• Title, Summary, Keyword: Manihot esculenta Crantz

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Effect of Medium Composition on in vitro Propagation and Plantlet Regeneration from Nodal Explants of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

  • Kwon, Young Hee;Lee, Joung Kwan;Kim, Hee Kyu;Kim, Kyung Ok;Park, Jae Seong
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.16-16
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    • 2019
  • The Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a perennial woody shrub cultivated mainly in the tropics for its starchy tuberous roots. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which also includes rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Among tropical crops, rice, sugarcane, maize and cassava are the most important sources of calories for human consumption. Problems in the propagation of cassava are virus diseases and low rates of seed germination. Thus, a study was undertaken to develop an efficient in vitro mass propagation protocol of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Young and actively growing stem segments were excised from adult plants of cassava. Samples were cut into a 3~4 cm nodal segments with single node after sterilization, and cultivated in the different medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators for 4 weeks. For shoot multiplication, single-node stem segments, approximately 1 cm in length, were taken from in vitro derived shoots and subcultured. After 4~6 weeks, the shoot generation rate was 55.6%, the shoot number and its length were 1.0/explant and 2.3 cm in the most favorable medium composition. Our experiments confirmed that in vitro growth and multiplication of plantlets could depend on its reaction to the different medium composition, and this micropropagation techniques could be a useful system for healthy and vigorous plant production.

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Gamma Radiation-Induced Changes of Antioxidant Enzymes in Callus Cultures of Cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz) (감마선에 의한 카사바 (Manihot esculenta Crantz) 배양세포의 항산화효소 활성 변화)

  • 이행순;유순희;권석윤;김재성;곽상수
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1999
  • The gamma radiation-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in callus cultures of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) selected as a high yield of cell line for SOD were investigated. In normal cultures, the cell growth reached a maximum at 30 days after subculture (DAS), followed by a rapid decrease with further cultures. The SOD and POD specific activities (units/mg protein) showed the highest at the immediately after subculture and subsequently decreased to 20 DAS, and then increased to 30 DAS, whereas the CAT activity showed the lowest at just after subculture, and it continuously increased from 15 DAS to 30 DAS, showing a good correlation with the cell growth. Irradiation of gamma-ray of 50 and 70 Gy on 7 DAS inhibited significantly the cell growth by 50% and 80% at 14 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. In the cells irradiated with 70 Gy, SOD and POD specific activities increased by 4 and 2.5 folds at 14 DAT, respectively, whereas CAT activity was not affected. The results indicate that SOD and POD may be involved in the antioxidative mechanism in relation to oxidative stresses induced by subcultures and by gamma radiation in callus cultures of cassava.

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Effects of Supplementing Gamba Grass (Andropogon gayanus) with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Hay and Cassava Root Chips on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Growth in Goats

  • Phengvichith, Vanthong;Ledin, Inger
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.725-732
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    • 2007
  • The effects of supplementing Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) with varying levels of hay from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and dried cassava root chip on growth and diet digestibility were studied using local male goats with an average initial body weight of 14.0 kg. Thirty-two animals were allocated to a completely randomized $2{\times}2$ factorial design with eight animals per treatment. The factors were two levels of cassava hay (25% and 35% of an expected dry matter (DM) intake of 3% of body weight) and cassava root chips (0 or 1% of body weight) on an individual basis with grass offered ad libitum. Another four animals were assigned to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study digestibility, and were given the same four diets as in the growth experiment. Total DM intake was significantly higher in the group fed diets with cassava hay and root while the DM intake of Gamba grass was not significantly different between treatments. The supplementation with cassava hay and root increased the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and N and resulted in a higher N-retention. The apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fiber was not affected significantly. The average daily gain of animals fed diets supplemented with both cassava hay and root was significantly higher than for the animals supplemented with cassava hay alone. The highest daily gain recorded was 70 g/day. In conclusion, supplementing a basal diet of Gamba grass with cassava hay and root chips improved DM intake, digestibility, N-retention and weight gain. In order to minimize the waste of cassava hay, the inclusion level of cassava hay can be recommended to be 25% of expected DM intake, which would give acceptable intake and growth performance when cassava root is included in the diet.

