• Title, Summary, Keyword: Marine sediment

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Application of Response Surface Methodology for optimize the Biostimulant ball and stabilize Heavy metals pollutants in contaminated coastal sediments

  • Song, Young-chae;Subha, Bakthacachallam;Woo, Jung Hui
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.179-180
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    • 2015
  • The variety of organic and inorganic pollutants are introduced to coastal sediment and making highly contaminated due to rapid development of industralization and economic development. Numerous contaminants are release into marine sediment and it significantly affect marine aquatic environment. In the present study stated the optimize the biostimulant ball (BSB) in coastal sedimentand stabilse the heavy metals present in the sediment. The effective variables like BSB size, distance and month variables on Cu stabilization was determined by using Response surface methodology(RSM). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and coefficient determination (R2) of Cu reduction 0.9610 and maximum stabilisation was obtained in 3cm ball size and 5.5cm distance and 4 month interval time. This result revealed that the BSB in effective for Cu reduction in coastal sediment.

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Shear Wave Velocity in Unconsolidated Marine Sediments of the Western Continental Margin, the East Sea

  • Kim, Gil-Young;Kim, Dae-Choul
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.4E
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2003
  • Shear wave velocity was measured and grain size analysis was conducted on two core samples obtained in unconsolidated marine sediments of the western continental margin, the East Sea. A pulse transmission technique based on the Hamilton frame was used to measure shear wave velocity. Duomorph ceramic bender transducer-receiver elements were used to generate and detect shear waves in sediment samples. Time delay was calculated by changing the sample length from the transducer-receiver element. Time delay is 43.18 μs and shear wave velocity (22.49 m/s) is calculated from the slope of regression line. Shear wave velocities of station 1 and 2 range from 8.9 to 19.0 m/s and from 8.8 to 22 mis, respectively. Shear wave velocities with depth in both cores are qualitatively in agreement with the compared model〔1〕, although the absolute value is different. The sediment type of two core samples is mud (mean grain size, 8-9Φ). Shear wave velocity generally increases with sediment depth, which is suggesting normally consolidated sediments. The complicated variation of velocity anisotropy with depth at station 2 is probably responsible for sediment disturbance by possible gas effect.

Transportation and Deposition of Modern Sediments in the Southern Yellow Sea

  • Shi, Xuefa;Chen, Zhihua;Cheng, Zhenbo;Cai, Deling;Bu, Wenrui;Wang, Kunshan;Wei, Jianwei;Yi, Hi-Il
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 2004
  • Based on the data obtained under the China-Korea joint project (1997-2001) and historic observations, the distribution, transportation and sedimentation of sediment in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) are discussed, and the controversial formation mechanism of muddy sediments is also explored. The sediment transport trend analysis indicates that the net transport direction of sediment in the central SYS (a fine-grained sediment deposited area) points to $123.4^{\circ}E,\;35.1^{\circ}N$, which is a possible sedimentation center in the central SYS. The sediment transport pattern is verified by the distribution of total suspended matter (TSM) concentration and ${\delta}^{13}C$ values of particulate organic carbon (POC), the latter indicates that the bottom water plays a more important role than the surface water in transporting the terrigenous material to the central deep-water area of the SYS, and the Yellow Sea circulation is an important control factor for the sediment transport pattern in the SYS. The carbon isotope signals of organic matter in sediments indicate that the Shandong subaqueous delta has high sedimentation rate and the deposited sediments originate mainly from the modern Yellow River. The terrigenous sediments in deep-water area of the SYS originate mainly from the old Yellow River and the modern Yellow River, and only a small portion originates from the modern Yangtze River. The analytical results of TSM and stable carbon isotopes are further confirmed by another independent tracer of sediment source, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Five light mineral provinces in the SYS can be identified and they indicate inhomogeneity in sources and sedimentary environment. The modern shelf sedimentary processes in the SYS are controlled by shelf dynamic factors. The muddy depositional systems are produced in the shelf low-energy environments, which are controlled by some meso-scale cyclonic eddies (cold eddies) in the central SYS and the area southwest of the Cheju Island. On the contrary, an anticyclonic muddy depositional system (warm eddy sediment) appears in the southeast of the SYS (the area northwest of the Cheju Island). In this study, we give the cyclonic and anticyclonic eddy sedimentation patterns.

