• Title, Summary, Keyword: Marine sediment

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Application of Limestone, Zeolite, and Crushed Concrete as Capping Material for Interrupting Heavy Metal Release from Marine Sediments and Reducing Sediment Oxygen Demand (해양퇴적물에서 중금속 용출 차단 및 퇴적물 산소 요구량 감소를 위한 석회석, 제올라이트 및 폐콘크리트의 피복 소재로서 적용)

  • Kang, Ku;Park, Seong-Jik
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2015
  • This study aims to assess the effectiveness of limestone, zeolite, and crushed concrete as capping material to block the release of heavy metals (As, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and reduce the sediment oxygen demand. The efficiency of limestone, zeolite, and crushed concrete was evaluated in a reactor in which a 1-cm thick layer of capping materials was placed on the sediments collected from Inchon north harbor. Dissolved oxygen concentration and heavy metal concentration in seawater above the uncapped sediments and capping material were monitored for 17 days. The sediment oxygen demand was in the following increasing order: crushed concrete ($288.37mg/m^2{\cdot}d$) < zeolite ($428.96mg/m^2{\cdot}d$) < limestone ($904.53mg/m^2{\cdot}d$) < uncapped ($981.34mg/m^2{\cdot}d$). The capping materials could reduce the sediment oxygen demand by blocking the release of biochemical matters consuming dissolved oxygen in seawater. It was also shown that zeolite and crushed concrete could effectively block the release of Cu, Ni, and Pb but those were not effective for the interruption of As and Cr release from marine contaminated sediments.

Adsorption characteristics of As(III) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by Sediment Amendment Composite (저질개선제에 의한 수용액상의 As(III)와 Cr(VI) 흡착 특성)

  • Shin, Woo-Seok;Na, Kyu-Ri;Kim, Young-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.216-221
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    • 2016
  • The adsorption characteristics of mixed heavy metals (Cr(III), As(VI)) in aqueous solution were investigated using a sediment amendment composite. Sediment amendment composite was composed of clean sediment (40%), zeolite (20%), recycled aggregate (10%), steel slag (10%), oyster shell (10%), and cement (10%). The experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was attained after 180 mins. Heavy metal adsorption was characterized using Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The equilibrium adsorption data for the sediment amendment composite better fitted with the Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) (36.07 mg/g) was higher than As(III) (25.54 mg/g); and the adsorption efficiency of the Cr(VI) and As(III) ions solution decreased with decreasing pH from 2 to 10. The collective results suggested that the sediment amendment composite is a promising material for a reactive cap that controls the release of Cr(VI) and As(III) from contaminated sediments.

Study on the Sediment Quality in Bottom Water (I) (수 저층의 저질 조사 (I) - 저질 조사의 중요성과 분석에 관하여 -)

  • Kim, Do-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2007
  • Particle materials sink in bottom and dissolved inorganic substances release from sediment and many kinds of materials continuously exchange in sediment and water column as well as transfer and transformation in sediment. The study of sediment quality means the state of sediment pollution relation of the water quality, sediment biota, materials fluxes between sediment and water column, transformation of materials in sediment is being important in recent. The state of sediment quality imply that the history of water pollution for long time, because the sediment quality does not change temporally. The sediment quality of bottom water can be used as a good indicator of pollution at present and in future. The major index of sediment qualities are the content of nutrients and hazard materials such as metals, Ignition Loss (IL), Total Sulfur (TS), Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), sediment COD, color, odor and the release of nutrients from sediment. However, there are some arguments between researchers about compare to estimation of sediment quality and sampling and analysis of sediment. In this study, I will introduce the method of sediment sampling, analyzing and estimating of the sediment pollution.

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Physical Properties of Surface Sediments from the KR(Korea Reserved) 5 Area, Northeastern Equatorial Pacific (북동태평양 대한민국 광구 KR5 지역 표층퇴적물의 물리적 특성)

  • Lee, Hyun-Bok;Chi, Sang-Bum;Hyeong, Ki-Seong;Park, Cheong-Kee;Kim, Ki-Hyune;Oh, Jae-Kyung
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.475-484
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    • 2006
  • In order to reveal the vertical variation of physical properties in deep-sea sediments, deep-sea sediment cores were collected at 78 stations using a multiple corer in the KR5 area, one of the Korea contract areas for manganese nodule exploration, located in the northeast equatorial Pacific. Based on the color of sediments, sampled sediment cores were characterized into three lithologic units (unit 1,2, and 3). In all sediment cores, three units appear systematically; unit 1 lies at the top of cores and unit 2 and/or unit 3 appear to underlie unit 1 or alternate with unit 3. Unit 1 layer from the top of cores shows dark grayish brown to dark brown with mean thickness of 10.2cm. Unit 2 and 3 layers show very dark brown to black color and yellowish brown to brown color, respectively. According to the physical properties of the deep-sea sediment cores, sediment column can be divided into three sections. Section A $(0{\sim}15cm)$ in subbottom depth consists mostly of unit 1. Mean values of physical properties of section B $(15{\sim}30cm)$ in subbottom depth are similar to those of section C (>30 cm) in subbottom depth. However, the physical properties of section B were more variable than those of section C because of the high activity of bioturbation in section B. These results will provide valuable information for selecting suitable sites for mining manganese nodules in the Korea contract areas.

