic faults probably detach into the master fault in the south. Four transfer faults, the northwest-southeastern deep-parallel structures, controlled the complex distributions of the volcanos, normal faults, depocenters, and possibly hydrocarbon provinces in the study area. They have also deformed the basement structure and depositional pattern. Even though the Bransfield Basin was believed to be formed in the Late Cenozoic (about 4 Ma), the hydrocarbon potential may be very high due to thick sediment accumulation, high organic contents, high heat flow resulted from the active tectonics, and adequate traps.

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Ecology of the Macrozoobenthos in Chinhae Bay, Korea 2. Distribution Pattern of the Major Dominant Species (진해만 저서동물의 군집생태 2. 우점종의 분포)

  • LIM Hyun-Sig;HONG Jae-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.161-174
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    • 1997
  • A study on the distribution of the major domiant species of macrobenthos was carried out in Chinhae Bay from lune 1987 to May 1990. The 13 dominant species, based on the number of individuals and frequency, occupied more than $70\%$ of the total individuals. Of these species, 11 species represented polychaetes $(85\%)$ and 2 species molluscs $(15\%)$. The dominant species included Lumbrineris longifolia, Paraprionospio pinnata and Theora fragilis, with a density of $173.3({\pm}55.4),\;169.3({\pm}257.8)\;and\;81.8({\pm}93.3)\;ind./m^2$, respectively. In terms of biomass these dominant species occupied move than $75\%$ of the total biomass of the macrobenthos. These were composed of 6 species of polychaetes, 7 of molluscs and one echinoderm. The biomass of Macoma tokyoensis, Periglypta cf. puerpera and Paraprionospio pinnata were predominant (more than $45\%$ of the total biomass), and their biomass were $14.69({\pm}30.17),\;8.71({\pm}29.40),\;4.17({\pm}11.93)g/m^2$, respectively. In terms of density, distribution patterns of Lumbrineris iongifolia, Paraprionospio pinnata, Aricidea jeffreysii, Magelona japonica, Sigambra tentaculata, Raetellops pulchella, Glycinde gurjanovae were discussed. In the inner area of the bay with high organic content, Lumbrineris longifolia, Paraprionospio pinnata, Aricides jeffreysii, Sigambra tentaculata, Raetellops pulchella were pvedominant, whereas in the mouth of the bay with low organic content, Magelona japonica, Glycinde gurjanovae, Sternaspis scutata, Theora fragilis were dominant. Lumbrineris longifolia was widly distributed throughout the bay. However, Paraprionospio pinnata, Aricidea jeffreysii and Sigambra tentaculata had high density particularly in the central pan of the bay where there was high organic content in surface sediment, and these species possibly can be used as the potential pollution indicating species.

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Ecology of the Macrozoobenthos in Chinhae Bay, Korea 3. Community Structure (진해만 저서동물의 군집생태 3. 군집구조)

  • LIM Hyun-Sig;HONG Jae-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.175-187
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    • 1997
  • Benthic community structure was studied in Chinhae Bay during 3 years from June 1987 to May 1990, based on the samples from 12 stations on the seasonal, bimonthly or monthly basis (lim and Hong, 1994a, b). A total of 287 species was sampled with mean density of $1045.5\;ind./m^2$ and biomass of $98.48g/m^2$ during studyperiods. Of these species, there were 91 species of crustaceans $(31.7\%)$, 88 of polychaetes $(30.7\%)$, 56 of molluscs $(19.5\%)$, 22 of echinoderms and 30 of the micellaneous species. Polychaetes were density-dominant faunal group with a density of $824.7\;ind./m^2$, comprising of $18.6\%$ of the total density of the benthic animals. It was followed by molluscs with $14.62\;ind./m^2$ $($14.4\%\;of\;the\;total\;density)$ crustaceans with $50.5\;ind/m^2\;(4.6\%)$ and echinoderms with $13.4\;ind/m^2\;(4.6\%)$. Molluscs were the biomass-dominant faunal group with a mean biomass of $54.62\;g/m^2$. It was followed by polychaetes with $21.74\;g/m^2$ and echinoderms with $6.66\;g/m^2$. Based on community analysis, species richness, diversity and evenness showed decreasing trends toward the inner bay from outer stations, whereas dominance showed increasing. The three most dominant species Lumbrineris longifolia, Paraprionospio pinnata and Theora fragilis had densities over $40\%$ of the total density of benthic organisms in Chinhae Bay. Seasonal changes of benthic communities in the inner bay were high compared to those of the outer bay. It was mainly due to the occurrence of hypoxic condition in the inner area of the bay. Cluster analysis showed that the benthic community could be divided into four stational groups, that is, Group 1, the innermost area, which received the most heavy anthropogenic effects including seawage and waste water, Group II, the central area of the bay, Group III, the transitional area, Group IV, the mouth pan of the bay exposed to the open sea. The areal groups based on the environmental factors coincided with the zonal groups from the species composition. This fact suggests that the overall spatial distribution of macrobenthos in Chinhae Bay was controlled by the sediment organic carbon content of the bay.