Timing for Determination in Adventitious Root Formation from In Vitro Cultured Internodal Explants of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) (카사바의 절간절편 배양에서 부정근 발생이 결정되는 시기의 판별)

  • Yoon, Sil;Cho, Duck-Yee;Soh, Woong Young
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • The timing for the determination in root formation from nodal and internodal explants of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, cv. MCol 22) was investigated. Nodal explants about 10 mm with an axillary bud formed adventitious roots directly on MS basal medium for 8 days of cultures. But internodal segments without an axillary bud did not develop the adventitious roots on the same medium, and most internodal segments excised from nodal explants after cultures of 5 days on MS basal medium developed adventitious roots. On the other hand, the internodal segments rooted at 90% after cultures on medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA for 5 days, with 1 mg/L IBA for 2.5 days, and with 2 mg/L IBA for 1.5 days respectively. Thus the period of culture on medium with IBA and its IBA concentration affected the rooting rate. Therefore, it is suggested that the determination for root formation occurred before the differentiation of root primordia on medium with IBA, and root inducing factors in medium were absorbed and accumulated during the period of determination for root primordium differentiation in internodal segment of cassava.

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Effects of Excising In Vitro-Formed Roots on Acclimatization of Micropropagated Cassava Plantlets (카사바의 미세증식에서 기내 발생 부정근의 절단이 순화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Sil;Cho, Duck-Yee;Soh, Woong Young
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2001
  • The in vitro plantlets of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cv. MColl 22) could be regenerated from nodal explant cultures in a liquid MS basal medium containing 0.01 mg/L zeatin for 2 weeks. The plantlets of 1.5∼2.5 cm in shoot length were transplanted to a glass bottle containing fine sand and acclimated under non-sterile conditions after excising their intact roots by: 1) prune leaving roots base of 1∼1.5 cm; 2) complete removal of roots; and 3) cutting off the rooting zone. The majority of in vitro-formed intact roots continued growth after transferred to soil, and all of the damaged roots stopped further growth. The plantlets with excised roots began to develop new roots within 7∼10 days after being transferred to a glass bottle, and a few of the pruned roots developed lateral roots from the remaining portion. Pruning and removal of in vitro roots resulted in a high survival rate (>87%), and did not significantly affect ex vitro root regeneration and acclimation, but the plantlets in which the rooting zone had been cut-off showed 73% survival rate. Pruning or removal of in vitro roots before transfer of plantlets is recommended for useful method of commercial micropropagation because of easier handling and high survival rate of plantlets.

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Varietal Differences of Dry Matter Accumulation and Related Characters in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

  • Park Chang-Ho;Kim Kwang-Ho;Aswidinnoor Hajrial;Rumawas Fred
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the patterns of dry matter (DM) production and accumulation, and to screen the relationships between related major growth characters and DM accumulation in four cassava varieties in Bogor $(6^{\circ}19'-6^{\circ}47'S,\;106^{\circ}21'-107^{\circ}13'E)$, West Java, Indonesia. Gading and Adiral developed an enough source and canopy in short at the early growth phase and then translocated assimilates to storage roots with a higher partitioning rate, even these varieties were considered as early-bulking varieties, which have superior source and sink potentials in increasing yield and DM of tubers. The root/shoot ratio (R/SR), total dry weight (TDW), leaf area duration, leaf area index (LAI), and number of tubers showed higher positive correlations with the dry weight of roots (DWR), and the direct effects of TDW, R/SR, and LAI on the DWR were higher. These characters were considered to be useful target characters to screen cassava varieties with high yield potential and high DM in aspect of tuber production.

