• Title, Summary, Keyword: Marbling development

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Comparison of Storage Stability, Volatile Compounds and Sensory Properties between Coarsely-and Finely-Marbled 1+ Grade Hanwoo Beef Loins

  • Cho, Soohyun;Lee, Wangyeol;Seol, Kuk-Hwan;Kim, Yunseok;Kang, Sun Moon;Seo, Hyunwoo;Jung, Younbok;Kim, Jinhyoung;Ba, Hoa Van
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.497-511
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed at comparing the storage stability, fatty acids profile, volatile flavor compounds and eating quality of Hanwoo beef longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles between two marbling morphological groups (fineness and coarseness). The 1+ grade Hanwoo LT muscles were measured for marbling fleck morphology at the 13th thoracic vertebrae location by using computerized image analysis. Results reveal that both marbling groups had similar proximate composition (protein, fat, moisture and collagen), color and technological quality traits (p>0.05). However, the coarse marbling group presented greater C18:2n6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the fine marbling group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the fine marbling group presented lower volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) contents compared to the coarse marbling group after 14 d storage (p<0.05). Also, higher amounts of C18:2n6 oxidation-derived volatile compounds such as hexanal and 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, were found in the coarse marbling group. In term of sensory aspects, the finely-marbled group received higher scores of flavor and taste compared to the coarse marbling group (p<0.05). Overall, the marbling flecks morphology partially showed its effects on the storage stability, fatty acids profile and eating quality of the 1+ grade Hanwoo beef LT muscle.

Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Beef Marbling Using QTL and Pathway Analysis in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Park, Hye-Sun;Seo, Seong-Won;Cho, Yong-Min;Oh, Sung-Jong;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lim, Da-Jeong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.613-620
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    • 2012
  • Marbling from intramuscular fat is an important trait of meat quality and has an economic benefit for the beef industry. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping was performed to identify the marbling trait in 266 Hanwoo steers using a 10K single nucleotide polymorphism panel with the combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium method. As a result, we found nine putative QTL regions for marbling: three on BTA6, two on BTA17, two on BTA22, and two on BTA29. We detected candidate genes for marbling within 1 cM of either side of the putative QTL regions. Additionally, to understand the functions of these candidate genes at the molecular level, we conducted a functional categorization using gene ontology and pathway analyses for those genes involved in lipid metabolism or fat deposition. In these putative QTL regions, we found 95 candidate genes for marbling. Using these candidate genes, we found five genes that had a direct interaction with the candidate genes. We also found SCARB1 as a putative candidate gene for marbling that involves fat deposition related to cholesterol transport.

Development of digital textile design using marbling dyeing technique and Photoshop for DTP (포토샵을 이용하여 공예적 기법인 마블링 패턴을 DTP 출력용 텍스타일 디자인으로 개발)

  • Kim, Sin-Hee
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2009
  • Marbling dyeing technique shows beautiful flowing pattern because the pattern is transferred to the medium by the pigments floating onto the viscous solution base. However, this marbling pattern does not have any reproducibility and the result of accidental pattern formation. Marbling process contains many complicated procedures such as making marbling base, mordanting the medium, and bubble removal with size limitation. Computer changed the many aspects in textile design and digital technique is used in many design production. However, it is impossible to produce marbling pattern with digital drawing. In this research, the digital textile design starting from marbling pattern was developed for digital textile printing. Marbling was done to produce the initial motifs and scanned. Several marbling media such as silk, polyester, and paper were used. Photoshop was used to process and develop textile design based on these marbling motifs. One repeat was developed and various colorways were tried. The developed textile design were printed using DTP.

Effects of Marbling on Meat Quality Characteristics and Intramuscular Connective Tissue of Beef Longissimus Muscle

  • Li, Chunbao;Zhou, Guanghong;Xu, Xinglian;Zhang, Jingbo;Xu, Shuqin;Ji, Yanfeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1799-1808
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to explore the effects of marbling on meat quality characteristics and intramuscular connective tissue of beef longissimus muscle. Chemical determinations, histological and mechanical measurements were performed on the raw and cooked meat at d 4 postmortem. The results showed that crude fat, collagen, fiber diameter and maximum transition temperature of intramuscular connective tissue increased (p<0.05) with the increase of marbling score. The cooking losses, collagen solubility, WBSF and perimysial thickness decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing marbling. WBSF correlated (p<0.05) with moisture, crude fat, collagen, cooking losses, sarcomere length and perimysial thickness. The development of marbling results in the decline in cooking losses, the avoidance of sarcomere shortening, and the disorganization of the perimysia, which accounts for the improvement of beef tenderness.

Effects of plasma insulin, and leptin on fat traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) (혈중 인슐린 및 렙틴이 한우 지방형질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Cheul;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Dang, Chang-Gwan;Lim, Da-Jeong;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Chang, Sun-Sik;Cho, Young-Moo;Jeon, Gi-Jun;Park, Eung-Woo;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Jun-Heon;Yang, Boh-Suk;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of plasma leptin and insulin concentrations on fat traits in Hanwoo. If a biological indicator such as plasma leptin and insulin was identified, it would be a useful biological marker that can be predicted marbling score in young animal. The relationship between plasma hormone (leptin and insulin) and fat traits (marbling score, back fat thickness and P8 fat thickness) was investigated. The experiment studies 100 Hanwoo that were randomly sampled from Hanwoo Experimental Station Herd. The concentration of plasma insulin was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.02) but was not significantly with back fat thickness (P=0.07) and P8 fat thickness (P=0.09). Statistical model determinant that plasma insulin concentration account for phenotypes was moderate on marbling score (5%), back fat thickness (3%) and P8 fat thickness (9%). On the other hand, plasma leptin concentration was significantly associated with marbling score (P=0.03) and back fat thickness (P=0.02), but was not significant on P8 fat thickness (0.07). Statistical model determinant that plasma leptin concentration accounting for phenotypes was moderate effect on marbling score (3%) and back fat thickness (2%), but it has a slightly bigger effect on P8 fat thickness (7%). In conclusion, the plasma leptin and insulin seems to have an effect on fat traits (marbling score, backfat thickness and P8 fat thickness) in Hanwoo.