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Architecture and Depositional Style of Gravelly, Deep-Sea Channels: Lago Sofia Conglomerate, Southeyn Chile (칠레 남부 라고 소피아 (Lago Sofla) 심해저 하도 역암의 층구조와 퇴적 스타일)

  • Choe Moon Young;Jo Hyung Rae;Sohn Young Kwan;Kim Yeadong
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.10 no.1_2
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    • pp.23-33
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    • 2004
  • The Lago Sofia conglomerate in southern Chile is a lenticular unit encased within mudstone-dominated, deep-sea successions (Cerro Toro Formation, upper Cretaceous), extending from north to south for more than $120{\cal}km$. The Lago Sofia conglomerate is a unique example of long, gravelly deep-sea channels, which are rare in the modern environments. In the northern part (areas of Lago Pehoe and Laguna Goic), the conglomerate unit consists of 3-5 conglomerate bodies intervened by mudstone sequences. Paleocurrent data from these bodies indicate sediment transport to the east, south, and southeart. The conglomerate bodies in the northern Part are interpreted as the tributary channels that drained down the Paleoslope and converged to form N-S-trending trunk channels. In the southern part (Lago Sofia section), the conglomerate unit comprises a thick (> 300 m) conglomerate body, which probably formed in axial trunk channels of the N-5-trending foredeep trough. The well-exposed Lago Sofia section allowed for detailed investigation of sedimentary facies and large-scale architecture of the deepsea channel conglomerate. The conglomerate in Lago Sofia section comprises stratified conglomerate, massive-to-graded conglomerate, and diamictite, which represent bedload deposition under turbidity currents, deposition by high-density turbidity currents, and muddy debris flows, respectively. Paleocurrent data suggest that the debris flows originated from the failure of nearby channel banks or slopes flanking the channel system, whereas the turbidity currents flowed parallel to the orientation of the overall channel system. Architectural elements produced by turbidity currents represent vertical stacking of gravel sheets, lateral accretion of gravel bars, migration of gravel dunes, and filling of channel thalwegs and scoured hollows, similar to those in terrestrial gravel-bed braided rivers. Observations of large-scale stratal pattern reveal that the channel bodies are offset stacked toward the east, suggestive of an eastward migration of the axial trunk channel. The eastward channel migration is probably due to tectonic tilting related to the uplift of the Andean protocordillera just west of the Lago Sofia deep-sea channel system.

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Sedimentary Facies and Evolution of the Cretaceous Deep-Sea Channel System in Magallanes Basin, Southern Chile (마젤란 분지의 백악기 심해저 하도 퇴적계의 퇴적상 및 진화)