Evaluation of Organic Matter and Trace Metal Contamination in Surface Sediments around the Geum River Estuary using Sediment Quality Guidelines (퇴적물 오염기준을 이용한 금강 하구역 표층 퇴적물내 유기물 및 미량금속 오염 평가)

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Lee, In-Seok;Choi, Minkyu;Kim, Sook-Yang;Choi, Hee-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.930-940
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    • 2013
  • We evaluated contamination with organic matter and trace metals by analyzing grain size, ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, Mn, Hg, and As) in surface sediments at 28 stations around the Geum River estuary in July 2008. The surface sediments in the estuary were mainly composed of coarse sediment (sand and muddy sand), with mean grain size (Mz) ranging between $2-4{\O}$. The high concentrations of IL, COD, and trace metals were mainly found at stations in front of the Gusan outer port and industrial complex, and near the Seocheon coast with relatively fine sediments. In addition, the concentrations of IL and all trace metals, except Pb and As, showed good positive correlations with Mz, indicating that the concentrations of organic matter and trace metals were mainly dependent on sediment grain size. The concentrations of COD, AVS, and trace metals in most sediments did not exceed the sediment quality guideline (SQGs). Although the sediments in the study region are not polluted with organic matter and trace metals, there are many point sources of pollutants, such as Gusan port and industrial complex, Janghang refinery, and a thermoelectric power plant around the Geum River estuary. Thus, the management of coastal environments through periodic monitoring of organic matter and trace metals is required in the future.

Comparative Study on Microphytobenthic Pigments and Total Microbial Biomass by ATP in Intertidal Sediments (조간대 퇴적 환경에 따른 저서미세조류 색소와 총 아데노신 3인산(ATP: Adenosine-5' triphosphate) 비교 연구)

  • Ha, Sun-Yong;Choi, Bo-Hyung;Min, Jun-Oh;Jeon, Su-A;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 2013
  • Biomass and community composition of microphytobentos in tidal flats were studied by HPLC analysis and also investigated to examine the relationship between microphytobenthic pigments and Adenosine-5' triphosphate (ATP) as an index of total microbial biomass in intertidal environments (muddy and sandy sediment) of Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea. Microphytobenthic pigments and ATP concentration in muddy sediment were the highest at the surface while the biomass of microphytobenthos in sandy sediment was the highest at the sub-surface (0.75 cm sediment depth). The detected pigments of microphytobenthos were chlorophyll a, b (euglenophytes), $c_3$, peridinin (dinoflagellates), fucoxanthin (diatom or chrysophytes), diadinoxanthin, alloxanthin (cryptophytes), diatoxanthin, zeaxanthin (cyanobacteria), ${\beta}$-carotein, and pheophytin a (the degraded product of chlorophyll a). Among the pigments which were detected, the concentration of fucoxanthin was the highest, indicating that diatoms dominated in the microphytobenthic community of the tidal flats. There was little significant correlation between OC (Organic Carbon) and ATP in both sediments. However, a positive correlation between chlorophyll a concentration and ATP concentration was found in sandy sediment, suggesting that microbial biomass could be affected by labile OC derived from microphytobenthos. These results provide information that may help us understand the relationship between microphytobenthos and microbial biomass in different intertidal sediment environments.

Effects of Capping with Recycled Aggregates and Natural Zeolite on Inhibition of Contaminants Release from Marine Sediment (순환골재와 천연제올라이트 피복에 의한 연안퇴적물 오염물질 용출 차단 효과)

  • Kim, Young-Kee;Shin, Woo-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.546-551
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    • 2016
  • In this study, capping with recycled aggregate and natural zeolite in marine sediment was performed to investigate its inhibitory effect on pollutants released from sediment to seawater. An experiment was performed by capping with amendments for 60 days, and concentrations of organic matter (COD), nitrate, phosphate and metallic elements (Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, and Cr) were measured. Two capping materials effectively suppressed pollutant release. Recycled aggregate showed better effectiveness for organic pollutant, nitrate and phosphate release. Meanwhile, natural zeolite was effective for metallic elements. As a result, recycled aggregate and natural zeolite can be considered as cost-effective/inexpensive capping material candidates. Also, the capping material can be selected according to the target pollutant.