Organic Enrichment and Pollution in Surface Sediments from Jinhae and Geoje-Hansan Bays with Dense Oyster Farms (굴양식어장 밀집해역인 진해만과 거제-한산만의 퇴적물 내 유기물 분포특성)

  • Choi, Minkyu;Lee, In-Seok;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Kim, Hyung Chul;Yoon, Sang-Pil;Yun, Sera;Kim, Chung-Sook;Seo, In-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.777-787
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    • 2017
  • Organic enrichment and pollution was investigated in surface sediments from Jinhae Bay and Geoje-Hansan Bay of Korea, which contain the largest oyster farms in Korean coastal areas. Geochemical indicators (chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, ignition loss, and acid volatile sulfide) in sediments, ammonium and nitrate in pore water, and bioluminescence inhibition test for sediment extracts were analyzed. Temporal changes of organic enrichment were also investigated using sediment core samples from Geoje-Hansan Bay. The level of organic pollution in sediments from Jinhae Bay was significantly greater than that of sediments from Geoje-Hansan Bay. Compared with other sites, Jinhae Bay was one of the most polluted coastal areas of Korea. The levels of geochemical indicators in May were comparable to, or higher than, in August. Ammonium concentrations in pore water were two orders of magnitudes greater than the nitrate concentrations, suggesting that the bays are reducing environments. The concentrations of total organic carbon in core sediment samples from shellfish-farming areas increased significantly from 2000 to the present year, and it seems to be associated with increases in anthropogenic activities.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Bio-geochemistry of Oceans

  • Kannan, Narayanan
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2007
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic contaminants found globally in water, ice, soil, air and sediment. Modern analytical techniques allow us to determine these chemicals in environmental matrices at parts per trillion levels or lower. Environmental forensic on PCBs opens up new avenues of investigation such as transport and fate of water masses in oceans, sedimentation, onset of primary production, migration of marine mammals, their population distribution and pharmacokinetics of drugs inside organisms. By virtue of persistence, bioaccumulation, bioconcentration and structure-activity relationship PCBs emerge as unconventional chemical tracers of new sort.

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Utilizing piezovibrocone in marine soils at Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand

  • Jorat, M. Ehsan;Morz, Tobias;Moon, Vicki;Kreiter, Stefan;de Lange, Willem
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2015
  • Piezovibrocones have been developed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of onshore soils, but have not yet been utilized to evaluate the in-situ liquefaction behavior of offshore marine and volcanoclastic sediments. Two static and vibratory CPTu (Cone Penetration Tests) were performed at Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand. The lithology is known from nearby drillholes and the influence of vibration on different types of marine soils is evaluated using the reduction ratio (RR) calculated from static and vibratory CPTu. A sediment layer with high potential for liquefaction and one with a slight reaction to cyclic loading are identified. In addition to the reduction ratio, the liquefaction potential of sediment is analyzed using classic correlations for static CPTu data, but no liquefaction potential was determined. This points to an underestimation of liquefaction potential with the classic static CPTu correlations in marine soil. Results show that piezovibrocone tests are a sensitive tool for liquefaction analysis in offshore marine and volcanoclastic soil.