  • Choe, Moon-Young;Sohn, Young-Kwan;Jo, Hyung-Rae;Kim, Yea-Dong
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.385-400
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    • 2004
  • The Lago Sofia Conglomerate encased in the 2km thick hemipelagic mudstones and thinbedded turbidites of the Cretaceous Cerro Toro Formation, southern Chile, is a deposit of a gigantic submarine channel developed along a foredeep trough. It is hundreds of meters thick kilometers wide, and extends for more than 120km from north to south, representing one of the largest ancient submarine channels in the world. The channel deposits consist of four major facies, including stratified conglomerates (Facies A), massive or graded conglomerates (Facies B), normally graded conglomerates with intraformational megaclasts (Facies C), and thick-bedded massive sandstones (Facies D). Conglomerates of Facies A and B show laterally inclined stratification, foreset stratification, and hollow-fill structures, reminiscent of terrestrial fluvial deposits and are suggestive of highly competent gravelly turbidity currents. Facies C conglomerates are interpreted as deposits of composite or multiphase debris flows associated with preceding hyperconcentrated flows. Facies D sandstones indicate rapidly dissipating, sand-rich turbidity currents. The Lago Sofia Conglomerate occurs as isolated channel-fill bodies in the northern part of the study area, generally less than 100m thick, composed mainly of Facies C conglomerates and intercalated between much thicker fine-grained deposits. Paleocurrent data indicate sediment transport to the east and southeast. They are interpreted to represent tributaries of a larger submarine channel system, which joined to form a trunk channel to the south. The conglomerate in the southern part is more than 300 m thick, composed of subequal proportions of Facies A, B, and C conglomerates, and overlain by hundreds of m-thick turbidite sandstones (Facies D) with scarce intervening fine-grained deposits. It is interpreted as vertically stacked and interconnected channel bodies formed by a trunk channel confined along the axis of the foredeep trough. The channel bodies in the southern part are classified into 5 architectural elements on the basis of large-scale bed geometry and sedimentary facies: (1) stacked sheets, indicative of bedload deposition by turbidity currents and typical of broad gravel bars in terrestrial gravelly braided rivers, (2) laterally-inclined strata, suggestive of lateral accretion with respect to paleocurrent direction and related to spiral flows in curved channel segments around bars, (3) foreset strata, interpreted as the deposits of targe gravel dunes that have migrated downstream under quasi-steady turbidity currents, (4) hollow fills, which are filling thalwegs, minor channels, and local scours, and (5) mass-flow deposits of Facies C. The stacked sheets, laterally inclined strata, and hollow fills are laterally transitional to one another, reflecting juxtaposed geomorphic units of deep-sea channel systems. It is noticeable that the channel bodies in the southern part are of feet stacked toward the east, indicating eastward migration of the channel thalwegs. The laterally inclined strata also dip dominantly to the east. These features suggest that the trunk channel of the Lago Sofia submarine channel system gradually migrated eastward. The eastward channel migration is Interpreted to be due to tectonic forcing imposed by the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath the Andean Cordillera just to the west of the Lago Sofia submarine channel.

Geochemical Characteristics of the Hydrocarbons from the Block 6-1, Ulleung Basin (울릉 분지 6-1 광구에서 발견된 탄화수소의 지화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Young-Joo;Cheong, Tae-Jin;Oh, Jae-Ho;Park, Se-Jin;Yi, Song-Suk
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Seventeen exploratory wells have been drilled in the Block VI-1 of offshore Korea, which is located in the southern part or the Ulleung Basin. Gas show has been recognized from most of the wells, and gas and condensate have been accompanied in some wells. Commercial discovery of gas, accompanied by condensate, has been made from Gorae V well. The reservoir gases or the Dolgorae III, Gorae I, and Gorae V wells in the Ulleung Basin mainly consists of hydrocarbon gases (>93%). These gases are thermogenic wet gases which contain more than 96% of the methane and result from the cracking of petroleum or kerogen. Based on the chemistry and composition of the gases and stable isotope data, they seem to be generated from different source rocks. The condensates from the Gorae I and V wells are mostly generated from terrestrial organic matter. Lacustrine organic matter may not play an important role for the generation of these condensates. The condensates from the Gorae V wells consist predominantly of terrestrial organic matter but with minor subsidiary input from marine organic matter. The condensates from Gorse I and V wells may be generated from different source rocks. The thermal maturity level of the condensates from the Gorae V well ranges from early to middle oil generation zone and condensate from Gorae I reaches middle oil window. Correlation or the thermal maturation level of the condensates and organic matter in the sediments reveals that a depth of the generation of liquid hydrocarbons can be inferred to 3,000 m and 3,900 m for the Gorae V and I wells, respectively. Gorae V well, however, did not reach the target depth and the geochemical data of the Gorae I well were obscured due to the severe sediment caving in.