Identification of marbling-related candidate genes in M. longissimus dorsi of high- and low marbled Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) steers

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Sang-Hong;Kim, Bum-Soo;Kim, Nam-Kuk;Choy, Yeon-Ho;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Yoon, Du-Hak;Im, Seok-Ki;Oh, Sung-Jong;Park, Eung-Woo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.12
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    • pp.846-851
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to identify marbling-related candidate genes in M. longissimus dorsi of high- and low-marbled Hanwoo. The longissimus dorsi muscles were selected for gene expression from eight Hanwoo steer carcasses based on crude fat content. In the analysis of variance, gene expression of five candidate genes, FABP4, SCD, $PPAR\gamma$, Titin and Nebulin was determined to be significantly different between high- and low-marbled Hanwoo steers (P < 0.0001). The Pik-4 and CaMK II genes were also shown to have a significant effect on crude fat content (P < 0.01). In the analysis of the differential expression between high- and low marbled groups, FABP4 gene expression was approximately 2 times higher in the high marbled group relative to the low marbled group. However, the $PPAR\gamma$ and SCD gene were highly expressed in the low marbled group. In addition, Titin and Nebulin were highly expressed in the low marbled group when placed under relatively high shear force. Finally, the Pik-4 and CaM K II gene also displayed a high expression pattern in the low marbled group.

Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption

  • Troy, Declan J.;Tiwari, Brijesh K.;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.577-582
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    • 2016
  • Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime. Literature suggests that the marbling is more complex than the development of subcutaneous fat and marbling not only provides good fatty acids but also contributes to the higher eating quality of beef. Finally, the current work emphasize that meat plays a pivotal role in nutritious diets, high quality marbled beef is not only of excellent eating quality but also contain more beneficial fatty acids.

Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker and Association Analysis of Marbling Score in Fas Gene of Hanwoo

  • Kim, Seung-Chang;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Ji-Woong;Kim, Tae-Hun;Choi, Bong-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2016
  • The Fas (APO-1, TNFRSF6) gene known as a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily was selected for DNA marker development in Korean cattle. It is a cell membrane protein and mediates programmed cell death (apoptosis). We discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within Fas gene in order to develop novel DNA markers related to economical traits at the genomic level. The sequences of whole exon and 1 kb range of both front and back of the gene were determined by direct-sequencing methods using 24 cattle. A total of 55 SNPs were discovered and we selected 31 common polymorphic sites considering their allele frequencies, haplotype-tagging status and linkage disequilibrium (LD) for genotyping in larger-scale subjects. The SNPs were confirmed genotype through the SNaPshot method (n = 274) and were examined for a possible genetic association between Fas polymorphisms and marbling score. So, the SNPs that were identified significant are g.30256G>C, g.31474C>A, g.31940A>G, and g.32982G>A. These results suggest that SNPs of Fas gene were associated with intramuscular fat content of meat quality traits in Korean cattle.

Development of Mobile Type Computer Vision System and Lean Tissue Extraction Algorithm for Beef Quality Grading (쇠고기 등급판정을 위한 이동형 컴퓨터시각 장치 및 살코기 추출 알고리즘 개발)

  • Choi S.;Huan Le Ngoc;Hwang H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2005
  • Major quality features of the beef carcass in most countries including Korea are size, marbling state of the lean tissue, color of the fat and lean tissue, and thickness of back fat of the 13th rib. To evaluate the beef quality, extracting loin parts from the sectional image of the 13th beef rib is crucial and is the first step. However, because of the inhomogeneous distribution and fuzzy pattern of the fat and lean tissues on the beef cut, it is difficult to extract automatically the proper contour of the lean tissue. In this paper, a prototype mobile beef quality measurement system, which can be implemented practically at the beef processing site was developed. The developed system was composed of the hand held image acquisition unit and mobile processing unit mounted with touch-pad screen. Algorithms to extract the boundary of the lean tissue and a proper tool to evaluate the marbling status have been developed using color image processing. The boundary extraction algorithm showed successful results for the beef cuts with simple and moderate patterns of the lean tissue and fat. However, it had some difficulty in eliminating complex pattern of the extraneous tissues adhered to the lean tissue in the boundary extraction. The developed algorithms were implemented to the prototype mobile processing unit.

Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

  • Cho, Jin Hyoung;Jeong, Jin Young;Lee, Ra Ham;Park, Mi Na;Kim, Seok-Ho;Park, Seon-Min;Shin, Jae-Cheon;Jeon, Young-Joo;Shim, Jung-Hyun;Choi, Nag-Jin;Seo, Kang Seok;Cho, Young Sik;Kim, MinSeok S.;Ko, Sungho;Seo, Jae-Min;Lee, Seung-Youp;Chae, Jung-Il;Lee, Hyun-Jeong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1197-1206
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    • 2016
  • Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and omental adipose tissue (OMAT) from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental) were collected from cows (n = 7), steers (n = 7), or bulls (n = 7). LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM) 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.