• Title, Summary, Keyword: Marine sediment

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Rare earth element geochemistry of shelf sediments in the western part of Jeju Island, korea

  • Youn, Jeung-Su;Kim, Tae-Joung
    • 한국지구과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.58-58
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    • 2010
  • The sediment geochemistry, including REE of surface and core samples in the western part off Jeju Island have been carried out in order to understand the provenance and hydrolic sorting. The sediment in the study area were primarily composed of coarse silt with a mean grain size of $2.8{\sim}82.8{\mu}m$. The ratios of TOC over total nitrogen (TN) showed that the study area sediments contained more organic matters of marine origin than those of terrigenous origin. The total A1203, Fe203, K20, MgO, and MnO contents and REE concentration of the fine sediments are higher than those of the coarse sediments. The higher Zr/Th and Zr/Yb ratios in coarse sediments relative to fine-grained detritus indicates sedimentary sorting. Grain size influence the REE concentrations of the study area sediment significantly. The < $63{\mu}m$ fraction of the sediment has higher REE concentration and different REE patterns when compared with those in bulk samples, due to the presence of REE-enrich heavy minerals. The REE distribution patterns of the western part of Jeju Island sediments are relatively enriched in most LREEs than the Yellow River sediment and depleted in the Changjiang River, but the LaN/YbN ratios are similar to the Changjiang sediment. The Eu/Eu* ratios ranged from 0.594~0.665(0.631) is much similar to the Yellow River sediment, possibly mixture of the sediments from these two rivers.

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Improvement of the Marine Environmental Assessment for Dredging and Ocean Disposal of Coastal Sediment in Korea (연안준설 및 준설토 해양투기 해양환경평가 개선방안)

  • Lee, Dae-In;Park, Dal-Soo;Eom, Ki-Hyuk;Kim, Gui-Young;Cho, Hyeon-Seo;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Seo, Young-Kyo;Baeck, Gun-Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.131-141
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    • 2009
  • We studied improvement in marine environmental impact assessment and related management systems of coastal sediments that are dredged inshore but disposed offshore. After reviewing and diagnosing the existing assessment procedures and problems, we recommend to design the core assessment items and improve the reliability of assessment byenhancing the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and verification processes. We proposed eco-friendly disposal plan for dredging sediment such as reuse system in land development was explored. A marine environmental database system was established to support the assessment processes. Guidelines for marine research and modelling were proposed for improving assessment of dredging and disposal of coastal sediment. Also, applying of screening and scoping for marine environmental assessment was reviewed.

Distribution and Pollution Status of Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment Around Goseong Bay, a Shellfish Farming Area, Korea (패류양식해역인 고성만 주변 표층 퇴적물의 유기물과 중금속 분포 및 오염현황)

  • Lee, Garam;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Hwang, Hyunjin;Park, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Chul;Kwon, Jung-No
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.699-709
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    • 2017
  • We measured the grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in order to understand the spatial distribution and pollution level of organic matter and metals in surface sediment around Goseong Bay, a shellfish farming area, Korea. The surface sediments were composed of finer sediments such as mud and clay. The concentration of TOC, TN, and heavy metals were much higher in the innermost bay than in the mouth and outside of bay. The spatial distribution of organic matter and heavy metals and C/N ratio (5-10) in sediment showed that the organic matter and heavy metals in sediment of the study region were significantly influenced by oceanic origin organic matter and anthropogenic sources, respectively. Based on the results of four assessment techniques (sediment quality guideline, geoaccumulation index, pollution load index, ecological risk index), the sediments around the Goseong Bay were a little polluted for heavy metals and the high metal concentrations in the northern region of bay could adverse impact on benthic organisms in sediment. Thus, the systematic management plan for the improvement of water and sediment environment and the concentrated monitoring of pollutants for sustainable aquaculture and seafood safety around Goseong Bay are necessary in the future.