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The Community Structure of Macrozoobenthos and Its Spatial Distribution in the Subtidal Region off the Namhaedo Island, South Coast of Korea (남해도 주변 조하대 해역의 대형저서동물 분포)

  • LIM, HYUN-SIG;CHOI, JIN-WOO;CHOI, SANG-DUK
    • The Sea
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 2016
  • An ecological study on subtidal macrobenthic fauna was conducted off the Namhaedo Island, south coast of Korea from July 2012 to April 2013. A total of 247 species of macrobenthos occurred with a mean density of $1,027ind./m^2$ and a mean biomass of $148.7g/m^2$. Polychaetes was the richest and most abundant faunal group that comprised 37% in both total species number and density whereas echinoderms were biomass-dominant faunal group that accounted for 44% of the mean biomass. There was a seasonal variation in the species richness and abundance of macrobenthos with more species in winter and higher density in spring. Mean faunal density was relatively high at the stations near Namhaedo Island, but gradually decreased toward offshore stations. The most dominant species in terms of density was an amphipod species, Eriopisella sechellensis which occurred as a top ranker during three seasons except spring recorded the fourth rank. E. sechellensis showed its high density at the near shore stations of Namhaedo Island, but this species did not occur around the entrance of Gwangyang and Saryang Bays where Theora fragilis and Lumbrineris longifolia showed high densities. In particular, Tharyx sp., recorded high density between Gwangyang Bay entrance and offshore after Sea Prince oil spill, did not occur in the same area during this study period. The bottom temperature and sorting value of the surface sediments were highly correlated to the spatial distribution of macrobenthic fauna from the Bio-Env analysis. From the cluster analysis, the study area has five station groups with more similar faunal affinities from inner area toward offshore area. Based on the SIMPER analysis T. fragilis, Magelona japonica, E. sechellensis, L. longifolia and Paraprionospio cordifolia were mainly contributed to the classification of station groups. From the BPI, benthic communities in the entrance of Gwangyang Bay and Saryang Bay were considered to be in a slightly polluted condition in contrast to the normal healthy community at the offshore of Namhaedo Island. These results suggested that the benthic community of this area should be regularly monitored to assess the health status of this benthic ecosystem.

Evaluation on Spectral Analysis in ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Stripmap-ScanSAR Interferometry (ALOS-2 Stripmap-ScanSAR 위상간섭기법에서의 스펙트럼 분석 평가)

  • Park, Seo-Woo;Jung, Seong-Woo;Hong, Sang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.2_2
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    • pp.351-363
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    • 2020
  • It is well known that alluvial sediment located in coastal region has been easily affected by geohazard like ground subsidence, marine or meteorological disasters which threaten invaluable lives and properties. The subsidence is a sinking of the ground due to underground material movement that mostly related to soil compaction by water extraction. Thus, continuous monitoring is essential to protect possible damage from the ground subsidence in the coastal region. Radar interferometric application has been widely used to estimate surface displacement from phase information of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Thanks to advanced SAR technique like the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), a time-series of surface displacement could be successfully calculated with a large amount of SAR observations (>20). Because the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 L-band observations maintain higher coherence compared with other shorter wavelength like X- or C-band, it has been regarded as one of the best resources for Earth science. However, the number of ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 observations might be not enough for the SBAS application due to its global monitoring observation scenario. Unfortunately, the number of the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Stripmap images in area of our interest, Busan which located in the Southeastern Korea, is only 11 which is insufficient to apply the SBAS time-series analysis. Although it is common that the radar interferometry utilizes multiple SAR images collected from same acquisition mode, it has been reported that the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Stripmap-ScanSAR interferometric application could be possible under specific acquisition mode. In case that we can apply the Stripmap-ScanSAR interferometry with the other 18 ScanSAR observations over Busan, an enhanced time-series surface displacement with better temporal resolution could be estimated. In this study, we evaluated feasibility of the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Stripmap-ScanSAR interferometric application using Gamma software considering differences of chirp bandwidth and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) between two acquisition modes. In addition, we analyzed the interferograms with respect to spectral shift of radar carrier frequency and common band filtering. Even though it shows similar level of coherence regardless of spectral shift in the radar carrier frequency, we found periodic spectral noises in azimuth direction and significant degradation of coherence in azimuth direction after common band filtering. Therefore, the characteristics of spectral bandwidth in the range and azimuth direction should be considered cautiously for the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 Stripmap-ScanSAR interferometry.