Pollution Status of Surface Sediment in Jinju Bay, a Spraying Shellfish Farming Area, Korea (살포식 패류양식해역인 진주만 표층 퇴적물의 오염도)

  • Lee, Garam;Hwang, Hyunjin;Kim, Jeong Bae;Hwang, Dong-Woon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.392-402
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    • 2020
  • We investigated the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), ignition loss (IL), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and metallic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn), in August 2015, to determine the spatial distribution and pollution status of organic matter and metals in the surface sediment of Jinju Bay, a spraying shellfish farming area, Korea. The concentrations of organic matter and metallic elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the bay than in the mouth and center of the bay. The C/N ratio (5.7~8.0) in the sediment represents the dominance of organic matter of oceanic origin in the surface sediment of the study area. The concentrations of AVS, TOC, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were much lower than the values of the sediment quality guidelines applied in Korea. Based on the results of the pollution load index (PLI) and ecological risk index (ERI), the metal concentrations in the surface sediment of Jinju Bay have a weakly negative ecological effect on benthic organisms although the sediments with high metal pollution status are distributed in the southern parts of the bay, with high dense shellfish farming areas. Thus, the surface sediments in Jinju Bay are not polluted with organic matter and are slightly polluted with metallic elements.

Morphological Features of Bedforms and their Changes due to Marine Sand Mining in Southern Gyeonggi Bay (경기만 남부에 발달된 해저지형의 형태적 특징 및 해사채취에 의한 변화)

  • Kum, Byung-Cheol;Shin, Dong-Hyeok;Jung, Seom-Kyu;Jang, Seok;Jang, Nam-Do;Oh, Jae-Kyung
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.337-350
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    • 2010
  • This study conducted sedimentological and geophysical surveys for 3 years (2006-2008) in southern Gyeonggi Bay, Korea to elucidate temporal changes in subaqueous dune morphology on a sand ridge trending northeast to southwest that has been excavated by marine sand mining. The sand ridge (~20 m in height, ~2 km in width and 3~4 km in length) has a steep slope on the NW side and a gentle slope on the SE side, creating an asymmetric profile. Large (10~100 m in length) and very large (>100 m in length) dunes occurring on the SE side of the ridge show a northeastward asymmetrical shape, whereas dunes on the NW side destroyed by marine sand mining display a southwestward asymmetry. The comparison between Flemming (1988)'s correlation and the height-length correlation of this study indicates that tidal current and availability of sand sediment are major controlling factors to the development and maintenance of dunes. Depth and sedimentary characteristics (grain size) are not likely to be major controlling factors, but indirectly influence dune growth by hydrological and sedimentary processes. The length and the height of dunes decrease toward the southeastern trough away from the crest of the ridge. These features result from the decrease of tidal current and sediment availability. The length and the height of dunes on the southeast side decrease gradually over time. This is a result of the interaction between tidal current and the decrease in sediment availability due to sediment extraction by marine sand mining. Marine sand mining has destroyed the dunes directly, causing irregular shapes of shorter length and lower height. The coarse fraction of suspended sediments is transported and deposited very close to the sand pit. By contrast, relatively fine sediments are transported by the tidal current and deposited over a wide range by the settling-lag effect, resulting in a decrease of sediment grain size in the area where suspended sediments are deposited. In addition, marine sand mining, decreases the height of dunes. Therefore, morphological and sedimentological characteristics of dunes around the sand pits will be significantly changed by future sand mining activities.

Implementation of Acoustic Properties Measurement System Based on LabVIEW Using PXI for Marine Sediment (PXI를 이용한 LabVIEW기반 해양퇴적물의 음향특성 측정시스템 개발)

  • Park, Ki-Ju;Kim, Dae-Choul;Lee, Gwang-Soo;Bae, Sung Ho;Kim, Gil Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2015
  • A previous velocity measurement system for marine sediment had several problems such as the errors occurred when picking first arrival time and the inconvenient measurement procedure. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new acoustic properties measurement system by using PXI (PCI eXtentions for Instrumentation) module based on LabVIEW. To verify the new system, we measured the velocity and attenuation of sediment using the new system in a parallel with the previous system under the same experimental environment. The result of measurement showed 1~2% margin of error for the velocity as well as similar attenuation values. We concluded that the new system can efficiently measure the acoustic properties of marine sediment. It also has an advantage to construct the database of acoustic data and raw signal.