Changes in Phosphorus and Sediment Oxygen Demand in Coastal Sediments Promoted by Functionalized Oyster Shell Powder as an Oxygen Release Compound

  • Kim, Beom-geun;Khirul, Md Akhte;Cho, Dae-chul;Kwon, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.851-861
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we performed a sediment elution experiment to evaluate water quality in terms of phosphorus, as influenced by the dissolved oxygen consumed by sediments. Three separate model column treatments, namely, raw, calcined, and sonicated oyster shell powders, were used in this experiment. Essential phosphorus fractions were examined to verify their roles in nutrient release from sediment based on correlation analyses. When treated with calcined or sonicated oyster shell powder, the sediment-water interface became "less anaerobic," thereby producing conditions conducive to partial oxidation and activities of aerobic bacteria. Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) was found to be closely correlated with the growth of algae, which confirmed an intermittent input of organic biomass at the sediment surface. SOD was positively correlated with exchangeable and loosely adsorbed phosphorus and organic phosphorus, owing to the accumulation of unbound algal biomass-derived phosphates in sediment, whereas it was negatively correlated with ferric iron-bound phosphorus or calcium fluorapatite-bound phosphorus, which were present in the form of "insoluble" complexes, thereby facilitating the free migration of sulfate-reducing bacteria or limiting the release from complexes, depending on applied local conditions. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that iron-reducing bacteria were the dominant species in control and non-calcined oyster shell columns, whereas certain sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were identified in the column treated with calcined oyster powder.

High-Frequency Bistatic Scattering from a Corrugated Sediment Surface

  • Cho, Hong-Sang;La, Hyoung-Sul;Yoon, Kwan-Seob;Na, Jung-Yul;Kim, Bong-Chae
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.2E
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2006
  • High-frequency bistatic scattering measurements from a corrugated surface were made in an acoustic water tank. First the azimuthal scattering pattern was measured from an artificially corrugated surface which has varying impedance. The corrugated surface was installed both transverse to the direction of incident wave and longitudinal to the direction of incident wave. The angle between the corrugated surface and the direction of the incident wave was about $45^{\circ}$. Second, the scattering strengths were measured from the flat sediment and the corrugated sediment. A critical angle of about $37^{\circ}$ was calculated in the acoustic water tank. The measurements were made at three fixed grazing angles: $33^{\circ}$ (lower than critical angle), $37^{\circ}$ (critical angle), and $41^{\circ}$ (higher than critical angle). The scattering angle and the grazing angle are equal in each measurement. Frequencies were from 50 kHz to 100 kHz with an increment of 1 kHz. The corrugated sediment was made transverse to the direction of the incident wave. The first measurement indicates that the scattering patterns depend on the relations between the corrugated surface and the direction of the incident wave. In the second measurement, the data measured from the flat sediment were compared to the APL-UW model and to the NRL model. The NRL model's output shows more favorable comparisons than the APL-UW model. In case of the corrugated sediment, the model and the measured data are different because the models used an isotropic wave spectrum of sediment roughness in the scattering calculations. The isotropic wave spectrum consists of $w_2$ and ${\gamma}_2$. These constants derived from sediment names or bulk size. The model which used the constants didn't consider the effect of a corrugated surface. In order to consider a corrugated surface, the constants were varied in the APL-UW model.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Sediment and Mussels(Mytilus edulis) from the Intertidal Zone of Kori Nuclear Power Plant, Korea (고리원자력발전소 인근 조간대에 서식하는 퇴적물과 진주담치에 포함된 다환방향족 탄화수소(PAHs))

  • Il, Noh;Ki-Seok, Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 1999
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants in coastal marine environment. PAHs enter estuarine and nearshore marine environment via several routes such as combustion of fossil fuels, domestic and industrial effluents and oil spills. In August of 1997, sediment and mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected at 6 sites near Kori nuclear power plant in order to analyze the PAH content by HPLC with uv/vis detection. The concentrations of 15 PAH in sediment ranged from < 1 to 5,900 ppb ( mean 173.5$\pm$99.7 ppb), and in mussels, from < 0.5 to 4,125 ppb (mean 105$\pm$60.5 ppb). Compared with other studies world over, the concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were relatively low in both sediment and mussels from the intertidal zone of Kori. This study presents preliminary data for the PAH levels in sediment and mussels from the intertidal zone of Kori, and the data will hopefully be utilized for the assessment of oil pollution in the Southeast East Sea, Korea (especially for the PAHs).