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

  • Hue, Khuc Thi;Van, Do Thi Thanh;Ledin, Inger;Wredle, Ewa;Sporndly, Eva
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1691-1700
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    • 2012
  • The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

Determination of the Nutritive Value of Tropical Biomass Products as Dietary Ingredients for Monogastrics Using Rats: 1. Comparison of Eight Forage Species at Two Levels of Inclusion in Relation to a Casein Diet

  • Phuc, Bui Huy Nhu;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian;Thomke, Sigvard
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.986-993
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    • 2001
  • In balance experiments with rats either 25 or 50% of the casein protein in the control diet was replaced with one of the following eight sun-dried tropical biomass products: water spinach plants (WS) (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), leucaena leaves (LL) (Leuceana leucocephala), duckweed plants (DW) (Lemma minor L.), groundnut foliage (OF) (Arachis hypogaea L.), trichantera leaves (Tric) (Trichantera gigantea), indicago leaves (Ind) (Indigofera hirsuta), mungbean foliage (Mb) (Phaseolus aureus), and cassava leaves (CL) (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The experiment included 102 rats with six individuals per treatment group. In three of the 16 biomass treatment groups, feed intake and weight gain of the rats were unacceptably low, and therefore they were excluded from the statistical evaluation, The crude protein (CP) content of the biomass products varied between 20.9% (Tric) and 33.2% (DW), whereas the content of NDF varied between 18.5% (Ind) and 32.2% (DW) of dry matter (DM). The total content of essential amino acids (g/16 g N) was comparable with that of alfalfa meal, except for GF and Tric, which were inferior. Between plant species, differences in dietary digestibility of organic matter (dOM) and CP (dCP) were observed (p<0.001). Also, the replacement level negatively influenced dOM and dCP (p<0.001). The lowest values for dOM (p<0.001) were observed for diets including biomass products with the highest content of NDF (OF, Tric, Mb, LL). Digestibility of CP was negatively affected by level of protein replacement. Significant (p<0.001) differences were found in N-retention and biological value among diets with different biomass products. The most favourable overall results were obtained for DW, WS and CL. The main factors affecting the nutritive value of the diets tested were their NDF content, dCP and AA profile of the biomass. Also antinutritive component(s) may have influenced the process of digestion and metabolism of some of the biomass products.

Determination of the Nutritive Value of Tropical Biomass Products for Monogastrics Using Rats: 2. Effects of Drying Temperature, Ensiling and Level of Inclusion of Cassava Leaves and Sweet Potato Vines

  • Phuc, Bui Huy Nhu;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian;Thomke, Sigvard
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.994-1002
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    • 2001
  • In a balance experiment with rats either 0, 25 or 50% of the crude protein (CP) provided as casein in the control diet was replaced with cassava leaves (CL) (Manihot esculenta Crantz) or sweet potato vines (SPV) (Ipomoea balala). CL were either sun-dried or oven-dried at $60^{\circ}C$ or $105^{\circ}C$ or ensiled, while the SPY were either sun-dried or ensiled. The experiment included 3 blocks with 30 rats in each and six individuals per treatment group. Drying at $105^{\circ}C$ resulted in a reduction of the lysine (Lys) content, suggestive of the occurrence of Maillard reactions. Ensiling CL and SPV slightly decreased the CP. content as well as the sum of essential amino acids. The apparent fecal CP digestibility (dCP) and nitrogen retention were negatively affected by increasing the level of replacement (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). The impaired amino acid profile observed when drying CL at $105^{\circ}C$ was found to be related to a slight decrease in dCP (p<0.001) as well as N retention (p<0.005). The effects of sun-drying and oven-drying in reducing the HCN content in CL were more potent than when ensiling. By increasing the total dietary HCN supply serum thiocyanide level, as well as urinary thiocyanate and linamarin output, were increased, with a weak relationship between them. Sun-drying and ensiling with cane molasses as additive successfully preserved the nitrogenous constituents and could be a means of preserving fresh green feed under tropical conditions.