Nutrient dynamics study of overlying water affected by peroxide-treated sediment

  • Haque, Niamul;Kwon, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.235-245
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    • 2017
  • Background: Loading of excess nutrient via bioremediation of polluted sediment to overlying water could trigger anoxia and eutrophication in coastal area. The aim of this research was to understand the changes of overlying water features such as dissolved oxygen (DO); pH; oxidation reduction potential (ORP); $chlorophyll-{\alpha}$ ($Chl-{\alpha}$); and nitrogen nutrients ammonia ($N-NH_4{^+}$), nitrate ($N-NO_3{^-}$), and nitrite ($N-NO_2^-$) when the sediment was not treated (control) and treated by calcium peroxide for 5 weeks. Methods: The water samples were analyzed for measuring physical and chemical properties along with the sediment analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for identifying the phylogenetic affiliation of microbial communities. Results: Results showed that due to the addition of calcium peroxide in sediment, the overlying water exposed the rise of dissolve oxygen, pH, and ORP than control. Among the nitrogen nutrients, ammonia inhibition was higher in calcium peroxide treatment than control but in case of nitrate inhibition, it was reversed than control. $Chlorophyll-{\alpha}$ was declined in treatment column water by 30% where it was 20% in control column water. Actibacter and Salegentibacter group were detectable in the calcium-peroxide-treated sediment; in contrary, no detectable community ware found in control sediment. Both phylogenetic groups are closely related to marine microflora. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of calcium peroxide as an oxygen release material. Interaction with peroxide proved to be enhancing the formation of microbial community that are beneficial for biodegradation and spontaneity of nutrient attenuation into overlying water.

Distributions of Organic Matter and Trace Metals in Sediment around a Tidal-flat Oyster Crassostrea gigas Farming Area on the Taean Peninsula, Korea (태안반도 갯벌 참굴(Crassostrea gigas) 양식장 주변 퇴적물의 유기물 및 미량금속 분포)

  • Hwang, Dong-Woon;Lee, In-Seok;Choi, Minkyu;Choi, Hee-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.1014-1025
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    • 2014
  • We measured the concentrations of various geochemical parameters [grain size, ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, As, Zn, and Hg)] in the surface sediments of two intertidal oyster Crassostrea gigas farming areas (Iwon and Mongsan tidal flats) on the Taean Peninsula, Korea, to evaluate the pollution level of organic matter and trace metals in sediment. The intertidal sediments in the study region comprise mostly sand with a mean grain size of 2.5-3.5 Ø. The concentrations of IL, COD, AVS, and trace metals in the sediment of two study regions were either similar or lower in oyster farming areas relative to non-farming areas, apparently due to biological uptake or physical and biological sediment reworking. Based on the results for the pollution evaluation of organic matter and trace metals derived from sediment quality guidelines, enrichment factor, and geoaccumulation index, our results suggest that the sediment in these two intertidal oyster farming regions is not polluted by organic matter and trace metals.

The Formation of Hypoxia Sediment and Benthic Foraminiferal Change in Gamak Bay, Southern Coast of Korea (가막만의 빈산소 퇴적층 형성과 저서성 유공충 군집변화 연구)

  • Lee, Yeon-Gyu;Jeong, Da-Un;Kang, So-Ra;Kim, Yong-Wan;Kim, Shin;Jung, Eun-Ho;Lee, Jung-Sick
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 2012
  • In order to understand the relationship between the formation of hypoxia sediment by eutrophication and changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblage, micropaleontological and geochemical analyses were carried out on one sediment box core (K-1) recovered in the northern Gamak Bay, which is one of the aquacultural areas in the South Sea of Korea. In this analysis, the PON content in the sediment rapidly increased, while the C/N ratio and the C/S ratio decreased since 1977. These results indicate that eutrophication commenced in 1977 in the northern Gamak Bay, and consequently, the hypoxia sediment is 20 cm thick. Ammonia beccarii-Buccella frigida assemblage occurs before the formation of hypoxia sediment. Trochammina hadai-Buccella frigida assemblage appeared in the transitional period toward hypoxia and Trochammina hadai assemblage with a low abundance and diversity is observed in the hypoxia sediment. The agglutinated species T. hadai is regarded as a bio-indicator (opportunistic species) of the organic pollution in northern Gamak Bay.