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Meiobenthic Communities in the Deep-sea Sediment of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Northeast Pacific (북동 태평양 C-C 해역에 서식하는 중형저서동물 군집)

  • Kim, Dong-Sung;Min, Won-Gi;Lee, Kyoung-Yong;Kim, Ki-Hyune
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the community structure and distributional pattern of meiobenthos in the deep-sea bottom of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone of northeastern Pacific during July 2001. Examination of sediment samples collected on the eight survey station showed that there were 10 different types of meiobenthos. The most abundant meiobenthic animals were nematodes in all stations. Sarcomastigophorans, benthic harpacticoids were next abundant meiobenthos. Vertical distribution of meiobenthic animals showed the highest individual numbers in the surface sediment layers of 0-1 cm depth and showed more steep decreasing trend as sediment gets deeper on the stations of high latitude located in $16-17^{\circ}N$. Horizontal distribution of meiobenthic animal in the study area within CCFZ showed high densities of meiobenthos at the stations had few manganese nodules on their sediment surface in the site of low latitude. For size distribution analyses showed that animals which fit into the sieve mesh size of 0.063 mm were abundant.

Diagnosis for Status of Dredging and Ocean Disposal of Coastal Sediment in Korea (우리나라 연안준설 및 준설토 해양투기 현황 진단)

  • Eom, Ki-Hyuk;Lee, Dae-In;Park, Dal-Soo;Kim, Gui-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.185-193
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    • 2009
  • This study documented and diagnosed the status and problems of coastal dredging and offshore disposal of dredged sediments in South Korea to improve assessment procedures for marine environmental impacts and develop effective management systems. A total of $729({\times}10^6)m^3$ of coastal sediment was dredged in the harbors during the period of 2001-2008. Most of dredged sediment was disposed to the land dumping sites whereas ocean disposal accounted for less than 5%. Ocean disposal areas were especially concentrated to the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the southeast of Busan, which is not only an important fishing area for fishermen, but also considered to be spawning and nursery ground for some commercial fish species. To minimize negative impacts of dredging and ocean disposal of coastal sediment on marine ecosystem and potential strife among coastal users, we suggest 1) in development projects involving ocean disposal, it should be mandatory to propose careful reuse plans in the land, and 2) guidelines of environmental assessment and consequence management programs should be developed and implemented.

Seasonal Patterns of Sediment Supply to Coastal Foredune of Seungbong Island, Korea

  • Woo, Han-Jun;Seo, Jong-Chul;Kweon, Su-Jae;Je, Jong-Geel
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2002
  • The seasonal patterns of sediment supply were investigated during the period of June 1999 to June 2000 on a coastal foredune of Seungbong Island, Korea. Sediment supply was determined from measurements of geomorphic changes in the foredune and beach along six lines. Most sands were deposited on the dunefoot and foredune area during the winter and spring, from November to April. The largest amount of sands was deposited along the lines 5 and 6 near the sea-dike in the southern tip of the dune area. In general, the sand on the beach was gradually eroded in spring, summer and fall but deposited in winter. Total sediment accumulation over the study period was $484m^3$ for the foredune and $345m^3$ for the beach. The volume of the foredune increased in the winter and spring, whereas the volume of beach increased in the winter. Variation in sediment deposition appears to be controlled primarily by variations in the seasonal wind regime.

Neighboring Cage Fish Farming Affecting Water and Seabed Quality of the Jordanian Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

  • Mohammad, Al-Zibdah;Firas, Oqaily;Tariq, Al-Najjar;Riyad, Manasrah
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2008
  • Environmental qualities of coastal water and bottom sediment were assessed at Jordan's northernmost tip of Gulf of Aqaba to evaluate possible impacts of the bordering fish pen cages in Eilat. Results showed significant differences between surface and bottom water in the chemical and physical variables in the different months of the year (2004-2005). Chlorophyll a was also significantly higher in bottom water when compared to that of the offshore water. Nitrate and ammonia were significantly higher in bottom water than the surface water at each individual station. The upper 2 cm of sediment sample recorded higher values of total phosphorus and organic matter. Seasonality affected the content of total phosphorus, organic matter, redox potential and color especially at the sediment layer below 3 cm of the sediment core. The present investigation showed slight modification of water and sediment qualities but no clear sign of eutrophication was observed. However, to maintain sustainability of healthy environmental conditions at the northern tip of Gulf of Aqaba potentials of any possible environmental risks arising from the fish farms or any other coastal investment should be carefully considered.